“The Iliad Of Homer” By Butler Sample Essay

Homer’s epic poem, The Iliad, raises some existential questions pertaining to the roles of humans and gods in determining destiny. The extent and proportions of free will and fate in the poem are not clear as there is an ongoing struggle between the mortals and the immortals. People make plans that can protect them from enemies while affording them a better life. However, the supernatural interject themselves into worldly affairs and give prophecies, which have significant repercussions on the outcome of the war.

In The Iliad, the characters appear to be troubled, not knowing whether they should fight back, question the gods, or just let the turn of events occur without making any decisions. In today’s world, people still seek to understand life and the eventual outcome because no one can be sure they will live to realize their vision. The objective of this journal is to discuss the relevance of the poem in enabling readers to question human existentialism.

Some men are gifted to understand fate and share it with mortals to help them in making future preparations or understand past events that resulted in their current states. In the poem, Calchas is described as “wisest of augurs, who knew things past present and to come” (Butler 2). The seer tells King Agamemnon that the god is angry at him because he captured Chryseis and failed to return him to her father. Agamemnon retorts back at Calchas, saying that he “never yet prophesied smooth things concerning me” (Butler 2). On the one hand, the King is doomed to face the wrath of god because of his actions. On the other, there is the will of god Zeus, which Agamemnon is also required to fulfill. The reader is thus confronted with the problem of whether, in some cases, people should choose to follow predictions or stick to what they know as the directions from deity.

In the consecutive scenes, Agamemnon and other soldiers decided to fight, holding on to fate even when they were against Zeus. Conversely, the Trojans are delighted because Zeus has taken their side even though the prophecy suggests otherwise. The reader is bound to ask what will determine the outcome of the war. In life, people may make projections such as weather forecasting when engaging in agriculture or economic trends for business people. However, the projections are not always right. A good example is the Covid-19 pandemic, which crushed the world economy in a way that was never anticipated. The reader is likely not to find concrete answer, so the best way to resolve the challenge is to believe whatever seems suitable.

Free will has limitations since the supernatural has a significant role in establishing destinies and evoking the desires of men. This is evident in the statement of Idomeneus, who is confident that the Achaeans are strong and courageous to fight. However, he is convinced that it is “the will of almighty Jove that the Achaeans should perish ingloriously” (Butler 121). Readers can relate to the situation described by Idomeneus. For example, the story made me remember a young woman who was suffering from cancer. The family was ready to sacrifice and take her to the best doctors for treatment, but it appeared that he was destined to die. The relevance of this story to the reader is that it provokes thoughts on the extent to which people should exercise their free will.

Another thing that is apparent in Homer’s poem is that the gods and humans relate differently to the concept of fate. Humans, like King Agamemnon, the Trojans, and the Achaeans, are always concerned about how fate will determine their destiny. Conversely, the gods have no such worries because they have supernatural powers to either evoke or work with luck. When the gods bow their heads, they have made a verdict that cannot be revoked.

Hector is so confident to the extent that he does not care about the content in the portent. The only thing that he is convinced of is that he needs to put his trust in “great Jove, king of mortals and immortals” (Butler 114). The key difference is that what a person says is not sure, but whatever a god declares cannot be revoked. The book helps the reader to think about gods and their role in destiny so that they can seek spiritual wellness.

Apparently, the gods have various options when confronting fate as they can either choose to fulfill it, revoke it in favor of a different outcome, or create it. On the other hand, humans are shaped by the gods and are almost powerless in the hands of fate unless they seek refuge from greater deities. Also, the gods, unlike men, have complete free will. Readers are encouraged to understand the interplay between the supernatural and the natural world. There are things that are at the disposal of people to make decisions and fulfill.

On mattes of existence, most of the time, all the things people do are influenced by deities. Thus, the reader is reminded of their nature and weakness no matter how much they try to take control of their life. The poem propels its audience to consider finding out more about the role of god and fate in their destiny. Additionally, the poem influences the reader to realize that people should be humble and use their free will to do what is best so that the deities can favors them with their desires.

Work Cited

Butler, Samuel. The Iliad of Homer, Books I-XIIV. 4th ed., E-b00k, Project Gutenberg EBook, 2019.

The Yokohama Company’s International Components And Strategy


The Yokohama company is a manufacturer based in Tokyo, Japan. For the production of rotating whirligigs, the company requires a supply of parts from three international locations: Guangzhou, China; Manila, The Philippines; and Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Thus, the manufacturer is a part of a global supply chain that spans several countries. It is crucial to communicate objectives to the suppliers to ensure that all parts are delivered promptly. Thus, it is crucial to account for the distance between these locations as well as the mode of travel to guarantee Yokohama does not run out of any of the components necessary for production. It should be noted that three out of four cities are ports and, thus, the delivery of parts can be achieved either via sea or air freight. Meanwhile, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is landlocked, and parts from this location can be transported via land or air. In addition, it is also essential to account for the quantity of the goods shipped and their weight.

