The Impact Of Utilization Management Determination On Hospital Readmission Rates Among Cardiovascular Disease Patients: A Comparison Of Appropriate And Inappropriate Utilization Management Decisions Free Sample


Patients with cardiovascular disease frequently readmit to the hospital, which raises healthcare expenditures and negatively affects patient outcomes. According to Warchol et al. (2019), effective usage management can lower avoidable readmissions and enhance patient care. In order to examine the effects of good versus wrong utilization management decisions on readmission rates, the study compares the factors that influence hospital readmissions in patients with cardiovascular disease. With the triple purpose of lowering per capita healthcare expenditures, enhancing population health, and enhancing the quality of care, this information can guide quality improvement programs focused on lowering readmission rates and increasing patient outcomes (Warchol et al., 2019). Patients, healthcare professionals, decision-makers, and society would benefit significantly from the study’s potential to reduce healthcare costs while improving cardiovascular disease patient care outcomes and treatment quality.

PICOT Question

Compared to appropriate utilization management decisions in patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, how does inappropriate utilization management determination influence the hospital readmission rate six months after discharge?

Search Strategy

A systematic electronic search of numerous databases should be done to perform a thorough search for pertinent studies on the effect of improper versus adequate hospital readmission rates for patients with cardiovascular disease and utilization management. Systematic Reviews, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Joanne Briggs are a few of these databases. Truncation and Boolean operators should be employed along with search phrases like Cardiovascular illness, ineffective versus effective utilization management, readmissions to the hospital, and discharge planning can be used to extend or narrow the search as necessary (Friedman & Basu, 2004). The search should not include any scholarly or other papers published in English after 2015. An initial review of the selected studies to identify studies that fail to meet the study question should be done as the first step in reviewing the chosen studies. The remaining publications should be evaluated critically using the Johns Hopkins Evidence Level and Quality Guide (Dang et al., 2021). The best articles should be picked after a more thorough review and analysis. Using the search method described above, researchers can find pertinent papers that provide evidence-based details on how UM affects patients with cardiovascular disease hospital readmission rates. This information can inform quality improvement activities and enhance patient outcomes.

Appraisal of Evidence

A Retrospective Cohort Study on appropriate and inappropriate UM decisions was carried out by Riverin et al. (2018). The study comprised 620,656 patients admitted to a community hospital in Quebec, Canada and diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. The study’s objectives were to determine the elements that affect hospital readmissions in people with cardiovascular disease and to contrast the effects of acceptable and unsuitable utilization management choices on readmission rates.

The authors examined the association between suitable and inappropriate utilization management decisions and hospital readmission rates using logistic regression analysis. According to the study’s findings (OR=0.56, p=0.017), proper utilization management decisions were linked to reduced readmission rates than unsuitable ones. The study also discovered many characteristics, such as age, multiple medical conditions, length of stay, and type of cardiovascular illness, that are linked to hospital readmissions.

The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice (JHNEBP) grading accords the evidence a level IIB rating. Its main advantages are the study’s large sample size and suitable statistical analysis to look at the relationship between utilization management choices and readmission rates. The validity of the results could be hampered by the study’s retrospective nature and dependency on administrative data. Furthermore, the study could have been more extensive in its ability to generalize because it was only carried out at one community hospital. According to the data in this study, making the right utilization management choices may help patients with cardiovascular disease experience fewer hospital readmissions. Additional study is required to confirm these results and evaluate whether the study’s conclusions can be applied to other contexts.

The second evidence is a quantitative retrospective cohort study examining the impact of proper and wrong utilization management strategies on readmission rates among cardiovascular disease patients. The study involved 39,117 patients discharged from a sizable academic medical centre in the United States with a principal diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. The usage management decisions were made by a committee of physician reviewers who assessed the medical significance and suitability of the treatments provided to the patients. (Lessler & Wickizer, 2000). According to the study, individuals with utilization management decisions declared improper experienced a greater readmission rate (39% vs. 16.4%). According to the study, individuals with cardiovascular disease can experience considerably better patient outcomes and readmission rates when appropriate utilization management decisions are made.

The evidence is classified as level II by the JHNEBP. The study has limitations, such as its retrospective design, making it difficult to prove causality. Additionally, because only one medical centre’s patients are included in the study, generalizability to other settings may be constrained. Additionally, a group of physician reviewers involved in the utilization management decisions could have been biased or subjective in their judgments. However, the study offers important information about the potential advantages of sensible utilization management choices in lowering readmission rates and enhancing patient outcomes in people with cardiovascular disease. The study’s conclusions are essential for healthcare professionals, decision-makers, and society because they can guide initiatives to lower healthcare costs and raise the standard of treatment.

The third supporting data is the cohort research by Dupre et al. (2018) titled “Access to routine care and risks for 30-day readmission in patients with cardiovascular disease.” The study included one thousand two hundred thirty-four patients with cardiovascular disease who were hospitalized at a hospital in the United States. The study examined the correlation between readmission rates for cardiovascular disease patients within 30 days and access to routine care. The link between the factors of routine care access and rates of readmission within 30 days was examined by the authors using logistic regression analysis. According to the study, patients who had access to regular care had a higher likelihood of being readmitted within 30 days of their last readmission than patients who did not (OR=1.79, p=0.035). The study also identified many variables, such as age, comorbidities, and duration of stay, that are connected to 30-day readmissions. The JHNEBP evaluation assigns the evidence a level IIB. The study’s suitable statistical analysis and identification of a risk factor modifiable for thirty-day readmission are among its advantages. However, the study’s single-centre methodology and limited sample size might restrict how broadly the results can be applied.

According to the data in this study, routine care access may be crucial in lowering readmission rates within thirty days for patients with cardiovascular disease. To improve patient outcomes, healthcare practitioners should place a high priority on assuring access to regular care. To confirm the results and investigate additional variables that might affect readmission rates in this cohort, more research is required in 2018 (Dupre et al.).

