The Impact Of Mixed Media On Young Women News Consumption Habits Free Essay

1.0 Introduction

Mixed social media has become a worldwide platform for social interaction for young women. Young women use social media often for posting their videos and photos in promoting their lived experiences, drawing attention to their appearances exposing them to numerous feedback from others. The interactive nature of mixed social media has enabled the users to comment publicly on the appearances if each other as well as their own appearances which creates a complex system of their body images and the appearances of their socialization. The online contributions of mixed social media have in several ways contributed to unrealistic negative self-evaluations and goals which in one way may trigger sensitive feelings resulting to lower moods and sources of stress. Therefore, mixed social media used by young women is likely to include social and judgmental comparison processes. Particularly, the use of social media by young women has been found to be a significant risk factor for emotional maladjustments such as social anxiety and depression symptoms. In the contrary social media experiences based on appearances have been associated strongly with the symptoms of maladjustments in relation to appearance including appearance, sensitivity, and anxiety towards rejection that is based on women appearances.

The usage of social media by women has been highly associated with dissatisfaction with their body images. For instance, adolescents especially girls and young women who often use social media have had challenges with body dissatisfaction. The majority of young women have had much encouragement of achieving idealized body shapes. Images portrayed by media, especially those that are presented within the advertisement context of weight and dieting, have promoted the idea of body shapes. Therefore, this has led to the huge impact of mixed media on the exposure of media images with controlled conditions in which idealized bodies are present. However, the majority of young women are unlikely to be affected by the idealized images to the same degree since young women become more vulnerable with their attention focused on their appearance.

1.1 Background of the study

The impact of mixed media on young women use consumption habits has been a common topic on social media. The majority of young women have been associated with the appearance anxiety that has involved the elements of dissatisfaction of their bodies plus inclusive behaviors and thoughts that are related to the concerns of their bodies which may interfere with their day-to-day living. Although there has been little study on appearance anxiety in young women, the patterns of body esteem and dissatisfaction suggest how appearance anxiety progresses. Attention in social media has always focused on personal perspectives hence a huge distraction. The adoption of social media uses that has affected boundary behavior. Body dissatisfaction has reached normative levels among young women since its one of the most robust and consistent, maintenance and risk factors for eating disorders. The social and cultural models of eating disturbances and body dissatisfaction have been highlighted in the role of social media by the development and maintaining of young women’s body concerns. The social media comparison theories have proposed that young women have an innate drive of evaluating their progress and standing in various aspects of their daily lives whereby in the absence of objective standards, women always compare themselves to others so that they get a full understanding of where they stand with others.

1.2 Significance of the study

This study is carried out with a major aim of providing significant and crucial information plus knowledge in regard to the chosen topic from recent studies, respondents, and related sites required for expected significance study. The study was conducted to know mixed media has impacted young women’s news consumption habits. The findings of this research will redound to the society benefiting young women considering that mixed social media plays a significant role in young women news consumption habits today. The huge demand for young women’s consumption habits having been impacted by missed media justifies the need for appearance anxiety. Therefore, researchers and young women should apply the recommended approach that will be derived from this research to help understand their news consumption habits better. Young women will be fully guided on what should be put under-emphasis by social media users to improve their views and feeling on body appearances and dissatisfaction. Additionally, for the researchers, this research will help them to fully uncover the critical and significant areas in the social media processes concerning young women’s consumption habits processes that the majority or several researchers failed or were not able to explore.

2.0 Literature review

Under the literature review, I will explore the development of new technologies of media that may affect young women through their change in the habitual preferences in their usage of mixed social media. First, I will explore the concept of hybrid media as a major background as to why and how the hybridization of several types of platforms of social media are taking place in today’s world. Additionally, I will explore the different changes and habits that exist in the use of social media today by young women and then relate it to the hybrid development of social media. Lastly, I will carry out an analysis and explain the various trends in the consumption and production of social media content in today’s world and provide a huge analysis of how it has impacted young women’s news consumption habits.

