“The Help” Movie: Interaction Of Characters Homework Essay Sample

Introduction

In sociology, an interactionist perspective focuses on micro-level issues that occur between people. This approach to understanding the interactions between characters allows clarifying inequality and poverty effects. The personal narratives of individuals are often used as the key source of analyzing the relationships across social classes in terms of the interactionist framework (Shibutani, 2017). Another benefit of applying the identified perspective is the opportunity to explain how and why characters behave, including conflicts, identity formation, cooperation, and so on.

“The Help” is a movie that shows the United States of 1962, namely, the city of Jackson, Mississippi. This period is characterized by the segregation between the White population and African-Americans. Aibileen Clark, a 50-yer-old African-American woman, is the main character, who is responsible for raising kids at the home of a White lady, Elizabeth Leefolt. Eugenia “Skeeter” Phelan is a young woman who tries to address racism by writing and publishing the stories of African-Americans. Minny Jackson is the first person, who decides to share her stories, which also motivates her friends to work with Skeeter.

Interactionist Perspective and “The Help”

In the movie, the relationships between Whites and household workers reflect the rituals of deference. When Minnie uses the bathroom for the White elite, Hilly fires her, saying to other ladies that she is a thief. This leads to the fact that Minnie cannot find a job, but Celia, a woman who is not accepted by others, hires her. The scene of firing shows that deference is used by Hilly to emphasize her superior position (Shibutani, 2017). The symbolic means of appreciation and apologies were expected from Minnie, but she resisted. The attitudes to other domestic workers are similar: they are perceived as objects, having no will. The conservative upbringing and surroundings of Hilly shape her identity and also limit development as she believes that her actions are the only correct ones.

Another important scene refers to the case when Minnie and Celia cooked together, which was especially unusual for that period. Celia is perceived by others as a social outcast since she is infantile and empathetic to African-Americans. For example, she asks Minnie if she would like to have a cold drink. The fact that Celia is from Sugar Ditch is one more factor for being different, which probably affected her attitude to African-American workers: her family never hired maids. Within several meetings, Minnie and Celia tend to look like friends or, at least, equal persons. These scenes show Minnie that the relationships with Whites can be built without segregation and oppression.

Throughout the movie, the viewers can witness the evolution of Minnie’s personality. From being a submissive maid for Hilly, she starts to understand that she can protect and promote her rights. For example, the interaction with Celia clarifies that both of them are oppressed in society. The decision to help Skeeter in writing her book confirms her progress: it can make the voices of African-American maids be heard. In turn, Celia seems to become wiser, when she understands Hilly’s dislike towards her, learns about Minnie’s secret, and becomes more aware of social segregation.

Conclusion

To conclude, “The Help” is a movie that provides multiple examples of the interactionist perspective to identify and critique the relationships between people. This essay examines Hilly, Celia, and Minnie as the characters, whose interaction led to significant changes. For Hilly, the representative of the White elite, nothing changed. As for Celia and Minnie, there is an evident development of their characters, who realized their positions in society and took action to improve them.

Reference

Shibutani, T. (2017). Society and personality: Interactionist approach to social psychology. Routledge.

Peculiarities Of Coxiella Burnetii

Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium and pathogen closely related to Rickettsia bacteria, but distinguished from them by multiple extraordinary characteristics. Those characteristics include the presence of small and large cell variants with differing structures, strong resistance to adverse environmental conditions, variable reactions to Gram staining, and airborne transmission capability. The peculiarities of Coxiella burnetii are probably connected and show through in the bacterium’s life cycle and behavior as a pathogen.

The existence of two cell variants presents the key to understanding this bacterium’s unusual nature. Whereas the small cell variant (SCV) has no periplasm but possesses a dense peptidoglycan layer, the large cell variant (LCV) has low peptidoglycan and a periplasm with an area containing DNA and ribosomes. SCVs are more resistant to adverse conditions and can invade hosts. Once they enter a more favorable environment inside host cells, SCVs transform into LCVs, which are less resilient but more reproductively active. After dividing, the new cells can spread throughout the organism and infiltrate other hosts. The differences in cell structures likely account for the discrepancy in Gram stain results. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate to classify Coxiella burnetii as a Gram-negative bacterium because its reproducing form possesses the characteristics of such organisms, such as a periplasm and a thin peptidoglycan layer. Coxiella burnetii is known to cause Q fever in humans (Kudva et al., 2020). Unlike similar diseases, Q fever can spread through the air thanks to the resilience of SCVs, which do not require a host carrier. This versatility is what makes Coxiella burnetii such a dangerous pathogen.