Description of the Framework

The reason for rising healthcare expenses each year is needless hospital readmissions. Practitioners will face intense pressure to cut expenses and eliminate unnecessary re-hospitalizations as the healthcare reform period progresses. Providers should allow patients to return when they require inpatient treatment for medical or surgical issues. However, a significant number of unintentional readmissions may and will be decreased by implementing initiatives that enhance the standard and promote patients as they move through the care continuum (Geri et al., 2020). Hospital utilization management refers to the actions taken by a hospital to guarantee that the care provided is necessary and suitable. Hospital usage management systems will be increasingly important as businesses adopt value-based reimbursement models. Implementing an efficient utilization management program ensures that hospitals offer cost-effective, high-quality care. There is a need for a good utilization management program that has well-defined regulations, processes, and people responsibilities.

The Diffusion of Innovations theory describes how a novel good, thought, or beneficial health practice spreads within a society or social group. Rogers proposed five processes for successful and enduring innovation: awareness, interest, appraisal, trial, and acceptance (Huang et al., 2021). Awareness happens when an unbalanced situation makes the need for change obvious. During the three phases of interest, assessment, and trial, hospital leadership collects data, engages staff, develops a clear strategy, and conducts appropriate testing. Beneficial and practical inventions finally integrate into daily life during the adoption phase. This model highlights the inherent uncertainty in forming new habits and helps public health program implementers decide how to deal with these uncertainties.

Doctors might need to be made aware of medical necessity standards when delivering care. Case managers might only have access to some contractual providers’ policies, which would be necessary to decide on medical necessity in the best way. In addition to doctors, nurses and case managers are crucial components of usage management programs (Kidanemariam et al., 2020). In hospitals, nurses are typically responsible for reviewing utilization because they help patients navigate the healthcare system in a way that provides high-quality, cost-effective treatment. Care coordinators and managers significantly control utilization (Kidanemariam et al., 2020).

Often, nurses need more supervision and administrative support to modify practice. Significant hurdles to nurses’ exploitation of research in practice and the spread of innovation include a lack of fundamental research knowledge, unintelligible data, and inadequate time on the job to execute change. Furthermore, most staff nurses need to be made aware of global advancements. These impediments result in the overuse of ineffective treatment, the underuse of effective care, and execution mistakes. These mistakes result in an increase in patient readmissions to hospitals. The spread of innovation in the healthcare sector could be more active. There is a need to design specific ways to kick-start the innovation-diffusion process.

Understanding and resolving barriers to dissemination for healthcare professionals and patients is critical. Healthcare innovations need many acceptance levels, such as those of head nurses, clinical chiefs, patients, and relatives. A formative review of the complete supply chain that must cooperate for an innovation’s dissemination, delivery, supply, and backing can remove hurdles before launch (Meri et al., 2019). This review involves paying attention to projected intrinsic and monetary incentives, which may be modified to meet different types of stakeholders when formative evaluation indicates that adoption obstacles are substantial, contributing to a climate of change.

Hospital utilization management methods are critical for aiding physicians to deliver cost-effective, high-quality care, decreasing healthcare costs and hospital readmissions. Improvements in the five domains of Rogers’ diffusion of innovations model can result in higher-value care experiences (Meri et al., 2019). Because of diffusion’s bidirectional nature, changes in care delivery are required to produce a genuinely high-value system. Beyond minimizing utilization, value improvement includes performance enhancement across five care delivery pillars. Hospitals may improve diagnostic and treatment efficiency and effectiveness by guiding the optimal use of resources such as lab and imaging tests, procedures, treatments, and drugs. In outpatient and inpatient settings, value improvement assures care delivery consistency to reduce unjustified variability in practice that raises costs without improving results (Bricard & Or, 2019). Quality-driven care pathways shorten hospital stays, reduce infections, minimize readmissions, and enhance outcomes.

Value enhancement enhances care transitions, particularly discharge transitions, to prevent unnecessary postdischarge emergency room visits and hospital readmissions. Value enhancement improves access to preventive medicine and evidence-based screening tests to safeguard patients from avoidable illnesses, hospital-acquired ailments, and late-stage cancer diagnoses (Alhasan et al., 2022). It also optimizes the patient care environment to improve access and efficacy of healthcare in the outpatient setting while reducing unnecessary hospital and ED visits. Patient enlightenment and empowerment are critical components of these initiatives.

Implications for Practice

Based on the information provided, healthcare professionals should give proper utilization management decisions top priority in order to lower hospital readmissions and enhance patient outcomes for people with cardiovascular disease. This can be achieved by putting in place utilization management programs that have physician reviewers assess the medical need and suitability of patient treatments. These programs can additionally involve patient education, care coordination, and planning for discharge to guarantee that patients receive the proper care and follow-up after discharge. Policymakers can also use these findings to support appropriate usage management decisions and lower healthcare costs related to hospital readmissions (Friedman & Basu, 2004). For instance, legislators might create reimbursement models that reward healthcare providers for prioritizing wise utilization management choices and cutting back on needless healthcare use.

The findings of these retrospective cohort studies need to be confirmed by additional research to determine whether the findings are generalizable to other contexts. Future research could investigate how effective utilization management choices affect patient outcomes and decrease hospital readmissions (Harrison et al., 2011). Qualitative research can also identify implementation and sustainability issues by examining patients’ and healthcare professionals’ perceptions of usage management initiatives.

Summary and Synthesis of the Evidence

According to the three pieces of data in this synthesis, wise utilization management choices can considerably lower readmission rates and enhance patient outcomes in cardiovascular disease patients. According to the first Canadian study (Harrison et al., 2011), appropriate usage management decisions were linked to reduced readmission rates than improper utilization management decisions. Age, multiple disorders, length of stay, and type of cardiovascular disease were all characteristics linked in the study to hospital readmissions. The results of the second American study showed that patients with poor utilization management decisions had a considerably higher readmission rate than those with good decisions.

Due to their retrospective designs and the possibility of bias or subjectivity in the evaluations of utilization management decisions, both studies had drawbacks. However, the studies offer essential information about the potential advantages of sensible utilization management choices in lowering readmission rates and enhancing patient outcomes in people with cardiovascular disease. These findings have implications for society, governments, and healthcare providers since they can help guide initiatives to raise the standard of treatment and lower costs. Confirming these results and determining whether they apply to other circumstances will require more investigation.