According to Chadwick (2013). Hybrid media is defined in terms of the distinction between the old and new media and it was commonly used during the past to describe and explain different technologies of media and the distinction between media. The terms new and old actually should be relative terms therefore its results in a gradual convergence between old and new media and the various types of media that can core exist hence known as media hybridity. Hybrid media is a significant part of the transition that exists in the industry of media with the quick development of communication and digital technologies. From the course of my previous study, I have argued that the introduction of hybrid media has been discussed widely by numerous scholars within the past five years which is a huge a significant shortcoming of my study on the most fundamental part and concept of hybrid media.

According to Chadwick, (2013), the primary aim is to discuss how media hybridity is related to politics which is a significant part of social development. Hybridity has been one of the few concepts that can be literarily discussed in a manner that is interdisciplinary. Hence, some of the definitions by Chadwick on the concept of hybridity media are very informative for my study and all his discussion allows for a greater and critical look at the findings in the relation of social media perspectives on hybrid media development. For instance, some of Chadwick’s views on the online environment today are very informative and can be discussed deeply in relation to the hybrid nature of media that is presented on social media.

Chadwick, (2013) claims that from the earliest days of oral communication to today’s digital communication, media has relied on the technological, digital, and evolving scientific technologies, and the media environment today is diverse, polycentric, and fragmented. The statement is based on a huge context of the media industry and needs refinement on the concepts he expressed. Therefore, this means that the emergence of social media is highly and closely linked to the hybridity of media. The hybrid nature of media has hugely facilitated the emergence of social media hence social has been able to bring a new dynamic to the hybrid nature of the media industry. Since the start of Twitter in 2007, the term social media has become a huge, major, and hot trend topic on the internet as years go by, social media has matured over the past decades but I believe that social media still has numerous shortcomings that can be explained and analyzed in numerous ways.

The major issue found by Fardouly in research is that majority of women in western society have reached higher levels of body dissatisfaction and the major reasons for this have been linked strongly to the user of social media. A quantitative study that was conducted in 2020, on the teenager’s social media habits in Australia indicated that up to 99% or almost all teenagers reported being social media users and a similar situation was in the United States and Australia (Hawes, Zimmer- Gemback & Cambell, 2020). The theory gives partial evidence of preferences of social media users especially in countries that are developed but it cannot be fully used to define the development of social media as global because the series of the research is based on a particular category of the responses which are young women.

The emergence of social media is a part of a mixed media and social development that has reinvigorated to some extent the media industry which has led to the rapid growth of new media and this has resulted in new anxiety (Natalie, 2009). Mixed social media has created numerous channels for users to produce their content and various platforms that can use to distribute it (Wang, 2016). Additionally, social media has also brought with it a surrounding atmosphere of huge interpersonal comparison plus excessive focus on personal appearances (Hawes, Zimmert- Gemback & Cambell, 2020). It has always been human nature to compare each other, unconsciously or consciously especially in the absence of objective criteria. It has always been easy to compare oneself to other people and this one repositions themselves (Faddoul, Pinkus, &Vartinian, 2017 cited in Festinger, 1954). Many young women compare themselves and this is the main focus of this study. As compared to men, the majority of young women are more much likely to have numerous thoughts about comparing themselves to others in their day-to-day lives (Franzoi et al., 2020). The majority of young women are more inclined to compare themselves to people which are much more attractive than themselves or as compared to them on social media which later makes them develop behaviors and thoughts about fitness and as a result ((Fardouly, Pinkus, &Vartinian, 2017),

