The Impact Of The COVID-19 Pandemic On The International Trading Essay Example

Globalization and Its change

Globalization is an organic element of modern economic growth, one of its most important characteristics. However, this does not mean that its shape and pace are unchanged: there are periods of its sharp acceleration, as well as deceleration. Over the past two years, globalization has slowed down, as can be seen from the dynamics of world trade. The coronavirus pandemic has created new tough barriers to globalization: the shutdown of production and the closure of the borders of leading countries and economic groups (Ciotti et al., 2020). It led to the rupture of the usual economic ties, value chains and exacerbated relations between traditional partners.

Coronovirus Pandemic

Coronavirus is a dangerous disease that affects tens of thousands of people around the world every day. The pandemic of the previously unknown coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is causing SARS COVID-19. The episode of COVID-19 has presented basic wellbeing challenges around the world. The pandemic is one of the most profoundly infectious flare-ups in ongoing mankind’s set of experiences, with in excess of 240 million cases and 4.9 million deaths as of today (WHO (COVID-19) dashboard no date). The quarantine measures associated with it have an impact on the lives of people around the world.

Global gross domestic product (GDP) at current prices from 1985 to 2026

World governments are looking for a way out of a difficult economic situation. The COVID-19 pandemic has produced an organic market shock across numerous nations. Creation, utilization, and exchange designs have been influenced straightforwardly and because of lockdowns and social removing measures. Industrial facility terminations in China, Europe, the United States, and somewhere else have prompted a drop in the inventory of exportable products and disturbance in worldwide worth chains (GVCs) (Espitia et al., 2021). According to forecasts, currencies in most countries are expected to decline by 4-7% per year (Wang et al., 2021). After the announcement of a global pandemic, the approach of the global economic crisis became very tangible. The risks associated with the spread of the coronavirus have negatively affected the value of shares and assets of many companies.

Until 2020, Global GDP had encountered a development consistently beginning around 2010. In 2020, worldwide GDP added up to around 84.54 trillion U.S. dollars, just about three trillion lower than in 2019 (O’Neill, 2021).

The Collapse of Oil Prices

The decline in production activity could not but affect the demand for oil. Demand has decreased, and, accordingly, oil prices have also dropped. The OPEC + countries could not agree on a new agreement on the extraction of this mineral, the price decline began even before the pandemic, and in the process, the cost became negative. The world economy in 2020 is facing an unprecedented business interruption to combat the pandemic, the collapse in oil prices, and the fall in export demand (Mahmud, Ding, and Hasan, 2021). The pandemic crisis led to a significant drop in the currencies of countries that were dependent on the sale of oil. It also led to a record reduction in the real disposable income of the population, an increase in unemployment, a slowdown in consumption and investment, and, finally, according to the authorities themselves, a budget deficit (Mahmud, Ding, and Hasan, 2021).

Managing COVID Pandemic

Today, there are risks associated with uneven access of the world community to vaccines, a surge in pandemic activity in the least developed countries, and the emergence of new strains. In addition, after the rupture and destabilization of supply chains and an imbalance between supply and demand, or rather, some lag between supply and demand, a shortage of some goods arose. Huge indebtedness has accumulated in developed countries and huge corporate debt – in many developing countries (Kerr, 2021). In China, the manufacturing sector has been seriously damaged by the coronavirus. Production activity dropped to a record level of 40 (Kerr, 2021). The pandemic had the same negative impact on Vietnam, Singapore, and South Korea (Gruszczynski, 2020). Due to the pandemic, the incomes of the population have decreased, and some citizens have completely lost their jobs. This negatively affected the retail, aviation, and restaurant business. COVID-19 has had this impact on the service sector in most countries, including Russia and the United States.

Tourism Industry

The COVID-19 pandemic struck the travel industry harshly. Numerous nations and locales have limited developments by forcing boycotts and other tough prerequisites on passage and leave, which has quietly affected the worldwide travel industry. Changes like restarting, revamping, and acclimatizing the travel industry as per the most recent norms and rules are being done to restore the business (Sharma, Thomas, and Paul, 2021). The restoration is affected by the public authority’s reaction in the type of better control of travelers, making some travel industry subordinate nations without visa, and reconciliation of innovation (Ding and Li, 2021).

Reference List

Ciotti, M. et al. (2020) “The COVID-19 pandemic,” Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 57(6), pp. 365–388. doi: 10.1080/10408363.2020.1783198.

Ding, A. W. and Li, S. (2021) ‘National response strategies and marketing innovations during the COVID-19 pandemic,’ Business Horizons, 64(2), pp. 295–306. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2020.12.005.

Espitia, A., Mattoo, A., Rocha, N., Ruta, M. and Winkler, D. (2021) “Pandemic trade: Covid‐19, remote work and Global Value Chains,” The World Economy. doi: 10.1111/twec.13117.