Nurses have many challenges when adopting changes in clinical practice due to the slow diffusion of information nurse researchers create. However, the diffusion literature offers valuable suggestions for fostering and disseminating change within the healthcare setting. The diffusion of innovations model by Rogers offers methods and ideas that make organizational and individual responsiveness to medical standards and practices more understandable. The adoption of medical innovations can be accelerated and expanded via diffusion ideology. The most vital source of energy and incentive for bringing innovation in healthcare practices to improve health outcomes is the spirit and motivation of the nurses. Health care needs leaders who understand innovation and how it spreads, who value variety in change, and who, using the most outstanding social science as a guide, can nurture innovation in all its rich and varied guises to create a future that varies from the past.


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Appendix A: Evaluation Table

Evidence Citation Design Sample Outcomes JHNEBP Appraisal Rating
Wickizer and Lessler (2002) Analysis of literature The study analyzed a total of 84 pieces of literature. The researchers further examined the effects of utilization review on 77 mental health patients, 79 pediatric patients, and 33 cardiovascular patients. The analysis results show that utilization review is used in authorizing outpatient care, especially pre-admission reviews, and to authorize continued hospital stay. It reduces care costs and inappropriate medical care. Different case management forms focus on optimizing clinical management and managing high-risk patients to reduce costs.

Physical gatekeeping is the third form of utilization management, a central feature of managed care. However, a study has shown that physician gatekeepers compromised the physician-patient relationship.

The study also shows that utilization management reduces admissions, costs, and stays.

The study also relates utilization review to increased readmission rates within 60 days after discharge.


The literature analysis analyses secondary data from different sources and thus reducing bias and conflict of interest.


Current utilization management programs are not designed to minimize administrative burdens and improve healthcare quality.


Level IV-B

Evidence Citation Design Sample Outcomes JHNEBP Appraisal Rating
Desai et al. (2017) Quality improvement study All adult patients above 18 years.


The study occurred at Los Angeles County plus the University of Southern California Medical Center at its emergency department.

The retrospective study took place between September 2011 to December 2013.

Findings: The study shows that Utilization Review reduced the inpatient admission rate to 12.8 % from 14.2 %. The practice also increased the patient discharge rate to 83.4% from 82.4 %. The study also found that the emergency department unit utilization rose from 2.5 % to 3.4 %. The study associate utilization review with a third-day revisit, which increased from 20.4 % to 24.4% by the 30-day admission rate decreased from 3.2 % to 2.8 %. The study further indicated a cost saving of $ 193.17 per emergency department visit.


The study relates utilization review, a utilization management approach, to patient readmission rates.


The study is a single-centre study and involves a public hospital with patients with limited access to primary care.

A coding error may influence the results, and data were analyzed by mouth.


Evidence Citation Design Sample Outcomes JHNEBP Appraisal Rating
Lessler and Wickizer (2000) Financial evaluation study 4326 out of 39117 reviews were obtained from 3195 patients with cardiovascular disease. 42 % of the reviews (1513) were requests for surgery, and the remaining 58 % (2813) were requests for admission.


Data were obtained from a private insurance company between 1989 to 1993.

Findings: 10% of the medical admission has a stay reduction of one day, 7% of two days, and more. The overall result shows that utilization review has readmission and length of stay reduction by 60 days. However, there is no association between restricting the length of stay and 60-day readmission.


This is a retrospective study, and its analysis is from a relevant and trusted source. Additionally, the study shows the relationship between utilization management (UM) and admission and length of stay reduction.


The study was conducted in a single insurance facility, and the results may not be generalized. The study is also based on cardiovascular patients, and thus it cannot be generalized to other specialties.


Level V-B

Role Of Decision-Making In Economic Growth Essay Example


In today’s economy, where everyone is always worried about themselves, some organizations work to uplift the global world economy. When it comes to those organizations working as a well-oiled machine, it all depends on the art of decision-making of the company or the organization’s leader. The leader, the C.E.O. of any company, is responsible for making sound and effective decisions, eventually leading to efficient productivity. In today’s hi-tech and progressive business market, every organization has to stay on top of its game. New startups and innovations happen every day, and the contemporary style of education leads to the further shaping of minds that are the reason for amazingly unexpected inventions that can potentially change the world. In this scenario, the rising companies with fresh ideas must always put their best foot forward. For example, an I.T. firm facing fierce competition from its competitors must adopt a suitable and powerful marketing strategy that would defend its position in the market and help it outgrow its competitors. A firm has to make sure they hire a bunch of talented people who have the perfect knack for the departments they are going to be working in. Then after the election, the company should ensure that they provide them with proper and healthy quality training about the work and market environment. This will give as well as motivate them to train themselves to get new and advanced development opportunities within the firm and come up with unique and more extraordinary innovations that would help the company to put its best foot forward with new products into the market. This report aims to evaluate how far measures and factors such as decision-making affect the growth of the global economy.