However, there is still a huge gap in the existing literature about the impact of social media among young women news consumption habits on their day to day lives and therefore there have been numerous discussions in the previous research and articles about a wide range of effects that the social media has on young women both on the physical level and psychological level. Social media as a huge representative product of the mixed media and the new media can also be much considered to have a negative or positive impact on young women news consumption habits. The majority of young women are more eager as compared to men to share their visual content including personal selfies, videos, photos, etc. to share their personal visual content on social media sites which later makes them feel to experience much more anxiety than the men. However, all this does not cause any reduction in young women motivation and engagement to sharing visual content on social media platforms. (Boursier, Gioia &Griffiths (2020) state that majority of young women are much more enthusiastic about social media use as compared to men of similar age and that yp0oung women spend more time on social media platforms. Additionally, the emergence of the situation can be discussed in numerous ways. On the positive side, social media provide users with openness to the production of content. However, the excessive use of social media and the overdependent on it, has to some extent caused anxiety among young women. They have also recognized their own value during the process of sharing their content which has, in turn, resulted and brought to the psychological satisfaction and new channels of realizing their values even as they earn extra income through traffic and other new opportunities for the development of media industries. Also, it has opened up new opportunities for the development and growth of the media industry.

Nevertheless, the negative aspects cannot be ignored. For instance, accompanying the use of social media abuse plus mental health problems negative impacts can, in turn, be generated hence impacting the development of the mixed media and society generally causing appearance anxiety plus aesthetic distortions on the general public. Social media in general has an underlined tendency of producing content that always favors the idealized female body and appearance such as internet actors, celebrities, and also TV anchors whose appearance is one of the most significant factors that appears on the screen and even through public mobile phones screens. At the same time, it is also a stereotypical and weak pursuit of the women body images which in previous research has focused on both the physical and psychological health of women leaving a gap to be filled in the discussion of women’s rights. This is a gap that could be filled. In conclusion, social media is a form of hybrid media that can distort and influence the perceptions of young women ion their own image to a huge extent hence having an impact on their day to day lives and mental and physical health in both negative and positive ways which is a huge problem that needs to be examined critically.

3.0 Research design

3.1 Aim of the research

The main aim of the research is to discuss the impact of mixed, media on young women’s news consumption habits. The following are the research questions and objectives.

3.2 Research questions

  1. How has the development of new media technologies affected young women through their changing habitual preferences on the use of social media?
  2. How has hybrid media and hybridization of various types of social media taken place in today’s world?
  3. How has social media affected body dissatisfaction and how has it affected young women perceiving their own appearance?
  4. How has the use of social media led to the appearance, anxiety in young women?
  5. How have the habits and changes that exist in young women’s social media use today related to the hybrid development of social media?

3.3 Research objectives

  1. To explore how the development of new media technologies may affect young women through their changing habitual preferences in the use of social media.
  2. To explore the concept of hybrid media as a background to how hybridization of various types of social media platforms is taking place today.
  3. To determine how social media has affected body dissatisfaction and how young women perceive their own appearance.
  4. To determine how the use of social media has led to appearance anxiety in young women.
  5. To analyze the habits and changes that exist in young women’s social media use today relating to the hybrid development of social media.

4.0 Methodology

4.1 Participants and procedure

The recruitment of the participants will be carried out using an advertisement that will be shared on websites that are visited by many young women. The data will be collected through an online survey with the use of a website link where participants will click on to complete the questionnaire. It will entail a total of 15 young women aged 20 to 24 years who will take part in the online questionnaire. Before filling out any questionnaire, the participants will be informed about the aim of the research, the nature of the study, and all the measures that will be used in generating the data. The participation of the participants is voluntary without any remunerative rewards, anonymity, and confidentiality will be assured.

4.2 Methods

The research will make use of the qualitative methodology approach. Questionnaires will be used in collecting data from the participants. The questions of the research will be formed based on the preferences of the strategy of the research. The questionnaires will have both open-ended questions that will be employed to fold up in-depth information for the report organization and provide a complete understanding of the involvement of young women understanding of social media use. The research will use the primary Data collection method because data will be collected from the original concerned and involved party (Young women). To ensure the data collected will be successful, there will be conduction of questionnaires through different social media links such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter that will help to get the feedback of the intended party., The questionnaires will be timed to ensure all the participants are involved. The questionnaires are suitable for the research because they are relatively cheap and it’s a methodology that is efficient and quick hence, I will be able to obtain a large amount of information from the young women participating. Additionally, data will be quickly collected because I will not need to be present in the completion of the questionnaires.

