The Importance Of External Factors Affecting An Organisation Commerce Sample College Essay

In an administration there are several factors influence the growing and public presentation of the administration. There are some factors which are influence the organisation can be controlled by the direction but some factors are beyond the organisation direction control. The factors which are controlled by the administration known as internal factors and factors which are beyond the direction control known as external factors such as Political, economical, societal and proficient factors. For illustration apple iphone 4 engineering factors affected their concern because of the technological job, FSA regulative alteration made on impact to several Bankss with punishments and mulcts because of their ordinances in non obliged by the fiscal establishment. Therefore the external factors are more of import to the administration public presentation.

This essay analyses the importance of the external factors and how they impacting an administration, demands and outlook of different stakeholders of an administration and due to major alterations in external environment how the scheme of the administration will impact through analyzing the TATA Group Organisation in India.

The administration external environment consists of force and factors that affect the administration in positively or negatively. Further in item the external environment consists two classs which specific and general or volatile and non volatile environment. Specific or Volatile environment comprise of four factors which are clients, providers, rivals and public force per unit area groups. These factors straight influence the managerial determination, the organisational ends, construction and targeted groups of clients.

India has the 2nd universe largest population in the universe next to China. Therefore any of the concern will look at these two states scheme to plan their International concern scheme to be effectual and sufficient to capture the large market. But compare to China, India has more chances with the ecological values. It is in the center of Indian Ocean, the clime of the state, behavior of the people towards manner and new engineering.

TATA GROUP has operations in every major international market. They have concerns in Africa, Asia Pacific, China, Europe, Middle East, North America, South America and United Kingdom.

Each operating company in the group develops its international concern as an built-in component in an overall scheme, depending on the competitory kineticss of the industry in which it operates. For some concerns a focal point on the domestic Indian market remains the precedence. For others it is developing a robust presence in neighboring markets. And so there are Tata companies, a little but turning figure, that have planetary aspirations.

Exports from India remain the basis of the TATA Groups international concern, but different TATA companies are progressively puting in assets overseas through green field undertakings such as in South Africa, Bangladesh and Iran, joint ventures in South Africa, Morocco and China and acquisitions.

Acquisitions are important constituent of the planetary enlargement of TATA endeavors. Over the past eight old ages the group has made abroad acquisitions of $ 18 billion. Among the bigger trades on this forepart have been Tetley. Brunner Mond, Corus, Jaguar and Land Rover in UK, Daewoo Commercial Vehicles in South Korea, NatSteel in Singapore, and Tyco Global Network and General Chemical in

Indian political relations

Political factors involve alterations in the planetary economic system and rise in life criterions would finally connote an addition in demand for merchandises thereby, supplying greater chances for concerns to do net incomes. An economic system witnesses fluctuations in economic activities. This would connote that in instance of a rise in economic activity the demand of the merchandise will increase and hence the monetary value will increase. In instance of decrease in demand the monetary values will travel down. Business schemes should be developed maintaining in head these fluctuations. Other economic alterations that affect concern include alterations in the involvement rate, pay rates, and the rate of rising prices. In instance of low involvement rates and increase in demand Businesss will be encouraged to spread out and take hazards. Therefore, concern schemes should hold room for such fluctuations.

There is a democratically elective authorities in topographic point in India and that contributes to an ideal political clime for foreign investors

This refers to the alterations in authorities and authorities policies. Political factors greatly influence the operation of concern. This has gained important importance of late. For illustration: companies runing in the European Union have to follow directives and ordinances created by the EU. The political sphere has a immense influence upon the ordinance of concerns, and the disbursement power of consumers and other concerns. Business must see the stableness of the political environment, authorities ‘s policy on the economic system etc.

There is a democratically elective authorities in topographic point in India and that contributes to an ideal political clime for foreign investors.

Cultural considerations: impact on concern

These factors are related to alterations in societal constructions. These factors provide penetrations into behavior, gustatory sensations, and lifestyles forms of a population. Buying forms are greatly influenced by the alterations in the construction of the population, and in consumer life styles. Age, gender, etc all determine the purchasing forms and understanding of such alterations is critical for developing schemes which are in line with the market state of affairss. In a planetary environment it is of import that concern schemes are designed maintaining in head the societal and cultural differences that vary from state to state. Consumer faith, linguistic communication, lifestyle forms are all of import information for successful concern direction.

The civilization of the state is ne’er crystalline, yet it extends about every facet of life and influences the picks of its people, whether in nutrient, vesture, or autos. Culture besides mediates concern relationships, whether it is a relationship-intensive joint venture or a less intensive and low-involvement manner of making concern in foreign environment, such as indirect exportation.

Harmonizing to Aruna.C, Pradeep A nut Al ( 2002 ) , for marketing communications to be effectual, this natural philosophies distance between the marketer ‘s civilization and the purchaser ‘s civilization needs to be minimized.