How enhanced decision-making processes support economic growth

Global economic growth is a group project in which every person is a participant; every single person has their responsibilities towards global economic growth. Every single decision a person makes somehow affects the world’s financial status. Although, the central responsible powerful bodies that take the lead in the responsibility of making sure the global economy’s growth is working at an acceptable pace are mostly government bodies and big companies that have a substantial financial impact globally. For example, Tesla, an automobile company founded by Elon Musk, has had a significant impact on the global economic status, also, the company SpaceX, also known as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation, which manufactures space aircraft, found by Elon Musk as well in 2002, which works on the agenda of establishing life and colonization on Mars, has a significant impact on the global economy (Li, Y., Louri, A. and Karanth, A., 2022.), and many more companies like Amazon, Gucci, Chanel, etc., have a significant impact on how much earth makes. Effective decision-making is a challenging and crucial part of any company’s progress; this process is responsible for deciding whether the company is going upside or downhill (Alsharif, A.H., Salleh, N.Z.M. and Baharun, R., 2021). The decision-making process involves evaluating the collected data and then deciding on a further plan to execute the same in a way that would uplift the company financially and reputation-wise. Good decision-making helps the company in identifying the areas they can expand their business to and also identify the internal spaces to work on; this would also help in monetary management, which would give a brief idea of how to manage cost-cutting or reducing costs (Chen, S., Chen, H., Ling, H. and Gu, X., 2021). Likewise, good governmental decision-making could benefit the ruling party in understanding the country or citizens’ wants and needs. Also, a process of sound decision-making would help the government identify the systematic issues they could be facing and tackle them beforehand. Good decision-making also helps an organization or a company keep the rules and regulations strict and followed, reflecting employee performance. Decision-making is usually the leader’s job role; for this responsibility, the leader should be absolutely qualified and should know plenty about the line of work they are in (Mudra Rakshasa, A. and Tong, M.T., 2020). Therefore, enhanced decision-making leads to better performance of the organization, whether government or any. Good decision-making reflects the quality of the leader, that is, usually the C.E.O. of the company; they are responsible for making good decisions without being biased toward anyone, not even themselves, a decision that would reflect well on the company and would help it perform better in the market game. Government bodies can use good decision-making as a tool or opportunity to understand and analyze the increasing level of unemployment and poverty and then make some good decisions to counterattack those issues (Gillingham, P., 2020). In M.N.C.s, good decision-making could do wonders as it helps the leaders to obtain good statistics on their work and help them to understand what area they lack attention to and then allows them to put in intelligence where it’s needed. This helps the companies increase sales, popularity, and customer demand.

How improved operational efficiency contributes to economic growth

Every company needs an efficient work plan to help them achieve their target every time. Consistency and efficiency are the two most essential factors for companies, government bodies, and even real life (Mazzocco, K., Masiero, M., Carriero, M.C. and Pravettoni, G., 2019). Good decision-making would help a company through the problems and guide it to make a good and effective marketing or dealing plan. Still, consistency and efficiency would allow them to stay consistent until they achieve their goals. Consistency means staying rigid throughout the process until the destination arrives, that is, staying through thick and thin. Efficiency means having the right resources and putting in the correct hard work until it reaches the goal. Improved efficiency, that too operational efficiency, is a significant factor in the industrial field. The improved efficiency factor enables the company to operate more efficiently and produce more benefits from the input (Aragón, T.J., Cody, S.H., Farnitano, C., Hernandez, L.B., Morrow, S.A., Pan, E.S., Tzvieli, O. and Willis, M., 2021). Improved operational efficiency would help the company or the organization process by reducing cost-cutting and producing more profits. These factors generated by the improved operational efficiency would help the company or the organization in obtaining greater increasing profits, and more investment both in the company or the organization and the economy which would eventually lead to greater investments in the global economy; all these processes would ultimately result in increased and growth of the global economy. The company could adopt different integration to increase their efficiency in the field to eventually have an increasing shift in profits. The company or the organizations can adopt A.I., that is, Artificial Intelligence, to make the company more efficient technologies; Ai, that is, artificial intelligence, could be a great part of the company or the organization, as it would be responsible for the protection of companies and its protection, this would help the company reduce costs of the 70% of the technical staff required, and this would eventually lead to a greater level of profits. Another option to improve the company’s efficiency could be the adoption of the automation tactics in the company. Automation basically refers to the process of replacing human labors with machinery labors. As the machines would take over the work that human employees used to perform, there would be no need to generate paychecks every month, which would eventually result in greatly reduced costs for the company, and machines would never take holidays, so the work would stay continued no matter what. The Automation upgrade of any company would be extremely beneficial to the business approach. The production and delivery part of any company or organization plays a crucial role when it comes to efficiency. Supply chain management is the crucial department to handle, but it is a very important part of operational efficiency. By managing the supply chain, businesses and governments can reduce costs on their manufactured goods and can attract more customers as a result of an amazing level of efficiency. The process of improving the operational efficiency could also be the process of multiple surveys done across the country. To get reviews and suggestions or recommendations about the company and its manufactured goods, which would help the company understand the wants and needs of the public and would align their production and performance according to the wants and needs of the company.

The role of innovation and new business models in economic growth

The role of innovation and new inventions in the market field is a very crucial and important factor. If innovations and inventions stop to happen, then the whole global market would shut down, and there will be no more new things to buy, no evolutions to look forward to. In today’s world, humans are not the only thing on this planet that are evolving, automation and technology are evolving than humans. Innovations and inventions are basically the development of new ideas and, based on that, new machines or any product good. This factor is extremely crucial and useful to the developing company or even the pre-existing. Customers get bored of the market very easily; the customer nature is to tend to look for something new when the pre-existing goods get old and rusty, and nobody else wants them (Guenette, J.D., Kenworthy, P.G. and Wheeler, C.M., 2022). Innovation, inventions, and new business models and tactics are essential leaders or, could say, drivers of global economic growth, as they create and promote new and fresh opportunities for both businesses and customers (World Bank, 2020). Innovation and inventions consist of the development of new procedures, ideas, products, goods and services, and processes that makes the company able to make their businesses meet the changing trends of needs of consumers and obtain new market games and conditions (Hu, C.P., Lan, Y., Macrae, C.N. and Sui, J., 2020). Innovation and inventions can be divided or categorized into many different parts, like incremental, which means increasing; disruptive; and radical, which means total new innovations and inventions. Incremental innovation involves the process of inventing and innovating new ideas slowly at a normal pace and making small improvements in the manufacturing process. Also, making significant and efficient improvements in the pre-existing goods and services manufactured by the company while the disruptive innovations and inventions consists the making of brand new products and services, innovating extremely new products that would disrupt the market (Ibn-Mohammed, T., Mustapha, K.B., Godsell, J., Adamu, Z., Babatunde, K.A., Akintade, D.D., Acquaye, A., Fujii, H., Ndiaye, M.M., Yamoah, F.A. and Koh, S.C.L., 2021). The launch of new products that are similar to some pre-existing ones don’t make much of an impact, but the ones that are new and rare create a huge impact on the market, that attract more customers and creating a huge reputation on the market, which attracts more investments, while disruptive innovation involves creating new products or services that disrupt the existing market. Additionally, there is one more type of innovation, and that is called radical innovation or radical inventions, which means radical innovation involves the creation of entirely new products, services, or industries that transform the market. This type of innovation or invention usually turns out to be the biggest turnover in the market. Not only the company that came up with the radical innovation get the profit which eventually generates resources for the global economy, but it also inspires other companies to make products like that and even come up with their own radical innovations or inventions (Stapleton, P., 2019). This chain of innovation and inventions keeps the market in high demand and keeps the heavy monetary flow going, which eventually reflects on the global economy and helps it in growing (Onyeaka, H., Anumudu, C.K., Al-Sharify, Z.T., Egele-Godswill, E. and Mbaegbu, P., 2021). The innovations of the new products also create a large space for the chances of an increasing economy, new and hi-tech products would require a team of highly skilled employees who are on top of their games.