4.3 Challenges encountered in accessing the sample

The challenges that can be encountered during the recruitment of the sample are that there will be suffering from associated problems of non-response of the questionnaires and also bias in resultant selections. It may be difficult to reach some of the participants and also the participants can refuse to participate in the research once they have been contacted despite being enrolled. The main factor that can be highlighted to adversely affect the response rate from the participants includes residence, race, and lower family income.

4.4. How to manage the challenges

To manage the challenges, I will do the following while carrying out the research. I will ensure that the questions on the questionnaires are short because simplicity is the key because this may lead to non-response bias since many of the participants may end up not finishing the responses. Additionally, I will also re-examine the distribution and timing method so that it does not interrupt any of the participants time and give them in the best timing the fits their schedule. For the problem of recruiting participants for the study, I will make sure that all the participants are available and are easily accessible and that I reach them on time so that I get assured of those who will be readily available to respond to questions and not at any chance refuse to participate in the study.

This will help me to answer the research question because all participants will be able to answer the questions fully without any of them being left blank. Additionally, using short questions with neutral words will help the participants to have a chance of entering the questions on the questionnaire in as authentic way as possible. Additionally, recruiting people who are available and those who will not at any chance refuse to participate in the questionnaire process will help me to answer the questions because I will be able to gather from them the responses which will be useful and important in entering the research question under study.

4.5 Data analysis

The data that will be collected from the questionnaires will be analyzed using qualitative analysis because the approach will help in answering the questions such as how what and why. The data analysis will involve examining, identifying, and interpreting of the themes and patterns in the textual data that will be collected which will then determine how the themes and patterns will help in answering the research questions. For example, the characteristics and answers that will be collected using questionnaires will appear in narrative form and this will be easier to be analyzed using qualitative analysis. The data will be collected and categorized into qualitative data hence easier to identify the themes.

The qualitative data analysis will help to answer the questions because it will allow me to develop a deep understanding of the emotional connection driving the young women’s behavior towards the use of social media. This will help get a deeper understanding than what could only be obtained through qualitative data analysis alone. The data analysis will also provide valuable data that will help to design and understand the participant’s needs and behaviors.

The sort of knowledge that will be produced from qualitative data analysi8sb that will be used is how social media hybridization has impacted young women’s news habitual behavior and preferences. The analysis will help get a full understanding of how young women have been impacted by social media use. The sorts of knowledge that will be produced from the data analysis is the statistical way and knowledge since the data will be analyzed in textual form. Therefore, it will majorly rely on participants’ perspectives.

5.0 Ethics

The ethical challenges that my research approach raise are situations of dealing with the contradicting issues of different methodological approaches. There can be disagreements amongst various components such as the participants, and the funding body. There can be conflicts with the participants arising from wanting to know what and why the research is being carried out and also having full information of anonymity, confidentiality, and informed consent.

I will manage the ethical challenges by making sure that all the participants have informed consent about the research. For instance, I will inform them about the risks, benefits, and funding beyond the research before they make the decision of agreeing or declining to join or participate in the study. Additionally, anonymity will be put in place by guaranteeing to the participants that no data will be collected personally using their identifications such as phone numbers, names, photos, and email addresses. For the confidentiality challenge, I will ensure that all the rights of the participants to privacy are confidential and I will protect their personal data as long as they are in-store or using it. This might affect my research approach because they will promote the research aims including the expanding of knowledge because they support the values that are needed for collaborative work such as fairness and mutual respect. This will be important because research always depends on the collaboration between participants and the researcher. Additionally, consideration of ethical issues will shape the research findings because the participants will provide clear and precise answers that will be useful in analyzing the data.

6.0 Conclusion

I anticipate that the research will advance our understanding of the topic of the impact of mixed media on young women’s consumption habits. The research will also indicate the intensity of social media use of young girls and the risks that are associated including both negative and positive risks such as appearance anxiety. The study will give a clear implication of hybridization of mixed media and how appearance anxiety has played a significant risk factor in the relationship between young women and the use of social media.

