The Impact Of CO2 Concentrations On The Northern And Southern Hemisphere Temperatures Sample Essay

Abstract

The study’s primary interest was the relationship between CO2 concentrations and the increase in global temperatures. Two simple regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of CO2 concentrations on the Northern and Southern hemispheres’ temperatures. Temperature anomaly data was used because it indicates the deviation from the reference point and may show a rise or a fall. The analysis revealed that the results were statistically significant; Model 1:F(1,60)=467.9,p=0.000,r2=.8863 and Model 2:F(1,60)=356.9,p=0.000,r2=.8561(see Tables 2 and 3). Thus, the rise in CO2 concentration significantly increases temperatures in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

Introduction

The causal relationship between CO2 concentrations and the temperature has been explored since the industrial revolution. The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases such as CO2 in the atmosphere causes the earth’s climate system to retain more energy, leading to global warming (Verma, 2021; Mikhaylov et al., 2020). Since the industrial revolution, global temperature has increased due to high CO2 emissions, with the average rise from 1981 to 2019 being 0.17℃, and it was predicted to be 0.5℃ by 2020 (Yoro & Daramola, 2020). The increasing emission of large volumes of CO2 into the atmosphere has led to continuous projections that the global temperature is expected to rise with time. Although many researchers have explored the causes of temperature increase, the impact of climate change has led to collaborative efforts to reduce global warming.

The increasing CO2 concentrations and global temperature threaten human, animal, and plant life. Celik (2020) explained that climate change causes environmental problems associated with natural disasters such as floods and drought, leading to deaths, injuries, and homelessness. The researcher added that the increase in CO2 levels causes climate change, decreasing agricultural yields. Prakash (2021) asserted that the changes in water temperature might alter the normal functioning of aquatic animals, affecting their growth, distribution, and behavior. As such, assessing how CO2 concentration impacts global temperatures is necessary. The Northern hemisphere has a high land mass, implying a higher global population than the Southern hemisphere. Examining the impact of CO2 concentration on temperature levels in the two hemispheres would indicate the risk it imposes on inhabitants and show the need to adopt appropriate measures to reduce emissions. This study assessed the following hypotheses:

Hypothesis 1:

H01 : CO2 concentration does not affect Northern hemisphere temperature

Ha1 : CO2 concentration significantly affects Northern hemisphere temperature

Hypothesis 2:

H02 : CO2 concentration does not affect Southern hemisphere temperature

Ha2 : CO2 concentration significantly affects Southern hemisphere temperature

Methodology

Regression analysis was performed using the climate dataset to test hypotheses 1 and 2. The variables used in the study include CO2 concentration in parts per million (ppm), Southern hemisphere temperature anomaly, and Northern hemisphere temperature anomaly in degrees Celsius, which are numerical. The following regression models were estimated:

Model 1: NHT.Anom=β01CO2i

Model 2: SHT.Anom=α01CO2i

Results

Descriptive statistics were reported in Table 1 to summarize the data. Figures 1 and 2 were generated to assess regression assumptions. Regression analysis requires a preliminary analysis to determine whether error terms are statistically independent, have constant variance, and are normally distributed since violating these assumptions may yield biased and misleading forecasts (Flatt & Jacobs, 2019). The figures show that the two models meet regression assumptions and can be used to predict temperature anomalies.

Table 1: Descriptive statistics of the three variables

  CO2. ppm NH. temp anomaly SH. temp anomaly
Mean 356.39 0.39 0.30
Median 353.83 0.265 0.30
Minimum 315.98 -0.21 -0.20
Maximum 414.24 1.36 0.74
Standard deviation 29.11 0.424 0.239

 Scatterplots of CO2 concentration versus temperature anomalies in the northern and southern hemispheres

Figure 1: Scatterplots of CO2 concentration versus temperature anomalies in the northern and southern hemispheres.