The impact of global interconnectedness and collaboration on economic growth

There are lots and lots of primary benefits of interconnectedness and collaboration of the market and businesses but the most major and important one is the allowance it provides the businesses and market sector to grow. When markets collide or collaborate, there thousands of employees share their ideas together, and then the majority of them come up with a brilliant idea that eventually converts into a disruptive or radical innovation or invention (Maital, S. and Barzani, E., 2020). Collaborations and interconnectedness is a very important traits or processes for S.M.E.s, that is small-scale business owners that are yet to establish their names. They can collaborate their brand with a bigger and more famous one to gain popularity and showcase their talent and production to the customers, which would eventually attract customers of their own instead of the collaboration (Schwab, K., 2021). A legendary example of interconnectedness and collaboration is the Nike and Michael Jordan collaboration. The brand Nike is one of the largest, most famous labels in the world. Inspired by the Greek Goddess of Victory, Nike, the brand attracts all kinds of customers and produces goods suitable for every one of them. The factor that the brand name is very memorable and easy to pronounce plays a huge role in its impact on the industry. Self-improvement has always been a great process in achieving success of any kind, whether it’s about personal growth or any organization’s upliftment. The firm could put light on the areas where employees lack resources and upgraded talent and work on the improvement of that area. Pinpointing the areas of work and outing more resources and effort to fix them can be a huge help to the company’s performance (Mou, J., 2020). The brand Nike has a brand value of $50.2 B. Nike’s relationship with Michael Jordan resulted in immense success, and that led the brand to design ‘Air Jordan 1 Shoes’. This collaboration was found extremely favorable in the sales field and recognition for the brand. Since Michael Jordan has been one of the most legendary basketball players of all time and basically is worshipped by the people, Nike decided to form an interconnectedness and collaboration with his brand name and came up with the most wanted and legendary shoe line called NIKE AIR JORDAN. Nike also formed many side brands with this brand name, like Converse and many more. This collaboration lifted the economic status of the brand Nike to a different, and Nike has a huge impact on global economic growth, as the brand is celebrated worldwide. This collaboration resulted in an extremely high financial spike in the economic status of the brand Nike. Global interconnectedness and collaboration could result in new big radical innovations and inventions. These innovations and inventions could get together and develop clean energy solutions, reduce carbon emissions, and address other environmental challenges (Ozili, P.K. and Arun, T., 2023). By collaborating in this way, they can depend and use each other’s expertise and resources to find innovative solutions for horrendous problems that benefit both the economy and society as a whole.


In conclusion, the art of decision-making is an extremely crucial part of maintaining the level and pace of the growth of the global economy growth (Leiva-Leon, D., Pérez-Quirós, G. and Rots, E., 2020). Each and every single decision made by a person somehow affects the world’s economic status. Although the main responsible powerful bodies that take the lead in the responsibility of taking care and making sure the growth of the global economy is working at a fine pace are mostly government bodies and bog companies that have a huge financial impact globally Humphrey, C. and Verdery, K. eds., 2020). Therefore, enhanced decision-making leads to better performance of the organization, whether government or any. Good decision-making reflects the quality of the leader, that is, usually the C.E.O. of the company; they are responsible for making good decisions without being biased toward anyone, not even themselves, a decision that would reflect well on the company and would help it perform better in the market game. Good decision-making would help a company through the problems and then guide it to make a good and effective marketing or dealing plan, but consistency and efficiency would help them to stay consistent in the process till they achieve their goals. Consistency means staying rigid throughout the process until the goal arrives, that is, staying through thick and thin. Efficiency means having the right resources and putting in the correct hard work until it reaches the goal. Improved efficiency, that too operational efficiency is a major factor in the industrial field. The improved efficiency factor enables the company to operate more efficiently and produce more benefits from the input. Improved operational efficiency would help the company or the organization in processing by reducing cost-cutting and producing more profit. Good decision-making would help a company through the problems and then guide it to make a good and effective marketing or dealing plan, but consistency and efficiency would help them to stay consistent in the process till they achieve their goals. Consistency means staying rigid throughout the process until the goal arrives, that is, staying through thick and thin. Efficiency means having the right resources and putting in the correct hard work until it reaches the goal. Improved efficiency, that too operational efficiency is a major factor in the industrial field. The improved efficiency factor enables the company to operate more efficiently and produce more benefits from the input. Improved operational efficiency would help the company or the organization in processing by reducing cost-cutting and producing more profits. Government bodies can use good decision-making as a tool or opportunity to understand and analyze the increasing level of unemployment and poverty, and then make some good decisions to counterattack those issues. Every company needs an efficient work plan which would help them to achieve their target every time. Consistency and efficiency are the two most major important factors when it comes to companies, government bodies, or even in real life. Good decision-making would help a company through the problems and then guide it to make a good and effective marketing or dealing plan, but consistency and efficiency would help them to stay consistent in the process till they achieve their goals. Another option to improve the company’s efficiency could be the adoption of the automation tactics in the company (Gunawan, F., Santoso, A.S., Yustina, A.I. and Rahmiati, F., 2022). Automation basically refers to the process of replacing human labors with machinery labors. As the machines would take over the work that human employees used to perform, there would be no need to generate paychecks every month, which would eventually result in greatly reduced costs for the company, and machines would never take holidays, so the work would stay continued no matter what. The Automation upgrade of any company would be extremely beneficial to the business approach. The production and delivery part of any company or organization plays a crucial role when it comes to efficiency. Supply chain management is the crucial department to handle, but it is a very important part of operational efficiency. By managing the supply chain, businesses and governments can reduce costs on their manufactured goods and can attract more customers as a result of an amazing level of efficiency (Domínguez-Escrig, E., Mallén-Broch, F.F., Lapiedra-Alcamí, R. and Chiva-Gómez, R., 2019.).