7.0 References

Archer‐Brown, C., Marder, B., Calvard, T. and Kowalski, T., 2018. Hybrid social media: Employees’ use of a boundary‐spanning technology. New Technology, Work and Employment33(1), pp.74-93.

Boursier, V. and Gioia, F., 2020. Women’s pathological narcissism and its relationship with social appearance anxiety: The mediating role of body shame. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation.

Boursier, V., Gioia, F. and Griffiths, M.D., 2020. Do selfie-expectancies and social appearance anxiety predict adolescents’ problematic social media use?. Computers in Human Behavior110, p.106395.

Chen, Y., Liu, C., Du, Y., Zhang, J., Yu, J., and Xu, H., 2022. Machine learning classification model using Weibo users’ social appearance anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences188, p.111449.

Fardouly, J., Pinkus, R.T. and Vartanian, L.R., 2017. The impact of appearance comparisons made through social media, traditional media, and in person in women’s everyday lives. Body image20, pp.31-39.

Hawes, T., Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J. and Campbell, S.M., 2020. Unique associations of social media use and online appearance preoccupation with depression, anxiety, and appearance rejection sensitivity. Body Image33, pp.66-76.

Laor, T., 2021. ‘Amphibians’: media figures on social networks and traditional media in Israel. Israel Affairs27(3), pp.534-557.

Monro, F. and Huon, G., 2005. Media‐portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety. International Journal of Eating Disorders38(1), pp.85-90.

Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J., Webb, H.J., Farrell, L.J. and Waters, A.M., 2018. Girls’ and boys’ trajectories of appearance anxiety from age 10 to 15 years are associated with earlier maturation and appearance-related teasing. Development and Psychopathology30(1), pp.337-350.

The Impact Of NFTs Essay Example

In the article, Laurence explains how NFTs bring a positive change in the arts/cultural/creative economy. NFTs will ensure that artists and creatives will have their products copyrighted hence will eliminate the duplication and use of their work without consent. NFTs are transactions that take place under block chain technology, which offered a credible way of tracking one’s work. The use block chain means that artists will have knowledge on the people who have purchased their work and the price they paid to get access to the work. The ease of tracking works posted NFT marketplace means that creatives and artists will be compensated for their work. The elimination of duplication means that producers of work will get fair compensation for selling their work and for any reselling that takes place. Hence, creatives are bound to make significant income from the sale of NFTs. With increased income, artists and creatives will be incentivized to produce more art, which will grow the industry. For example, musicians will no longer have to sign up with record labels, which take cuts from their earnings. They can share their music on NFT marketplaces where listeners can purchase their albums. They will have full ownership of their work, meaning they will have more control of their careers. NFTs also increase the number of platforms where artists can share and sell their works. This will increase the outreach and visibility of artists, hence will increase the earnings and promote career growth for artists and creatives. Laurence highlights that NFTs are a revolutionary change in the cultural/art/creative economy.

The argument about the positive impact of NFTs is well founded, as they have become mainstream ventures with backing from wealthy individuals. Venture Capitalists are heavily invested in NFTs, which shows the viability of selling and purchasing NFTs. Laurence provides examples of artists who have made expensive sells on NFT marketplace, which shows that NFTs are credible ways of dealing in art and creative works. The example of Mike Winkelmann selling art for $69.3 million and $6.6 million shows that artists can create huge income streams by selling their work as NFTs (Laurence). Laurence’s argument about copyright for creative work is well founded. NFTs use block chain technology can be easily tracked and the owner of certain works is known. This eliminates theft that is experienced by artists where their work is stolen online or downloaded without payments. NFTs will thus eliminate piracy of art works, which is a big challenge for the creative industry.

