The Hero With A Thousand Faces By Joseph Campbell Essay Example

The fifth section of the second chapter in The Hero with a Thousand Faces, written by Joseph Campbell, “Apotheosis,” focuses on the hero’s path, in which enlightenment is achieved. The central claim of the considered part is presented in the sentence, “Having surpassed the delusions of his formerly self-assertive, self-defensive, self-concerned ego, he knows without and within the same repose” (Campbell, 2008, p. 140). Despite the fact that enlightenment, the search for peace and understanding of the soul, is the goal of many heroes, Campbell claims that stories and narratives show repose is already in the person.

Considering the quotation separately, one can assume that its meaning is to show the path to peace and enlightenment. It claims that people’s ego limits them and makes them focus only on themselves. People can achieve enlightenment by getting rid of limited thinking and going beyond their ego. Such restrictions are fears, selfishness, prejudice, and unresolved conflicts. When people overcome them, they realize that the peace and enlightenment they sought in the outside world are within them. Thus, through this quote, Campbell demonstrates that stories and narratives urge people to think more broadly, accept their own selves, and not be limited to selfishness and fears to find enlightenment.

Exploring the quote in the context of the entire section, Campbell gives various stories and arguments in favor of the fact that people achieve enlightenment by abandoning limits. He considers the unity of male and female in the Gods and the unity of time and infinity, in which only the good remains as a form of enlightenment. That is, one can assume that such unities are free from restrictions and include everything necessary to achieve peace. Enlightenment in stories often means liberation from prejudice and unity with God or the universe. Paying attention to other perspectives rather than religion, psychoanalysis also speaks of enlightenment. It argues that people can achieve peace by getting rid of internal conflicts. Part of the section also focuses on the fact that peace and enlightenment are already in person, and Confucianism examples are used to prove the argument. Thus, the entire text of the section is arguments and illustrations supporting the meaning given in the quote under consideration.

The meaning of the quote is relevant and applicable to real-life circumstances. Often, stories, not only within the framework of religion but also in pop cultures, such as cartoons, films, or books, urge the audience to seek peace in themselves. This call does not mean selfish focus on oneself but unity with the world. In particular, peace and harmony can mean enjoying life instead of finding its meaning, achieving a balance between seeing the present and racing for goals for the future. Reading the book The Hero with a Thousand Faces recalls that getting rid of limiting fears and prejudices is necessary for modern people.

Thus, the paper considers the quote from the “Apotheosis” section where Campbell discusses the achievement of enlightenment by the heroes. Enlightenment implies peace, pacification, and, in some perspectives, unity with God or the universe. Various narratives emphasize the need to remove restrictions – fears or prejudices to find repose. Another important aspect of this section is the statement that enlightenment is already in person. The quote under consideration fit all these statements briefly and represented the central argument.


Campbell, J. (2008). The hero with a thousand faces. New World Library.

Starbucks: An International Strategy


The global business environment of today demands that larger-scale businesses consider expanding their operations to maximize their efficiency and potential profits. In doing so, multiple challenges arise, forcing the management to analyze and reconsider their overall strategies. However, there are certain firms whose strategies have been exceptionally successful for the mentioned purposes, with the Starbucks coffee company being undoubtedly one of them

Global Business Environment

The capacity of selling the culture of coffee drinking has been steadily increasing internationally within the last several years. The coffee shop industry is set to reach over 204 billion dollars worth by the end of 2027 (Subramaniam, 2020). The industry is perceived as a part of the life-style centered business, with its product essentially surpassing the purely physical product in the form of hot beverages. The coffee shop customers are willing to pay comparatively high prices for premium coffee drinks because it allows them to also purchase the feelings and sentiments associated with them.

Globally, the environment in the coffee shop market is somewhat contradictory, due to simultaneously high demand and the oversaturated state of the industry. An internal divider exists separating the established big brands, like Starbucks and Costa, from local artisan single-outlet coffee shops. The latter group does not maintain any global operations but remains relevant for the international business analysis due to being Starbucks’ main competitor at the local level. Although Starbucks has been tremendously successful in expansion, country-specific smaller coffee retailers with their internal knowledge of local clientele and authentic tastes continue to pose a threat to the company.