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Social Justice And The American Road Free Sample

The notion of the American road has long symbolized progress, opportunity, and the pursuit of the American Dream. However, beneath this idealized representation exists a complicated and frequently unfair reality. As the nation addresses the challenges of the 21st century, it becomes more evident that social justice issues infiltrate every facet of American existence. From education and health care to housing and civil rights, the American road is filled with obstacles and injustices disproportionately impacting marginalized communities. This critical inquiry project explores the connection between social justice and various elements of American life, contending that extensive reforms and grassroots activism are crucial to establishing a more equitable society.

While the United States has made considerable progress in recent decades in tackling social injustices, the American road remains uneven and perilous for numerous citizens. Enduring inequality, discrimination, and limited access to vital resources continue to exacerbate disparities that undermine the principle of equal opportunity for everyone. In the face of these obstacles, social justice becomes a moral imperative, requiring community action and reflection on the social institutions perpetuating inequality.

This paper will examine how social justice affects American education, healthcare, and housing. Through critically analyzing these areas, this project intends to illustrate the need for sweeping reforms and grassroots activism to develop a more equitable society. This paper aspires to motivate action and contribute to ongoing efforts to create a more inclusive and just America by exposing the systemic issues underlying social injustice.

Thesis statement: The American road, as a metaphor for progress and opportunity, is fraught with obstacles and injustices; this critical inquiry project examines the relationship between social justice and various aspects of American life, such as education, health care, and housing, demonstrating the need for comprehensive reforms and grassroots activism to create a more equitable society.

Historical Milestones on the American Road

Civil Rights Movement and the Civil Rights Act of 1964

The American road has seen many historical landmarks influencing the country’s growth and prospects, especially social justice. The Civil Rights Movement, which ended racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans, was significant. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 changed US civil rights law (Aiken, Salmon, and Hanges 383).

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a direct reaction to the long-standing racial inequity and prejudice encountered by African Americans on the American road. It ensured equal access to public services, employment, and education (Aiken, Salmon, and Hanges 386). According to Aiken et al., President John F. Kennedy laid the framework for the civil rights bill in a series of speeches throughout the summer of 1963. Still, his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, championed the law after Kennedy’s killing (388). Johnson advocated for the Civil Rights Act, claiming it would serve “as a monument to Kennedy” (Aiken et al. 388).

The Civil Rights Act, as submitted to the House of Representatives, originally solely featured racial equality measures. However, an amendment to include sex-based protections was proposed (Aiken et al. 388). This amendment prompted disagreement among House members, with some claiming that it was improper or would prejudice white women (Representative Griffiths 1964; Representative Green 1964). Despite these reservations, the House passed the Act with the gender addendum, reflecting the historical link between African American civil rights and women’s rights (Aiken et al. 388).

The 1964 Civil Rights Act recognized the need for change and showed how public action might achieve social justice. The Act emphasized the interconnectivity of many types of inequality and the significance of having a holistic approach to social justice on the American road by tackling both racial and gender discrimination.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 and its Impact on Funding Allocations

The passing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which attempted to eliminate legal hurdles that prohibited African Americans from exercising their right to vote, was another critical milestone on the American road. The Act prohibited discriminatory practices, including literacy exams and poll levies intended to disenfranchise Black persons (Cascio and Washington 381). This law not only increased democratic involvement but also had a significant influence on the distribution of state finances by shifting power relations and resource distribution among diverse communities.

The impact of the Voting Rights Act on financial allocations is most apparent when looking at state and municipal governments. Before the Act, racially discriminatory voting practices sometimes resulted in disproportionate resources going to predominantly White neighborhoods (Cascio and Washington 381). However, with the passage of the Act, previously marginalized groups gained a stronger voice in the political process, resulting in a more equitable distribution of state funds. According to Cascio and Washington, this shift in financing patterns has far-reaching ramifications for social justice since it helped to redress historical imbalances in education, infrastructure, and public services across various racial and ethnic groups (382).

Following the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965, black voter registration rates skyrocketed, especially in southern states that had previously used literacy tests as voting barriers (Cascio and Washington 381). Martin Luther King Jr. emphasized the significance of voting rights as a foundation for broader social and political change, stating, “With it, the Negro can eventually vote out of office public officials who bar the doorway to decent housing, public safety, jobs, and decent integrated education” (qtd. in Cascio and Washington 381). Consistent with Dr. King’s prediction, the Voting Rights Act’s enfranchisement of black communities increased incentives for state elected officials to direct resources toward these communities, as they now had the power to influence election outcomes. This adjustment in resource distribution contributed to addressing past inequities and promoting social fairness on the American road.

Despite significant progress since the passage of the Voting Rights Act, the American road remains paved with challenges. For example, recent disputes over voter identification laws and gerrymandering show that the fight for voting rights and equal resource allocation is ongoing (Cascio and Washington 425). These continuing problems underline the need to maintain efforts to protect democratic participation and ensure that all individuals have an equal voice on the American road.

Contemporary Challenges and Progress on the American Road

Education, Health Care, and Housing as Social Justice Issues

Despite the achievements along the American road, modern society still faces significant challenges in critical areas such as education, health care, and housing. These concerns are essential in the quest for social justice because they directly influence people’s quality of life and overall well-being.