Laurence’s article makes sense as it provides a simplified explanation of how NFTs will affect the creative industry. She highlights how people have adopted the use of NFTs and are selling different types of items on their available marketplaces. She also explains how NFTs challenge the conventional ownership and copyright issues surrounding art and creative works. The article also provides other examples of the benefits that NFTs bring, which are visible and verifiable. After reading the article, one gets a clear understanding of the financial benefits that NFTs provide to artists and creatives. The author also highlights the lack of regulatory and legal applications for NFTs, which shows she lacks any bias when promoting NFTs. She acknowledges the existence of this gap in the particular industry, which informs the reader about the various obstacles that they will face when dealing with NFTs. Laurence uses her understanding of investment to enlighten readers about the possible opportunities that lie in NFTs, especially for people in the cultural, creative, and art industry.

The article could have been more insightful if it highlighted what NFTs are and how they are created. Most individuals lack an understanding of what NFTs are and how they are created and sold online. Laurence could have started the article by explaining what is block chain and the impact it has on buying and selling of products online. Understanding block chain is important in making people understand how to sell and buy products on block chain technology. This understanding will help users understand how NFTs bring ownership and copyright advantages. Readers should understand how block chain limits the theft and replication of digital products. This will increase the number of people using NFTs as platforms for selling their artworks online.

Although NFTs have become mainstream news, most people lack understanding of the platforms where they are sold and one can access these platforms. Laurence could have highlighted the various platforms where people can sell and buy NFTs. This could spark curiosity and encourage people to learn how to sell their products on these platforms. Readers also need to understand how NFTs are created and sold on the platforms. Some individuals may possess digital art, but lack the technical capacity and knowledge to sell on block chain platforms. Providing a link to some of the auction will encourage people to search the platforms and see the different pricing and profits that people selling NFTs are making. Such understanding is important since NFTs are new products that have not reached most people. Some people still lack enough knowledge that they can use to create and sell the creative works they possess. The author could have also highlighted some of the legal issues when dealing with art and creative work. Although the article provides insight into the benefits that NFTs provide to creatives, it lacks explanation on what NFTs are, block chain, and how to use NFT marketplace and sell artworks.

Works Cited

Laurence, Tiana. “Why NFTs Are One Of The Best Economic Innovations Of 2020.” Forbes, 19 Oct. 2021, www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2021/10/19/why-nfts-are-one-of-the-best-economic-innovations-of-2020/?sh=33a41fb87548.

Annotated Bibliography: The Importance Of Project Management Free Writing Sample

Atout, M. M. (2020). Importance of Project Management Implications in Construction Industry Projects. BULMIM Journal of Management and Research, 5(1), 17-27.

The resource was authored by Mamoon Mousa Atout, an assistant professor at the “American University in the Emirates”. He is also a senior specialist at the institution with a Ph.D. in engineering and project management. This implies that his article is well researched and informed to provide sufficient information on the significance and role of project management. Successful project management in the construction sector incorporates a qualified project implementation team as it forms the foundation of success. Therefore, project managers ought to feature specific skills for successful project completion, taking into account the budget and time limitations.

The author evaluates the significance of project management in the construction industry while completion largely depends on the management team and stakeholders. The resource provides significant insights into the importance of project management and various factors that determine the project success. It informs the significance of the team leader and their relationship with the team and stakeholders in ensuring the project is successful. The study is applicable in project management irrespective of the sector, as it details various factors taken into account to ensure the project meets the deadlines and the allocated budget.

An, N., Qiang, M., Wen, Q., Jiang, H., & Xia, B. (2019). Contribution of project managers’ capability to project ending performance under stressful conditions. European Management Journal, 37(2), 198-209.

The article was authored by An, Qiang, Wen, Jiang, and Xia at the Tsinghua University in China. They have sufficient knowledge of hydro science, engineering, and project management, cementing their credentials. The article focuses on the phase of the project ending where the project manager is tasked with executing strategic steps, which plays a vital role in efficiently completing a project. At the completion phase, various issues such as future path, efficiency, and work summary may lead to family conflicts that are likely to elevate the pressure of project managers. The stressors impact various aspects of the manager, which can be psychological, behavioral, or physiological, and hence their performance.