International Strategy

In response, Starbucks has developed an international strategy of recreation and replicability, ensuring consistently high quality across its branches worldwide. This outcome is achieved via total quality control techniques and elements of localized diversification. Starbucks menus vary depending on the location of the branch, with countries with the most active clientele being able to avail the widest range of Starbucks-unique tastes (Gupta et al., 2018). This strategy not only contributes to the brand image of an adaptable and modern company with a great understanding of the market needs but facilitates the brand culture amongst its repeated consumers. To specify, social media communities created by and for Starbucks consumers not only exist but prosper, exchanging international experiences with the company and sharing advice for forms of culinary tourism. Starbucks’ international strategy relies on a mix of standardization and diversification, which is consistent with the firm’s selling point of variable and one-of-a-kind menu.

Ethical Dilemma

The importance of ethics has been actively highlighted in the modern business environment, both by the acting control mechanisms and the regular consumers. As corporate social responsibility becomes the expected norm, companies worldwide revise their practices and policies to fit the sustainability trend. Nevertheless, additional ethical difficulties and considerations arise when a business upholds a large international scale of operations. To provide an example, the differences in local employment laws lead to the different countries a global firm operates in having different minimum wage rates established. Consecutively, the scaling of the wage expectations above the minimum would also change, depending on the state of the baseline. As Starbucks navigates the competitive world of the coffee industry, its management is constantly on the outlook to reduce operational costs, kept consistently high by the global scale of expenses (Khan et al., 2018). The questions of ethics come into the equation when financial and HR departments need to assign salaries to equal positions in different international outlets of the company. The ethical dilemma emerging is particularly strong when comparing two countries with dramatic differences in the economic state.

Additionally, the coffee industry itself is known for frequent violations of human rights and child labor laws in particular throughout the supply chain. Major coffee plantations are situated in overall poor countries with high levels of unemployment and low levels of job security. In this sector, Starbucks is known for solving ethical dilemmas successfully. The brand has its program of the supplier excellency it upholds across all dealings. Starbucks ensures to wield its corporate power to empower suppliers and has additionally introduced a diversity program to ensure its operations are as inclusive as possible.

Management Strategy

Starbucks has used product differentiation as a major strategy from its foundation, using tools such as premium product mix, locations, coffee beverage reputation, and excellent customer service to develop a premium valued brand that is difficult for competitors to duplicate. Starbucks has also pursued a well-thought-out strategy of strategic alliances and acquisitions. Starbucks maintained company-oriented locations and collaborative partnerships in overseas countries rather than following the franchising model. Starbucks has acquired several significant acquisitions, including Teavana, Bay Breads, Evolution Fresh, and others, to further its product diversification plan.

The main operational strategy of Starbucks lies in its financial ability to practice the global expansion strategy, monetizing new markets to its advantage. The Starbucks brand is universally recognizable, and due to the influence of social media marketing, would not need to be re-established regardless of the location the management may choose for its new set of operations. Hence, the corporation is constantly evaluating new locations from the standpoint of potential expansion, including primary countries in Latin America and Africa. The emerging and developing nature of these markets reduces the threat to existing industries that generally concerns every global firm deciding to expand to a new location. An example of the step-by-step pursuit of this strategy would be multiple Starbucks partnerships with hospitality chains that provide their coffee products in every hotel room affected, including the countries the coffee shop chain has not been active in yet.

The company’s sales growth dropped by -5.9% during the 2008/09 crisis, but since then, Starbucks has achieved a strong revenue increase. The company’s premium pricing strategy promises its customers the luxury coffee shop experience, setting up appropriate price expectations. This financial management practice makes Starbucks somewhat vulnerable to low-cost competitors if one assumes the firm’s value proposition lies in selling coffee alone. However, as stated above, Starbucks is the most known for its diverse and flavourful beverages, as well as the atmosphere attached to them. The company has mastered and monetized its potential for brand loyalty, creating a devoted group of returning customers not only willing to pay for their drinks but considering them a part of their lifestyle.