Racial and educational disparities remain, preventing fair access to learning opportunities and resources (Harrison and Clark 230). One aspect of this issue is the underrepresentation of minorities in physical education, which is not only a necessary component of a well-rounded education but is also necessary for fostering healthy lifestyles (Harrison and Clark 231). According to Harrison et al., “swiftly shifting demographics are one of the driving forces for social justice in all areas of education—including physical education” (236). The origins of this issue may be traced back to the age of segregation, which established structural hurdles to equitable educational opportunities for minority populations (Harrison and Clark 232). Addressing educational disparities is critical to ensure that all individuals fully participate in and benefit from the American road. In keeping with the thesis statement’s demand for complete changes, society may strive to deconstruct structural obstacles perpetuating inequality by adopting policies that enable fair access to education and resources.

Another significant social justice problem is healthcare access since disparities in coverage and services disproportionately impact low-income and minority communities (Ohlson 2). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) took an essential start toward resolving this problem by increasing coverage and prohibiting discriminatory insurance practices (Blumenthal, Abrams, and Nuzum 2451). According to Donaldson, “the American healthcare system is predicated on the belief that the poor and ‘unworthy’ of our society do not deserve decent health” (104, qtd. in Leon-Guerrero 2019:67). Despite the ACA’s progress, disparities in health care access continue, necessitating additional policy changes and grassroots activism to ensure that all citizens have access to quality care (Ohlson 2). The history of healthcare access in the United States has been characterized by uneven development, with repeated efforts to adopt substantial changes being greeted with opposition from strong interest groups (Ohlson 3). This history emphasizes the significance of ongoing campaigning and policy reform to ensure that access to health care remains a priority on the American road.

A third area in which contemporary society confronts social justice challenges is housing. Affordable housing and homelessness have far-reaching consequences for people and communities (Donaldson and Yentel 103). State policies and budget allocations are crucial in addressing these issues, with initiatives like affordable housing programs and homelessness prevention efforts aiming to provide more equal living circumstances for all residents (Donaldson and Yentel 104). However, as Cascio and Washington’s research on the impact of the Voting Rights Act on state funds demonstrates, the fight for equitable resource distribution in areas such as housing continues (379-433). Housing policy in the United States has a complicated interaction of federal, state, and municipal initiatives and the effect of social movements and grassroots engagement (Donaldson and Yentel 105). This history serves as a reminder that progress on the American road involves legislation reforms and the ongoing participation of people and communities in working for social justice.

Grassroots Activism and Community Engagement in Social Justice

Throughout the history of the American road, grassroots activity and community participation have been vital elements in the fight for social justice. These efforts have shaped the direction of numerous movements, and their perseverance is critical to the continued search for a more equitable society.

Historically, grassroots activism has been critical in accelerating change on various social justice concerns (Pettinicchio 499). These bottom-up campaigns have organized individuals to demand change, frequently in the face of strong resistance from entrenched interests (Pettinicchio 501). Grassroots activism has been especially powerful when formal political avenues have been unresponsive or inaccessible, providing an essential vehicle for oppressed people to express their concerns and campaign for their rights (Pettinicchio 503).

The strength of grassroots activism stems from its capacity to organize disparate constituencies while instilling a feeling of collective identity and unity among participants (Pettinicchio 505). These movements often form due to common experiences of injustice, and they depend on the participation of people from varied backgrounds to gain support and momentum (Pettinicchio 507). According to Pettinicchio, “social movement activity and conventional political activity are different but parallel approaches to influencing political outcomes, often drawing on the same actors, targeting the same bodies, and seeking the same goals” (506, qtd. in Goldstone 2003, 8). Grassroots movements may overcome obstacles and push progress on the American road by uniting people around similar objectives and establishing a feeling of shared purpose.

Community participation is an essential component of social justice activities. It complements grassroots activism by encouraging collaborative problem-solving and instilling communal responsibility for tackling societal concerns (Pettinicchio 506). In many situations, community engagement programs arose in reaction to the shortcomings of top-down policy formation and implementation methods, which often need to account for local communities’ specific needs and viewpoints. Pettinicchio contends that social and political change may come from the bottom and the top, emphasizing the role of movements within the larger political process (506).

Social Movements Paving the Way Forward on the American Road

The LGBT Rights Movement

Through grassroots activism, legal advocacy, and public awareness campaigns, the LGBT Rights Movement has significantly promoted social justice on the American road, advancing the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. The movement’s efforts have resulted in significant progress in recent decades, but the continuing fight for complete equality underlines the necessity for sustained commitment and activism.

The history of the LGBT Rights Movement in the United States may be traced back to the mid-twentieth century when early groups like the Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis were formed (Weston 253). These trailblazing organizations established the framework for the present movement, lobbying for greater visibility and the rights of LGBT people at a period when homosexuality was criminalized, pathologized, and highly stigmatized (Weston 255).

LGBT activists employed increasingly forceful methods to fight institutional discrimination and repression after the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City (Weston 258). Over several decades, the movement decriminalized homosexuality, removed “homosexuality” from the American Psychiatric Association’s list of mental disorders, and passed many local, state, and federal anti-discrimination laws (Wuest 338-339).

The 2015 US Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges that same-sex marriage is constitutional was a massive victory for the movement (Wuest 342). LGBT rights won a major victory with this verdict, advancing the fight for full equality on American roads. Weston (255) states that the “Great Gay Migration” of the 1970s and 1980s brought LGBT persons to major cities, including San Francisco, seeking “gay space.” This migration underlines the importance of visibility and community in fighting for LGBT rights.

Despite these achievements, the LGBT Rights Movement faces significant social justice challenges. Transgender individuals are harassed, assaulted, and killed at alarming rates (Wuest 346). In recent years, high-profile judicial challenges have centered on transgender people’s rights to use toilets and other facilities that match their gender identification (Wuest 349). The continuous struggle for social justice by the LGBT Rights Movement emphasizes the significance of grassroots activism, community participation, and legal advocacy in pushing progress on the American road. Activists and supporters may contribute to guaranteeing that the American path is one of opportunity and equality for everyone, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity, by continuing to advocate for the recognition and protection of LGBT rights (Weston 277).