The authors involved 214 project managers in developing their findings and concluded that ending phase stressors are crucial to completing a project. This is because the managers lead a team and are coordinators among the stakeholders to ensure successful completion. The study provides significant insights into the importance of project management at every project phase. It further provides suggestions concerning managing a project for organizations that undertake projects. Finally, the article’s findings can be applied to project managers to understand various stressors they are likely to encounter during the completion phase of a project and how to navigate through them.

Abdulrahman, B., & Abdal, K. (2019). The Role of Project Management in the success of Small Businesses. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 7(07).

The study was authored by Abdulrahman and Abdal, “technical finance and accounting professionals at Erbil Polytechnic University”. At the university, they are tasked with economics and management, where they have written a plethora of other articles, hence the qualification to address the topic. According to the authors, large corporations grow from being small enterprises which makes it vital to comprehend the importance of project management, even at the low level. The authors highlight the significance and impacts of project management on completing a project under a small business enterprise. There are vital factors that determine the successful implementation and achieving the set target within the given timelines. In addition, they incorporate the historical development of project management and its significance in small businesses.

An enterprise needs to have a project management structure to effectively and efficiently monitor how they utilize their resources. The study provides significant insights into the importance of project management for organizations undertaking projects. It applies to all organizations, from small to large corporates, to incorporate a project management framework, to efficiently monitor budget allocations and time.

Andersen, E. S., & Grude, K. V. (2018). Our tribute to Rodney–and the importance of goal-directed project management. International Journal of Project Management, 36(1), 227-230.

The study was conducted by Andersen and Grude, scholars from Norway attached to different institutions. They feature sufficient knowledge in project management and boost several other articles. In the article, the authors cement the assertions developed by Turner in his book, “Goal Directed Project Management .”They provide sufficient insights into the concepts incorporated in the book while deriving arguments from other authors to cement their stand. Significant ideals derived from the book focus on “top-down planning”, which highlights the significance of a project, the goals, and how the goals are achieved. Project planning and implementation are faced with a number of issues, and understanding them can facilitate an easier management process. The article informs the research topic as it provides significant insights into the importance of project management which is crucial in achieving the set objectives. It cements the significance of focusing on the project’s goals while ensuring tasks are completed appropriately. Further, it is applicable in project-based organizations to comprehend the process and its significance in achieving the stated mission.

Dociu (Anchidin), M. M. (2018). The Importance of Human Resources in Project Management. Knowledge Horizons.Economics, 10(3), 8-14.

The author is a professor at the “University of Craiova in Romania’s doctoral school of economic sciences”. He boosts sufficient experience in economic sciences owing to instructing period at the university. The author focuses on the significance of human resource management and its impact on the management of a project successfully. Based on the arguments presented, the author retaliates that the management of a project and the human resource should focus on the selection, management, and training to achieve the competitive edge. Incorporating behavioral systems on top of technical systems by the project managers, the projects are likely to be completed while adhering to human resource provision. The article informs the research topic by stressing the significance of project management and the overall mindset of the organization and stakeholders involved in a project. Further, it is applicable in project-oriented organizations to incorporate behavioral and technical systems to comprehend human interaction to facilitate the implementation process.

Larsson, J., Eriksson, P. E., & Pesämaa, O. (2018). The importance of hard project management and team motivation for construction project performance. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.

The article’s authors are renowned for their work in the construction sector and enormous contribution through their various studies. They are instructors in the “construction management and building technology” division at the “Lulea University of Technology” in Sweden. The article assesses the significance of hard project management in the construction industry. It evaluates the role of team motivation as well as strict control in ensuring the project is managed effectively. A significant role of project management is dealing with conflicts, and the authors denote that incorporating team motivation enhances the implementation process. The motivation of a team in ensuring increased performance yields positive results.