Normal probability plots for models 1 and 2

Figure 2: Normal probability plots for models 1 and 2

Table 2: Regression analysis results for Model 1

Effect Estimate SE t value p
Intercept -4.4931 0.2266 -19.82 0.000
CO2 Concentration 0.01371 0.0006339 21.63 0.000
R-squared 0.8863
Adjusted R-squared 0.8845
Residual SE 0.1441
F-statistic 467.9 0.000

Table 3: Regression analysis results for Model 2

Effect Estimate SE t value p
Intercept -2.4114 0.1438 -16.77 0.000
CO2 Concentration 0.007599 0.0004023 18.89 0.000
R-squared 0.8561
Adjusted R-squared 0.8537
Residual SE 0.09146
F-statistic 356.9 0.000

Discussion

The regression analyses performed showed significant results. The coefficient of determination shows the proportion of the variance in the response variable that the explanatory variables used in the model can predict (Chicco et al., 2021; Kim, 2019; Anastassopoulou et al., 2020). Table 2 shows that CO2 concentration explains about 88.63% of the variations in the Northern hemisphere temperature anomaly. Table 3 indicates that CO2 explains 85.61% of the Southern hemisphere temperature anomaly variations. Moreover, the F-statistics values and their corresponding p-values (Model 1:F(1,60)=467.9,p=0.000 and Model 2:F(1,60)=356.9,p=0.000) suggest that the two models significantly explain the variations in temperature anomaly in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Thus, since the two models were statistically significant, the coefficients were examined to determine the impact of CO2 on temperature.

The coefficients indicate temperature anomaly that does not depend on CO2 concentration and CO2 impact. Temperature anomaly is the difference between the observed and the reference (long-term average) temperature level. When the value is positive, the observed temperature is above the reference point; otherwise, the observed temperature is lower (Tamarin-Brodsky et al., 2020). The negative intercepts (Model 1:β0=-4.493,and Model 2: α0=-2.4114) show the values by which the Northern and Southern hemispheres are cooler than the reference point if CO2 concentration is constant. The slope coefficients suggest that a unit increase in COppm increases the temperature in the Northern and Southern hemispheres by 0.01371℃ and 0.0076℃, respectively. The p-values corresponding to the slope coefficients are less than .05. Therefore, we conclude that CO2 concentration significantly increases temperatures in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

Another issue that can be explored with the result is how the impact of CO2 concentration compares between the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Bulgin et al. (2020) explained that the Northern hemisphere often experiences stronger warming trends than the Southern hemisphere. Based on the results (in Tables 2 and 3), the average temperature anomaly in the Northern hemisphere (= 0.39) is greater than that in the Southern hemisphere (M = 0.3). Moreover, the R-squared values suggest that CO­2 concentration causes a larger increase in temperature anomaly in the Northern hemisphere (β1=0.01371) than in the Southern hemisphere (α1=0.0076). The result may support the argument but leaves a gap in determining whether the difference is significant.

Conclusion

The regression analyses suggest that CO2 concentration significantly increases temperatures in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The Northern hemisphere tends to experience higher warming trends due to CO2 concentration than the Southern hemisphere. However, further research should determine whether the difference is significant.

References

Anastassopoulou, C., Russo, L., Tsakris, A., & Siettos, C. (2020). Data-based analysis, modelling and forecasting of the COVID-19 outbreak. PloS one15(3), e0230405. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230405

Bulgin, C. E., Merchant, C. J., & Ferreira, D. (2020). Tendencies, variability and persistence of sea surface temperature anomalies. Scientific reports10(1), 7986. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-64785-9

Celik, S. (2020). The effects of climate change on human behaviors. Environment, climate, plant and vegetation growth, 577-589. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Altaf-Lahori/publication/344491647_Promising_Technologies_for_Cd-Contaminated_Soils_Drawbacks_and_Possibilities/links/610665890c2bfa282a1355a7/Promising-Technologies-for-Cd-Contaminated-Soils-Drawbacks-and-Possibilities.pdf#page=591

Chicco, D., Warrens, M. J., & Jurman, G. (2021). The coefficient of determination R-squared is more informative than SMAPE, MAE, MAPE, MSE and RMSE in regression analysis evaluation. PeerJ Computer Science7, e623. https://peerj.com/articles/cs-623/

Flatt, C., & Jacobs, R. L. (2019). Principle assumptions of regression analysis: Testing, techniques, and statistical reporting of imperfect data sets. Advances in Developing Human Resources21(4), 484-502. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ronald-Jacobs/publication/335626297_Principle_Assumptions_of_Regression_Analysis_Testing_Techniques_and_Statistical_Reporting_of_Imperfect_Data_Sets/links/62c5c4708f4dd63324adb6c5/Principle-Assumptions-of-Regression-Analysis-Testing-Techniques-and-Statistical-Reporting-of-Imperfect-Data-Sets.pdf

Kim, J. H. (2019). Multicollinearity and misleading statistical results. Korean journal of anesthesiology72(6), 558-569. https://synapse.koreamed.org/articles/1156320