Gruszczynski, L. (2020) “The COVID-19 pandemic and international trade: temporary turbulence or paradigm shift?,” European Journal of Risk Regulation, 11(2), pp. 337–342. doi: 10.1017/err.2020.29.

Kerr, W. A. (2021) “Agriculture after a year with Covid‐19: any long‐term implications for International Trade Policy?,” Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 69(2), pp. 261–267. doi: 10.1111/cjag.12274.

Mahmud, A., Ding, D. and Hasan, M. M. (2021) “Corporate social responsibility: business responses to coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic,” SAGE Open, 11(1), pp. 1–17. doi: 10.1177/2158244020988710.

O’Neill, A. (2021) Global GDP 2014-2024, Statista.

Sharma, G. D., Thomas, A. and Paul, J. (2021) “Reviving tourism industry post-covid-19: a resilience-based framework,” Tourism Management Perspectives, 37, pp. 1–11. doi: 10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100786.

Wang, D., Hubacek, K., Liang, X., Coffman, D. M., Hallegatte, S. and Guan, D. (2021) “Reply to: observed impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Global Trade,” Nature Human Behaviour, 5(3), pp. 308–309. doi: 10.1038/s41562-021-01061-4.

WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard (no date). World Health Organization.

“The Bride Comes To Yellow Sky” By Stephen Crane: Learning To Accept Change

The need to embrace change and recognize it as a central part of life is quite a challenging task for most people, primarily due to the fear of discomfort that may emerge alongside with new concepts and ideas. In his short story, “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky,” Stephen Crane exposes the depth and complexity of the process of reconciling with change by creating a powerful symbol representing the much-needed compromise. Although Crane’s wistful tone in describing the need to part with the established perspectives and lifestyles is evident in the story, he also assumes a mature stance of accepting change, representing it in the novel symbolically.

The concept of change as the inevitability that needs to be encompassed and integrated into one’s life permeates the entire narrative, quickly becoming its leitmotif. While the story incorporates several obvious symbols of change, namely, the bride and the train that the couple rides, the story also includes several more nuanced references to the importance of change. However, while the described symbols are quite explicit in their expression of the inevitability of change, the protagonist’s acceptance of change as a nonetheless important thematic element is significantly subtler. For instance, Crane depicts the innovative appearance of the train in exhaustive details, emphasizing its novelty: “the sea-green figured velvet, the shining brass, silver, and glass, the wood that gleamed as darkly brilliant as the surface of a pool of oil” (Crane). However, John’s attitude toward the technological miracle, while being clearly accepting, is significantly subtler: “He had the pride of an owner” (Crane). The portrayed attitude represents the core conflict of the story, specifically, john’s lingering between the acceptance of change and the resistance to it.

In fact, the story’s protagonist literally marries change since his wife as a character serves the function of representing the social change that Jack undergoes as he decides to start a family and assume responsibility. Thus, even though Jack’s decisiveness falters throughout the entire story and remains fluctuating up until the very denouement of the narration, the idea of change as an inevitable and integral part of life remains inseparable from his character: “He laughed, and groaned as he laughed, when he noted the first effect of his marital bliss upon Yellow Sky” (Crane). Furthermore, Crane makes a concerted effort to emphasize the inevitability of the symbolic change by dropping hints at it throughout the entire story. In fact, the described concept of unstoppable change is imprinted in the very title of the story. Namely, “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky” serves to convey the sense of change approaching the town inevitably. Thus, using a combination of metaphor and metonymy to make the bride represent the change that the town is about to face and that John has already experienced, Crane creates a unique and rather intricate image.

The continuous emphasis on change as the necessary part of life is ubiquitous and uncompromising in the novel. Moreover, the fact that the intention of change does not come from the main character as much as it does from the symbols represented in the story, primarily, those of marriage and technological progress, allow promoting the idea that change does not need to be seen as the idea that has already been implanted into people’s nature and actively supported by reach individual. Quite the contrary, Crane insists that the necessity to accept and embrace change as a natural part of life progression is the core of the challenge and a necessary step in persona development. The significance of the personal progress observed with the acceptance of change is conveyed in the very behavior and emotions of the character, primarily, the description of his fear and how he handles it. The nervous nature with which John views the necessity of change is conveyed beautifully in the depiction of him waiting for the train: “But the hour of Yellow Sky, the hour of daylight, was approaching” (Crane). Thus, the inevitability of progress collides with the fear experienced by the protagonist.