In conclusion, Starbucks is one of the companies most known for its consistent and large-scale international success. Their global management team has mastered market penetration up to a perfect formula of research, analysis, brand reputation, and total quality control. Consecutively, Starbucks maintains a wide customer base despite the competition within the industry and remains the dominating name in its main section of the coffee shop industry: luxury flavored drinks.


Gupta, P., Nagpal, A., & Malik, D. (2018). Starbucks: global brand in emerging markets. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 8(4). Web.

Khan, S., Yusop, Y., & Baharudin, F. (2018). Starbucks Market Segmentation and Targeting. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 7(5). 44-45.

Subramaniam, T. V. (2020). Impact of social media on digital marketing: Starbucks marketing strategy on Twitter. Case study, 2, 1-7. Web.

“The Unmitigated Insider Threat To Aviation” By Loffi


The attacks of September 11, 2001, made the US aviation enterprise pay more attention to security. The industry, previously regarded as safe, faced new challenges and risks. Moreover, many experts believe that those threats come not just outside the state but from the aviation industry employees. The unmitigated insider threat to aviation (Part 1): a qualitative analysis of risks (Loffi & Wallace, 2014) deals with the security threats in modern American aviation. The paper’s authors emphasize the crucial role of controlling and mitigating the new risks in the aircraft sphere.

The paper argues that there have been many cases of violation of the principal rules of airport security. It means that the negligence and inactivity of some employees led to existential threats to American security. The article’s authors cite numerous occasions of extreme faults of various airport services, like overlooking the potential preparation of terrorism incidents, misuse of identity documents, and flying without boarding passes. Therefore, the research aims to familiarize the aviation industry stakeholders with insider threats, increase awareness of potential vulnerabilities and develop a holistic list of insider risks in the aircraft industry.

Considering cases of threatening the Nation’s security, the study utilizes specific methodology and research approaches. Much attention was paid to scripted interview questions for six executive aircraft professionals from airports, academic institutions, trade and airline organizations, and the government. The findings have revealed seven significant categories of insider security risks.

Misplaced Trust

Four interviewees designated trust as a core element in promoting internal aviation security, as the principles had recently changed. Some participants noted that it was difficult to point out clear indicators of possible employee malfeasance. Interviewees revealed the necessity to trust vetted staff, whereas the insiders appeared to be a slightly new phenomenon for the industry. One of the most critical findings was the differentiation between crime and terrorism.


The overwhelming majority of the interviewees brought up an issue of criminal activity by vetted employees in aviation. Some interviewees assumed that some low-level workers considered a crime as an additional questionable benefit to salary increment. Every participant agreed that theft has always been a great concern for airports.


More than half of interviewees considered a potential for terrorist activities even among vetted employees despite a lack of documented insider terrorist events. As a rule, the eventual performer does not have a criminal record and is in a position of trust.


50 % of interviewees noted the problem of narcotics smuggling, which is frequently promoted or implemented by vetted airport employees. There were many opportunities for contraband in the cargo. Therefore, there was a specific collaboration with customs to law some of this stuff.

Undocumented workers

The main trouble with undocumented employees is the lack of information to make security risk decisions.

Workplace violence

There were some occasions when badges and uniforms had not been confiscated. They were used to gain access to the airport facilities without screening for committing illegal acts.

Cyber threats

Information technologies are highly vulnerable to cyber-attacks and insider threats.

Interviews with the six employees revealed seven categories of security threats that occur to be predictable. In some cases, authors pay excessive attention to axiomatic facts and phenomena. More attention might be paid to vulnerabilities related to cyber threats, digital data trespass, and hacker attacks because of the crucial role of information technologies in the aviation sphere.


Loffi J.M. & Wallace R.J. (2014). The unmitigated insider threat to aviation (Part 1): a qualitative analysis of risks. Journal of Transportation Security, 7(4), 289–305. Web.

error: Content is protected !!