Team motivation is crucial in achieving the desired results when implementing a project. Hard project management may yield either positive or negative impacts, although incorporating team motivation is likely to thwart negative impacts. This informs the research topic on the significance of incorporating motivation and hard tactics in ensuring the project deliverables are achieved. Furthermore, the project managers can apply the study results during the project management process to ensure their objectives are met.

Mainga, W. (2017). Examining project learning, project management competencies, and project efficiency in project-based firms (PBFs). International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.

The author is a researcher and an associate professor and boosts incredible experience in business research, training, and development. This retaliates his qualification in addressing project management at an advanced level. The resource incorporates research and survey to evaluate the significance of project managers’ overall project efficiency and competencies that invoke successful project implementation. The study integrated a statistical evaluation of the high order dimensions relationship with efficiency correlation and their impacts on effectiveness in determining the efficiency of a project. The author denotes pressures the project managers encounter in the completion of their projects, when they may overlook the project goals for the completion of the tasks. The study contributes to the research topic, as knowledge transfer during a project is essential in ensuring the project is effectively and efficiently implemented. The author’s analysis allows for the comprehension of the relation between various dynamic competencies and the success of a project. Project managers can derive insights from the study to evaluate various relationships that impact the process of management in achieving the set goals.

Martens, M. L., & Carvalho, M. M. (2017). Key factors of sustainability in project management context: A survey exploring the project managers’ perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 35(6), 1084-1102.

The authors are associate professors at the University of São Paulo in Brazil, with extensive experience in production engineering. They have considerably contributed to other studies in manufacturing and production where the framework for project management is largely applicable. The study evaluated various sustainability variables in project management, taking triple bottom lines perspectives into account. The article incorporated project managers to evaluate factors that are vital in ensuring the sustainability of a project. Project managers ought to comprehend the sustainability of their projects, taking into account resource-saving, environmental policies, competitive edge, and the management of the stakeholders. The article informs the research topic in that it reveals the importance of project managers and their role in ensuring projects sustainability. The variables faced by each sector differ, so the research can be incorporated in various sectors to determine the underlying factors for project managers. It also informs the challenges faced at the end of the project implementation and can aid the managers in mitigating them for a desirable outcome.

Meng, X., & Boyd, P. (2017). The role of the project manager in relationship management. International Journal of Project Management, 35(5), 717-728.

Meng is a professor at Queen’s University Belfast in the United Kingdom, while Boyd belongs to Lagan Construction Group. Both authors are well experienced in the construction sector, where project management is critical to the achievement of the objectives. The authors evaluated the role of communication and relationship management in project management. The increase in attaining a competitive edge invoked the role of relationship management which is essential in ensuring a project is successfully implemented. Relationship management was evaluated to determine the significance of communication, revealing that traditional measures are increasingly becoming obsolete with constant communication fronted to nurture relationships by the management. Excellent communication and trust positively impact the project during project implementation, offering a route towards success and a competitive edge. The article informs the significance of project management, where the development of relationships through constant communication yields the desired results. The study can be incorporated by organizations and project managers who seek to have a competitive edge in project management.

Shafiq, M., Zhang, Q., Akbar, M. A., Khan, A. A., Hussain, S., Amin, F. E., … & Soofi, A. A. (2018). Effect of project management in requirements engineering and requirements change management processes for global software development. IEEE Access, 6, 25747-25763.

All involved authors are scholars in various tertiary institutions with high-level experience in communication, computer science, business, and management sciences. The article evaluates the significance of project management with the requirement engineering and requirement change management process—the rapidly expanding software development industry retaliating the significance of a framework for achieving project management goals. The study stresses the significance of innovative teams in project management due to the revolution in software development. The significance of the teams, as the authors highlight, relies on the impacts of communication, working relationship, and the success of the projects. As such, project managers need to address vividly complex issues at the inception of a project for easier and effective adaptation of the incorporated framework. Project managers can apply the study, especially in software development, as a well-developed framework can draw the line between a successful and unsuccessful project. “Requirements engineering” and “requirements change management processes” are essential in a global software development environment.