While John is portrayed as a doubtful and uncertain yet genuine attempt at embracing change, the antagonist represents the need to cling to the old-fashioned ideas that have worn out their welcome. Specifically, the grotesquely exaggerated portrayal of Scratchy Wilson as a hyperbole of a raggedy cowboy looking for fights serves to prove the point of how unjustifiably pathetic the need to cling to the past actually is. In fact, the idea of the absurdity of forcing the ideas and traditions that should have been abandoned years ago to stay is represented in the very name of the antagonist: “’What did you say his name was?’ he asked. ‘Scratchy Wilson,’ they answered in chorus” (Crane). Indeed, “Scratchy Wilson” does not sound either particularly intimidating or especially grandeur; on the contrary, it evokes the opposite sentiment, ridiculing the idea of a rebellious Frontier-inspired stereotype of a character.

In a certain way, the character of Scratchy Wilson can be seen as the representation of the protagonist’s fear of embracing the change in its full extent. While John has mostly reconciled with the idea that the town residents are likely to see his unannounced marriage and the change in his attitude and lifestyle as a betrayal to their community, there is lingering fear portrayed in his mannerisms and behavior. This fear culminates in John entering the saloon and having to face Scratchy Wilson, a remnant of his past and the very embodiment of it.

Therefore, Scratchy Wilson himself acknowledging the legitimacy of John’s change and recognizes his right to take his life in a new direction represents the resolution of John’s internal conflict. Allowing him to face his fears, the specified point in the narration outlines the importance of personal change that is symbolically incorporated into the very fabric of the story. Although John’s wife’s passivity and compliance with the traditional gender norms and roles could be seen as a step backward in the promotion of the idea of change, the overall story supports the need of confronting fears associated with accepting change.

Though there is a certain nostalgic tone in Crane’s narration, pointing to the fact that he recognizes the cultural value of the past, the is still an obvious understanding of the importance of change voiced in the novel through the use of symbols indicating the changing nature of reality. Starting with the very title of the narrative and ending with the unique traits of the character described in the story, “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky” breathes with the concept of change, promoting the importance of alterations to the reader actively. Though some of the choices that Crane makes in the development of his secondary characters, primarily, John’s wife, could be questioned, the general idea of change as something that is not to be feared but, instead, to be embraced is represented masterfully in the narrative.

Work Cited

Crane, Stephen. “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky.”, n.d., Web.

“Plata O Plomo: Silver Or Lead” Article By Javdani

In “Plata O Plomo: Silver or Lead,” Marie Javdani aims to address the ways of dealing with the persistent problem of drug use and selling in Colombia. The main objective of the article was to urge the US government to look for alternative ways of dealing with the problem because financial investments have only been shown to exacerbate the issue further. The text addresses both the general audience of readers and US policymakers specifically because the situation has remained unaddressed for a long time despite the efforts of the United States to fight the illicit drug trade in Colombia. Javdani’s article’s importance lies in defining and exploring the alternative ways to cut down the demand for illegal drugs through treatment and education. The author of the article states that treatment is essential to stop the population from using drugs, while education is instrumental in making users face the consequences of their use of drugs.

The essay’s purpose is to educate the audience and inform them of the urgent need to act to solve the identified problem. Javdani appeals to statistical evidence by stating that the majority of Colombians are involved in cocaine cultivation, with the production of the drug amounting to approximately 80% of the total global output and a significant quantity of heroin supply to the United States (333). The author is adamant about underlining the fact that the financial aid of the United States that is being given to Latin America to tackle the problem does nothing, and the rate of violence and drug use has not changed for the better.

In the essay, the author takes an assertive tone and argues that money can never be a solution to the challenge of earning money from the drug trade. Javdani tells the stories of two people, Eric and Miguel. While Eric is an American who uses illicit drugs as a fun activity, Miguel is a Colombian who is involved in drug production (333). Comparing and contrasting the two people is a way for the author to illustrate the opposite poles in what the government of the US defines as the war on drugs. What Miguel does is where the problem begins, and what Eric does is where the issue gets perpetuated. Besides, the current efforts in the war on drugs do not consider the fact that Colombian workers depend on the production of coca for their livelihood while the manufacturing of cocaine has been overtaken by the mafia that does not allow workers to earn a fair salary. In addition, the peasants have no other choice than to allow for coca’s cultivation because of the risks to their lives.

Thus, Javdani is clear in her intention to show to the audience of her article that the current ‘war on drugs’ is ineffective and counterproductive as it does not consider the roots of the problem, such as the Colombian cocaine’s consumption by US citizens and the threats to the health and safety of employees subjected to the authority of drug cartels that rule through violence and oppression. The main conclusion to which the author wants her audience to come is that innocent people suffer in countries such as Colombia because of the clueless drug users who do not understand the implications of their actions, both on small and large scales.

Work Cited

Javdani, Marie. “Plata o Plomo: Silver or Lead.” The Bedford Reader, edited by X. J. Kennedy et al., Bedford, Freeman & Worth, 2014, pp. 448-451.

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