Mikhaylov, A., Moiseev, N., Aleshin, K., & Burkhardt, T. (2020). Global climate change and greenhouse effect. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues7(4), 2897. http://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2020.7.4(21)

Tamarin-Brodsky, T., Hodges, K., Hoskins, B. J., & Shepherd, T. G. (2020). Changes in Northern Hemisphere temperature variability shaped by regional warming patterns. Nature Geoscience13(6), 414-421. https://centaur.reading.ac.uk/89972/1/27743_2_merged_1582748121.pdf

Verma, A. K. (2021). Influence of climate change on balanced ecosystem, biodiversity and sustainable development: An overview. International Journal of Biological Innovations. https://doi.org/10.46505/IJBI.2021.3213

Yoro, K. O., & Daramola, M. O. (2020). CO2 emission sources, greenhouse gases, and the global warming effect. In Advances in carbon capture (pp. 3-28). Woodhead Publishing. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kelvin-Yoro/publication/343508726_CO2_emission_sources_greenhouse_gases_and_the_global_warming_effect/links/5f44aa2692851cd30227cffd/CO2-emission-sources-greenhouse-gases-and-the-global-warming-effect.pdf

Appendix

R-codes

Data = read.csv(file = “climate_data.csv”)

head(Data)

 

###Descriptive statistics

library(pastecs)

stat.desc(Data)

stat.desc(Data$CO2.ppm)

stat.desc(Data$NH.temp.anom)

stat.desc(Data$SH.temp.anom)

 

###Constructing scatterplots

par(mfrow=c(1,2))

plot(CO2.ppm,NH.temp.anom,main = “Scatterplot of CO2 vs. NH. Temp. Anom.”,col=”blue”)

plot(CO2.ppm,SH.temp.anom,main = “Scatterplot of CO2 vs. SH. Temp. Anom.”,col=”blue”)

 

##Regressing Northern hemisphere temperature anomaly on CO2 concentration

Model1 = lm(NH.temp.anom~CO2.ppm, data = Data)

summary(Model1)

res= resid(Model1)

qqnorm(res, main = “Normal Q-Q Plot for Model 1”,col = “blue”)

qqline(res)

 

##Regressing Southern hemisphere temperature anomaly on CO2 concentration

Model2 = lm(SH.temp.anom~CO2.ppm, data = Data)

summary(Model2)

res1= resid(Model2)

qqnorm(res1,main=”Normal Q-Q Plot for Model 2″, col = “blue”)

qqline(res1)

Goals Reflection: Nursing Career Sample Essay

My primary objective when I began my nursing career was to become a pediatric nurse and provide the best possible care to young patients. As I advanced through my degree, my ambitions expanded to include becoming a registered nurse, earning as many certifications as possible, leading my profession, and joining a mentoring program. These shifts happened as I better understood the many choices and career routes accessible in the nursing sector. My ambitions also include empowering and inspiring the next generation of nurses. These shifts directly result from the personal and professional development I’ve gained while studying nursing.

As a nursing student, I’m proud of my achievements. I have completed all my courses, acquired valuable clinical experience, and improved my critical thinking ability. One of my greatest accomplishments was figuring out what works best for me in terms of studying, which ultimately led to my academic success. Another achievement that stands out to me is the capacity to serve patients and their loved ones with care characterized by empathy. Connecting with patients on a human level and providing comfort through tough moments is crucial to being a nurse. These achievements are significant to me because they represent the growth and development that I have done during my journey as a nursing student and are critical skills that will help me succeed in my future job. Over my journey as a nursing student, I have undergone a lot of personal growth and development.

My ambition to become a pediatric nurse has not changed. Nonetheless, I’ve discovered that other nursing units fascinate me and may be worth exploring. This realization has made me more flexible regarding my career path and broadened my perspective. I’ve also learned to prioritize my mental health and reduce stress, which has changed how I study. I’ve also realized the value of continuous education and would like to earn a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) and specialize as a nurse practitioner. These adjustments in my dreams and objectives have given me a more well-rounded picture of my future profession and motivated me to keep improving as a nurse.

My favorite moment in professional practice was seeing how my empathy and care affected a patient and their family. One of the most gratifying experiences I’ve had on my path to becoming a nurse was seeing the patient and their family’s expressions of gratitude and relief after getting compassionate treatment. That strengthened my ambition to be a nurse and provide compassionate care to the needy. My best moment in the classroom was discovering the most effective method of studying for myself, allowing me to earn higher grades and feel more confident in my abilities. These encounters have shaped my aims and ambitions by reminding me of the significance of compassion and empathy in nursing and giving me a feeling of success and a desire to keep pursuing my objectives.