The life cycle of Coxiella burnetii is based on the collaboration of two cell variants. While the highly resilient SCV is well-suited for survival in adverse environments, it has a low reproductive capability. However, by infiltrating a host body and entering a suitable environment, it could transition into a reproductively active LCV. The variance in forms causes discrepant Gram stain results, though LCV exhibits a Gram-negative bacterium’s characteristics. The heightened environmental resistance of SCV enables airborne transmission.

References

Kudva, I. T., Cornick, N. A., Plummer, P. J., Zhang, Q., Nicholson, T. L., Bannantine, J. P., & Bellaire, B. H. (Eds.). (2020). Virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. (5th ed.) John Wiley & Sons.

The Definition Of Public Health Leadership

Introduction

Public health leadership, just like leadership in any other field is based on such concepts as an influence, the situation, and the followers, and is based on the correlations between these factors (Vroom & Jago, 2007; Nahavandi, 2014). At the same time, Koh (2009) defines the leader in the field of public health as a “servant leader” whose primary duties are to unite the people pursuing the same goals creating communities with common hopes and purposes. Since leading is a complex process, a leader is to possess such qualities as flexibility, responsiveness, ability to direct. I would define leadership as the process of guiding and directing a group of individuals struggling for common goals through the constant interactions with them and the ability to address and adjust to various situations. The leader is to be far-sighted and plan the long-term actions thinking of the outcomes that are on the horizon and applying systems thinking (Murray, 2011). I define systems thinking as the multidimensional organization of various processes and operations to achieve a common goal.

How Public Health Leadership is Different from Public Health Management

Discussing leaders one must not confuse them with the managers. These two roles are rather different as the former participate in the situations personally, and the latter remain distant and pursue goals due to a necessity but not passion (Zaleznick, 2004). Besides, managers work with the subordinates whom they are to control from the position of authority, whereas the leaders have followers whom they influence with the help of charisma (Changing Minds, 2011). While the skills of management can be learned, leadership skills are more complex and require devotion and practice, managers employ transactional authority, and the leaders often use transformational style (Coach 4 Growth, 2011; Kotter, 1990). Even though management and leadership are quite different these concepts are linked and complement each other, whereas the leader is the developer; the manager is the one who maintains (Murray, 2011). The function of the manager is directed at the support of the organizational structure and system, and the leader majorly interacts with people. For example, in public health, the managers are to maintain the operations within the organizations. A chief nurse is a manager in charge of the nurses within one hospital. The leader would be focused on the relationships of their organization with the other ones. That would be a more global task for a nursing professional leading the nurses of various workplaces towards a common professional goal.

How Systems Thinking Applies to the Definition of Leadership

Systems thinking deals with the complex interactions within a group of structures and is based on the connection between several different fields and are interdisciplinary (Trochim, Cabrera, Milstein, Gallagher, & Leischow, 2006; Leischow & Milstein, 2006). In public health, systems thinking can be applied to a variety of problems. One of them is disease prevention. To prevent infectious illnesses from penetrating a particular country or spreading there a collaborative effort of many systems is required, among them, there are the laboratory analysis sector, the epidemiologic control, statistic data collectors, the pharmaceutical groups working on the cures, health literacy promoters educating the communities at risk to name a few. A leader’s role is to connect all of these systems and to enforce harmonious cooperation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, leadership is a complex concept that is based on such factors as the leader, the followers, and the influence. A leader’s role is multidimensional and is not to be confused with the role of a manager that is also related to responsibilities but is different by nature. Compared to the role of a leader, a manager’s occupations are more local.

Reference List

Changing Minds. (2011). Leadership vs. management. Web.

Coach 4 Growth. (2011). Leadership vs. management: What are the characteristics of a leader and a manager? Web.

Koh, H. K. (2009). Leadership in public health. Journal of Cancer Education, 24(Supp. 2), S11–S18.

Kotter, J. P. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York, NY: Free Press.

Leischow, S. J., & Milstein, B. (2006). Systems thinking and modeling for public health practice.American Journal of Public Health, 96(3), 403–405.

Murray, A. (2011). What is the difference between management and leadership? Web.

Nahavandi, A. (2014). The art and science of leadership (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Trochim, W. M., Cabrera, D.A., Milstein, B., Gallagher, R.S., & Leischow, S.J. (2006). Practical challenges of systems thinking and modeling in Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 96(3), 538–546.

Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A.G. (2007). The role of the situation in leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1), 17–24.

Zaleznick, A. (2004). Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review, 82(1), 74–81.