Legal systems in India for concern

These factors that influence concern schemes are related to alterations in authorities Torahs and ordinances. For a successful concern operation it is of import that the concerns consider the legal issues involved in a peculiar state of affairs and should hold the capableness to expect ways in which alterations in Torahs will impact the manner they must act. Laws keep altering over a period of clip. From the point of position of concern it is of import that they are cognizant of these alterations in the countries of consumer protection statute law, environmental statute law, wellness & A ; safety and employment jurisprudence, etc.

When making concern in India, it is of import to recognize the being of some indispensable economic Torahs. There are equal legal systems that favour investors in come ining and put to deathing adhering contracts. Banking and recognition Torahs provide regulations for acquiring credits and protects investors. Commercial and company Torahs help get downing Business and Protects investors. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ? economyid=89 )

Mintzberg H & A ; Quinn J B ( 1996 ) stated that, “ Corporate scheme is the form of determinations in a company that determines and reveals its aims, intents, or ends, produces the chief policies and programs for accomplishing those ends, and defines the scope of concern the company is to prosecute, the sort of economic and human organisation it is or intends to be, and the nature of the economic and noneconomic part it intends to do to its stockholders, employees, clients, and communities. ”

Customers are people who generate net incomes for or carry through the intent of the being of the organisation. Customers are an of import factor as they can assist to advance or make consciousness of an organisation by word of oral cavity. Hence this peers to free promotion ensuing in more net incomes but no excess dollar spent. The Soup Restaurant therefore has to keep criterion of hygiene, better nutrient quality and service efficiency to bring forth good promotion. The company is besides affected if there is a alteration in client ‘s penchant.

Suppliers refer to people or organisations supplying financess or labor. Directors need to understand this as a famine or hold in such supply or inputs can adversely impact the organisation.

Technological factorsA greatly influence concern schemes as they provide chances for concerns to follow new inventions, and innovations. This helps the concern to cut down costs and develop new merchandises. With the coming of modern communicating engineerings, technological factors have gained great drift in the concern sphere. . Huge volumes of information can be firmly shared by agencies of databases thereby enabling huge cost decreases, and betterments in service. Administrations need to see the latest relevant technological promotions for their concern and to remain competitory. Technology helps concern to derive competitory advantage, and is a major driver of globalisation. While planing the concern schemes houses must see if usage of engineering will let the house to fabricate merchandises and services at a lower cost. Firms can choose new manners of distributions with the aid of engineering. It has become easier for companies to pass on with their client in any portion of the universe.

Expectations of stakeholders of an administration

Stakeholders include those persons, groups, and other organisations who have an involvement in the actions of an organisation and who have the ability to act upon it. The stakeholder attack consistently integrates executives ‘ concerns about organisational scheme with the organisation ‘s involvements in selling, human resource direction, public dealingss, organisational political relations, and societal duty. This integrative position assumes that an effectual organisation scheme requires consensus from a plurality of cardinal stakeholders about what it should be making and how these things should be done. By measuring each stakeholder ‘s possible to endanger or to collaborate with the organisation, directors ‘ may place supportive, assorted approval, non- supportive, and fringy stakeholders. The 1989 work stoppage at Eastern Airlines illustrates these different types of stakeholders. An analysis of the instance underscores the importance of four generic schemes for pull offing different stakeholders. The instance besides demonstrates that executives should utilize an overarching scheme to alter relationships with stakeholders from less favorable classs ( e.g. , not supportive ) to more favorable 1s ( e.g. , assorted approval )

Changes in the external environment & A ; scheme

Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, one of the largest scheme consultancies in the universe, and Tata Strategic Management Group ( Tata Strategic ) , the largest Indian owned direction confer withing house in South Asia, have today announced an confederation.

This confederation combines Tata Strategy ‘s matchless apprehension of the Indian market with Roland Berger ‘s experience in international markets, to supply a complete scope of services to clients in India and overseas. This is the first formalistic cooperation between a major international scheme confer withing house and a domestic consultancy in India.

This confederation will enable both houses to offer Indian companies new high-end services necessitating specialized or international experience. The confederation will back up international houses in their enlargement programs in India and big Indian houses be aftering to develop in Europe, China and Japan. The two companies will besides seek to jointly develop new markets, including West Asia, South-East Asia and Africa. ( sectid )

Diversification Schemes: In variegation Strategy, Mintzburg H & A ; Quinn JB ( 1996 ) mentioned as, “ Diversification refers to the entry into some concern non in the same concatenation of operation. It may be related to some typical competency or plus of the nucleus concern itself ( besides called homocentric variegation ) ; otherwise, it is referred to as unrelated or conglomerate variegation ” .

Strategic acquisition for new concern entry:

Tata Strategic recommended a bargain option based on a really strong strategic tantrum with the client ‘s aspiration to be the No 1 private telecom services supplier in India. An attractive acquisition monetary value was arrived at based on a elaborate physique versus bargain analysis.