Guangzhou, China

Guangzhou is a port city located in Guangdong province, China. The distance between Guangzhou and Tokyo is 2,907 kilometers by air. Meanwhile, the distance between the port of Guangzhou and the port of Tokyo is 2139 nautical miles. The time of transportation via an air carrier and ships will differ significantly. Thus, the average time of travel by aircraft is 4 hours, and the time of travel by sea is evaluated to be nine days on average. It should be noted that the payload of one aircraft is 40,000 to 295,900 lb, whereas one cargo ship can fit dozens of 40-foot containers that can bear 67,200 lb per container. Thus, depending on the number of parts needed for the production of Yokohama rotating whirligigs, sea freight would be a better option as it is a cheaper alternative for mass shipments.

Manila, The Philippines

Manila is the capital of the Philippines, with several ports located in the Port Area and the Tondo district of the city. The distance between the international port of Manila and the port of Tokyo is approximately 2306 nautical miles, and the time required for travel between the two ports is estimated at nine and a half days. Meanwhile, the air distance between the two cities is 3004 kilometers. The average time of travel by air between Manila and Tokyo is approximately 4 hours. As the time of delivery by sea coincides with that of delivery from Guangzhou to Tokyo, it would make sense to opt for the transportation of parts for the whirligigs by sea. Thus, Yokohama can receive parts from Guangzhou and Manila simultaneously and save on transportation costs to the warehouse.

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia, a landlocked, non-coastal country. It is the most remotely located supplier from Tokyo, with a distance of 3,011 kilometers by air. The average travel time by air is approximately just over 5 hours. As transportation to the nearest port in Vladivostok, Russia, or Dalian, China, and then to Tokyo is possible but time-consuming, air travel is the optimal choice. However, the capacity of cargo aircraft is limited, depending on the aircraft type. Therefore, the overall weight of the cargo should not exceed 295,900 lb. With an average weight per unit not exceeding 45 lb, the maximum number of boxes per shipment is approximately 6,500. Depending on how many parts are needed to ensure uninterrupted production of Yokohama rotating whirligigs, it is recommended to commission a more frequent supply of parts from Ulaanbaatar compared to deliveries from Guangzhou and Manila.

Tecumseh’s Historical Speech And Sherman Alexie’s Poems: Comparative Analysis

Comparing Tecumseh’s warlike uplifting speech with the poems of contemporary poet Sherman Alexie, one can find seemingly archetypal elements of the representation of the peoples of the Native Americans. Analysis and consistent comparison of these texts allows us to observe the deconstruction of the epic image of the Native American. While Tecumseh’s historical speech is filled with pride and even cruelty, Alexie’s poems are perceived more difficult and less obvious.

Tecumseh’s speech, its message and emotional charge, vocabulary, is conditioned by the speaker’s belonging to a specific national and historical context. In this speech, people are clearly divided into friends and foes, and accordingly the invaders of the land must be exterminated. This speech uses unity of speech – a call to brotherhood, emphasizing the necessary unity in the struggle. By saying that “the Great Spirit is angry with the enemies,” divine justice is brought to the side of the Native Americans. Tecumseh feels his people displaced and deprived of basic rights and calls for the return of the original order in society by bloodshed.

Alexie’s poems were written at the end of the 20th century and express rather a ghostly feeling of history that once happened on American soil. The poem “At Navajo Monument Valley Tribal School” describes a game of football in which elements of the ancient, eternal struggle of the Indians among themselves and with the white invaders suddenly begin to appear. In another poem, “Pawn Shop”, the culture of the Indians turns out to be repressed and insignificant, and their artifacts lose their sacred symbolic meaning and become just objects. “One heart beating under glass” is a symbol of continuing life and struggle for existence despite the devaluation of ancient culture. Thus, throughout the evolution of American literature, poets still exhibit a capacity for historical reflection. Alexie shows how in a world overloaded with new and disposable values, real and living traces of the presence of native culture still exist.


Alexie, S. (1992). At Navajo Monument Valley Tribal School. Native American Oral Literature: Vol. 2, pp. 1678-1679.

Alexie, S. (2003). Pawn shop. Native American Oral Literature: Vol. 2, p. 1679.

Tecumseh. (1810). Speech to the Osages. Native American Oral Literature: Vol. 1, pp. 484-486.

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