I need to concentrate on my academics and keep learning to reach my objectives. I want to remain on track with my studies by being organized and using time management techniques. In addition, to get extra knowledge and experience in the sector, I want to look for additional learning opportunities such as seminars or chances to volunteer at events related to healthcare. To reduce stress during this journey, I want to take each day as it comes. This involves prioritizing chores and not overworking myself. I also want to include stress-relieving activities, such as exercise, meditation, and spending time with loved ones, into my stress management strategy. I have faith that if I go with these further stages, I will continue to develop professionally and personally. I want to improve as a nurse and a mentor by learning as much as possible about the field. In addition, reducing my stress will assist me in remaining motivated and focused during this journey.

I’ve picked up a lot of knowledge that will help me as I continue to pursue my objectives. The importance of living each day as it comes is one of the most valuable things I’ve learned. I’ve learned to live in the now. This lesson has helped me maintain a low level of tension and retain a focused mind on the activities at hand. Patience is another crucial skill I’ve learned. As a nurse, patience is important while interacting with patients experiencing a challenging situation. I have learned to be patient and attentive to my patients’ needs. In addition, I have learned the significance of expressing gratitude and affection for others. Throughout my clinical rotations, I have seen how kindness and compassion can affect patients. I will use these lessons as I continue to strive toward attaining my nursing objectives.

Along this journey, several opportunities for personal development have inspired aims and aspirations for the future. First, my confidence in my abilities has improved. I was able to acquire academic achievement and clinical competence as a result of my hard work and devotion. This has inspired me to set higher objectives and pursue excellence in all parts of my life. There’s also more empathy and compassion. Working in a professional environment has allowed me to see the fragility and pain of patients and their families. This has sparked a passion for improving their lives and give the best treatment possible.

There has been an increase in spiritual development. Understanding the significance of thankfulness, patience, and faith has provided inner peace and happiness. This progress will shape my ambitions and aspirations to serve others and glorify God. The Lord has revealed a spirit of patience and appreciation throughout the fall semester. I have been given a chance to care for patients in a clinical environment as a nursing student. While I negotiate the hurdles of compassionate care for the needy, this experience has taught me to be patient with myself and others. In addition, the Lord has taught me to be thankful for the simple things in life, such as a patient’s smile or a colleague’s nice words. These experiences have taught me to value my blessings and know that every day is a gift. As I continue my path, I will carry these lessons with me and endeavor to demonstrate patience and thankfulness in all I do.

Reference

Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Basic Books.

Health Services & Financial Management Essay Sample For College

Compare the two types of accounting functions.

The two types of accounting functions in the health services sector are financial accounting and managerial accounting. While both types of accounting are used to manage financial information, they serve different purposes and have unique aspects.

Financial accounting:

Financial accounting focuses on reporting and analyzing financial information to external parties such as investors, creditors, and regulatory bodies.

It Generally follows Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and is subject to audit by external auditors.

Financial statements such as balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements are prepared using financial accounting.

The objective of financial accounting is to provide accurate and timely information for external decision-makers to make informed decisions about the organization’s financial health.

Managerial accounting:

Managerial accounting focuses on providing financial information for internal decision-making and planning purposes. It does not follow GAAP and is not subject to external audit. It involves creating budgets, forecasts, and other financial reports to help managers make informed decisions about the organization’s operations. Managerial accounting considers qualitative factors such as customer satisfaction, employee morale, and organizational culture to make strategic decisions (Rikhardsson & Yigitbasioglu, 2018). Managerial accounting aims to provide relevant and timely information to managers to help them make informed decisions about the organization’s operations.

In summary, financial accounting is focused on external stakeholders and compliance with GAAP, while managerial accounting is focused on internal stakeholders and providing decision-making support to managers.

Describe how the accounting functions affect operational oversight.

The accounting functions of a company play a critical role in providing operational oversight, ensuring that a business’s operations are efficient, effective, and aligned with its strategic goals. Here are some ways in which accounting functions affect operational oversight:

Budgeting and forecasting:

Making projections and budgets is one of accounting’s primary duties. The financial objectives of the business are outlined in these documents, along with a plan for achieving them. Accounting can assist in identifying possible issue areas and allocating resources appropriately by analyzing financial data and projecting future revenue and expenses (Rikhardsson & Yigitbasioglu, 2018). This facilitates management’s ability to allocate resources intelligently, which is crucial to practical oversight.