The Feminist Movement

The American Feminist Movement has improved women’s rights and opportunities in school, jobs, politics, and family life. The movement showed that grassroots activism, legislative lobbying, and public awareness initiatives could shift gender norms. However, the fight for gender equality emphasizes the need for ongoing activism.

Each wave of the US Feminist Movement had its aims, techniques, and concerns (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 243). Feminism’s initial surge, from the late 1800s through the early 1900s, focused on women’s suffrage, culminating in the 19th Amendment in 1920 (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 245). The 1960s and 1970s second wave challenged societal norms and structures that perpetuated gender inequality, leading to advances in reproductive rights, workplace equality, and educational opportunities for women (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 247).

The 1990s third wave of feminism focused on intersectionality and recognized that women’s experiences and obstacles vary by race, class, and sexual orientation (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 249). This more inclusive approach has broadened the movement’s breadth and influence, encouraging more unity across varied groups of women and emphasizing the need for specialized solutions to address the unique issues faced by different communities (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 251).

The Feminist Movement has accomplished multiple critical milestones on the American path to social justice throughout its history. These include landmark legislation such as Title IX, which prohibits sex discrimination in education, and the Equal Pay Act, which aims to eliminate the gender wage gap (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 253). The movement was also essential in increasing awareness about gender-based violence and lobbying for stronger survivors’ rights, culminating in the passing the Violence Against Women Act in 1994 (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 255).

Despite these achievements, the Feminist Movement faces significant challenges in pursuing gender equality. The persistence of gaps in pay and representation in leadership posts, continuous arguments over reproductive rights, and the prevalence of gender-based violence all highlight the need for sustained engagement and participation in this arena (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 257).

We may better understand the role of grassroots activity, policy lobbying, and public awareness campaigns in achieving social justice on the American road by studying the Feminist Movement’s history and triumphs and its current problems. We may also gain significant insights into the techniques and approaches needed to achieve gender equality and guarantee that the American path is one of opportunity and justice for everyone, regardless of gender (Elder, Greene, and Lizotte 259).

Future Directions for Social Justice on the American Road

As we examine the history and present of the American road, it becomes clear that much work remains to be done to ensure a more equitable future. Policy improvements and reforms may be critical in resolving modern society’s persistent social justice concerns. We can identify essential goals and techniques for achieving social justice on the American road by reviewing suggestions and recommendations from experts in education, health care, housing, and social movements.

Educational researchers have noted a need for policies that encourage more equality and inclusion in schools. Such approaches include increased financing for under-resourced schools, the development of culturally relevant curricula, and growing inexpensive early childhood education programs (Forsyth 760).

Policy improvements in health care should strive to enable universal access to high-quality, affordable care for all Americans, regardless of poverty, ethnicity, or location (Montiel 245-269). This could include strengthening ACA provisions, expanding Medicaid coverage in states that have not yet done so, and implementing measures to address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education (Montiel 260).

Housing experts have emphasized the need for policies that promote cheap housing and prevent homelessness (Alamer et al. 198-206). This could include more affordable housing, stronger tenant protections against eviction and discrimination, and more permanent supportive housing for chronically homeless people (Alamer et al. 202). LGBTQ+, women’s, and racial justice movements will shape public opinion, organize communities, and push for local, state, and federal legislative reforms.

The American road as a metaphor for prosperity and opportunity depends on our ability to recognize and address today’s social justice issues. We can create a more equitable society that fulfills the American dream by making major policy changes in education, health care, and housing and supporting grassroots and social movements. We shall fight for social justice and uphold the American values of democracy, equality, and human dignity (Forsyth 764; Montiel 269; Alamer et al. 206).

Engaging Various Stakeholders and the Role of Academia in Social Justice

As we continue to investigate the future paths of social justice on the American road, we must recognize the need to include many stakeholders in this attempt. This comprises people and organizations from many sectors, such as government, nonprofit, and private, as well as academia’s critical role in furthering social justice (Romero 1-30; Bell 3-26).

The academic community must actively participate in research and advocacy initiatives to address social justice challenges. One method is to reclaim and recognize the work of historically neglected sociologists who have contributed substantially to the discipline (Romero 22). “To begin such a project, we must reclaim our social justice traditions in sociology,” Romero contends, “which means rewriting Black sociologists back into our history, acknowledging their theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions” (22). This approach should not be restricted to the sociology of race or gender but rather acknowledge the contributions made by these researchers throughout the discipline’s different subfields (Romero 22).

Furthermore, academia can be essential in encouraging collaboration and dialogue among various stakeholders to promote social justice. This involves fostering partnerships among scholars, community groups, and politicians to create and implement evidence-based solutions to critical social justice concerns (Bell 3-26). When examining its role in perpetuating social injustices, the academic community should strive to be more critical and self-reflective. “We need to recognize that many of our sociology heroes and heroines have not always advocated for the dispossessed or denied agency to marginalized groups, and some have perpetuated patriarchy and white supremacy,” Romero writes (22). Acknowledging and fixing these historical flaws allows academics to significantly contribute to achieving social justice on the American road.


The American road, emblematic of advancement and potential, is undoubtedly filled with impediments and inequities. The Civil Rights Movement and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 have addressed these inequalities. However, racial gaps in education, healthcare, and housing persist, highlighting the need for ongoing efforts and comprehensive reforms to create a fairer society. Crucial social movements such as the LGBT Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement have been instrumental in challenging established norms and advocating for transformation. It is vital to involve diverse stakeholders, including academia, to encourage discourse, cooperation, and the formulation of evidence-based solutions to social justice matters. By cultivating alliances among researchers, community organizations, and policymakers, academia can assist in promoting social justice on the American road.

Ultimately, the American road is a shared journey, requiring dedication to addressing the systemic obstacles that impede progress and perpetuate inequalities. As we persist in traversing this route, we must learn from our past, engage with present-day challenges, and strive to build a more equitable and just society for all. Only through such combined efforts can we genuinely actualize the promise and potential of the American road.

Works Cited

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Alamer, Abdullah Rajeh. “CSR’s Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility Practice in Islamic Banking: A Review.” International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, vol. 5, 2015, pp. 198–206.

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