Financial analysis:

Financial analysis, which is the process of reviewing financial data to evaluate performance and spot improvement possibilities, is a service provided by accounting. Accounting can pinpoint areas where expenses are high or revenues are low and offer suggestions for how to improve operations by analyzing financial statements (Offodile II et al., 2021). This supports management’s decision-making about operational adjustments that may result in expense savings, revenue growth, or increased effectiveness.

Internal controls:

Internal controls, which are rules and practices intended to stop theft, mistakes, and other financial irregularities, are another area where accounting is crucial for the creation and maintenance of internal controls. Accounting supports management by ensuring financial data’s accuracy and avoiding expensive errors. Additionally, internal controls encourage transparency and responsibility, which are necessary for efficient operational oversight.

Compliance:

Accounting ensures the business adheres to tax laws and financial reporting regulations. By doing this, management can better keep stakeholders’ trust while avoiding financial and legal repercussions. Operational supervision must include compliance because it reduces risks and guarantees the business keeps to the law and ethical standards.

In conclusion, a company’s financial operations are essential for ensuring operational oversight. Accounting assists management in making informed choices, streamlining operations, and reducing risks by offering budgeting and forecasting, financial analysis, internal controls, and compliance. This encourages effectiveness, efficiency, and alignment with the business’s strategic objectives.

How do these unique features affect the financial management of the sector?

Due to its complicated regulatory environment, high uncertainty level, and distinctive healthcare delivery characteristics, the health services industry is exceptional in many ways. As a result, this industry’s financial administration calls for specialized knowledge and experience. Here are some distinctive features of health services and how they affect money management:

Systems of reimbursement:

Intricate payment programs like Medicare and Medicaid, commercial insurance, and self-pay clients frequently pay for health services. Healthcare providers must adhere to specific rules and laws set forth by these payment systems, and noncompliance can result in severe financial penalties (Rikhardsson & Yigitbasioglu, 2018). Due to the complexity of these payment systems, financial management in the health services industry needs specialized knowledge of them.

The environment of regulation:

Many federal and state rules and regulations regulate every aspect of the health services industry, from patient care to billing procedures. Financial management faces particular difficulties in this regulatory environment because it must adhere to complex reporting regulations and guarantee proper billing procedures.

Clinical complexity:

Healthcare delivery is highly complex, requiring careful management of numerous clinical processes and protocols. The need to allocate costs correctly across various clinical departments and services is just one example of how this complexity can present difficulties for financial management. Providing high-quality patient treatment is highly valued in the health services industry. Therefore, financial management in this industry must strike a balance between the need to guarantee quality outcomes and the need to control costs.

The health services industry has particular needs for financial management in terms of accounting functions. Healthcare providers, for instance, are required to precisely track costs and receipts for each patient contact, which calls for specialized accounting procedures like activity-based costing (Langfield-Smith et al., 2018). Furthermore, healthcare workers are subject to detailed reporting requirements, like those set forth by Medicare and Medicaid, which call for specialized accounting procedures.

A healthcare provider’s financial operations significantly impact operational management. Accounting can identify areas where costs are high, or revenues are low and offer suggestions for how to improve operations by correctly monitoring costs and revenues. Additionally, accounting can assist in making sure that complicated reporting requirements are complied with, which is necessary for efficient business oversight.

The complex reimbursement systems, highly regulated environment, clinical complexity, and focus on quality of care are some of the distinctive characteristics of the health services sector, which necessitates specialized knowledge and expertise in financial management (Langfield-Smith, et al., 2018). In order to provide practical oversight and guarantee adherence to regulatory requirements, accounting functions are crucial. Therefore, financial managers in the health services industry must have a thorough grasp of the distinctive financial challenges faced by healthcare providers and the capacity to create strategies that strike a balance between cost control and the delivery of high-quality patient care.

References

Langfield-Smith, K., Thorne, H., & Hilton, R. W. (2018). Management accounting: Information for creating and managing value. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Education.

Offodile II, A. C., Cerullo, M., Bindal, M., Rauh-Hain, J. A., & Ho, V. (2021). Private equity investments in health care: an overview of hospital and health system leveraged buyouts, 2003–17. Health Affairs40(5), 719-726.

Rikhardsson, P., & Yigitbasioglu, O. (2018). Business intelligence & analytics in management accounting research: Status and future focus. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems29, 37-58.