The client won the acquisition command by a thin border and is now a taking telecom operator offering incorporate services in the Indian market. ( & A ; Ethics/ )

IT and Innovation scheme

Lynch R ( 2006 ) says, “ Invention contributes growing, competitory advantage and the possibility of leapfrogging major competition. However, invention can be hazardous and can ensue in major company losingss ” .

There are two major drivers for invention: client demands analysis frequently called market pull and engineering development analysis frequently called engineering push.

Besides Lynch R ( 2006 ) says that, “ Disruptive invention takes an bing market demand and identifies bing engineerings that will offer simpler, less expensive merchandises or services than have been offered antecedently ” .

Innovation and Information Technology ( IT ) promotion has been one of the major schemes that India companies have used to accomplish planetary laterality in over 110 states. Harmonizing Kumar ( 2001 ) the Indian package industry for illustration recorded a monolithic compounded one-year growing rate of over 50 per centum in the 1990s from estimated entire gross of US $ 175 million in 1989/90 to US $ 5.7 billion industry by 1999/2000. In this period, the industry recorded 70 % rise in gross from exports numbering us $ 4 billion.

Kumar ( 1997 ) identified the authorities of India ‘s deliberate policy of easing smart-partnerships between local and foreign companies in developing the industry. The TATA group has taken advantage of this policy and in its planetary enlargement it has prioritized invention as a key to its growing. The following have been TATA ‘s specific schemes: –

1. Prioritization of Innovation as the Key Driver for Success

A figure of enterprises have been launched by the company to distribute the message of invention and recognize pioneers:

Tata Group Innovation Forum ( TGIF ) : This enterprise aims to convey together a community of ‘innovation partisans ‘ from across Tata companies. The chief function of TGIF is to help different companies in experimenting with thoughts, propagate the relevant 1s and spread them through the endeavor.

Invention workshops: The group ‘s Quality Management Service invites experts to speak about assorted facets of invention and portion best patterns with Tata directors. Clayton Christensen, Langdon Morris and David Wittenberg are among those who have held such workshops in the recent yesteryear.

Tata Innovation Day: The Company has created an one-year invention twenty-four hours which aims to promote originative thought and awards invention among Group companies.

2. Partnering with top universities

Kumar ( 2001 ) argues that one of the schemes the company has been utilizing is to spouse with top universities such as Harvard Business School, INSEAD, CEDEP and Michigan Business School in research to develop new engineerings and invention to drive its concern in India and internationally. The Tata Group has been puting in constructing outstanding research installations and hammering partnerships with academic and research organisations which have encouraged originative thought and happen advanced solutions that improve the quality of their merchandises.

The Nano auto is one illustration, of a undertaking which has been done in with the coaction with academic establishments as is the Eka supercomputer ( developed by another Tata company ) , which in 2008 was ranked the universe ‘s 4th fastest. Anchored in India and wedded to traditional values and strong moralss, Tata companies are constructing transnational concerns that will accomplish growing through excellence and invention, while equilibrating the involvements of stockholders, employees and civil society.

3. Use of Joint Ventures: Huchet J. F and Ruet.J ( 2006 ) argue that as agencies of capturing and maintaining abreast to planetary technological promotion and tendencies, TATA has entered in joint ventures with international companies. By this TATA argues that a batch of accomplishments and expertness has been transferred into the company. Examples of joint venture enterprises by the company are as follows: –

TATA Motors: the company has created ties with the Institute of Engineering, SPA ( Italy ) , nachi Fujikoshi Corporation ( Japan ) , Le Moteur ( France ) , and Robert Bosch GmbH ( Germany ) . Others are Cummins Engine Company Inc ( USA ) for TATA Cummins, Holset Engineering Company ( UK ) for TATA Holset, and TATA preciseness Industries ( Singapore ) , Nita Company ( Bangladeshi ) .

TATA Auto Comp Systems: Technology affiliations with Chuo Spring Company ( Japan ) and Menzolit Fibron ( Germany ) .

In the building industry it has spouse with Hitachi Construction Machinery Company ( Japan ) , John Deere ( USA ) and Pauling & A ; Harneishfeger ( USA ) .

TATA Info tech: For the development of information systems it has formed confederations with Unisys, Compaq, Sum Systems, IBM, CISCO, Baan, Oracle, Tandem, Microsoft, MapInfo and Unilpex.

TATA Technologies: This Company has partnered with SAP Asia systems, Microsoft Corporation, Compaq Corporation, structural Dynamics Research Corporation, Knowledge Technologies International, Sage International Asia Pacific, IBM Corporation and Oracle to better engineering in the TATA group. Huchet, J. F & A ; Ruet.J ( 2006 ) , Kumar, N ( 2001 ) ,

Productiveness and Marketing Strategy:

With the big population size of India, investors will happen inexpensive labor and addition greater economic systems of graduated table and increase productiveness.

Tata ‘s scheme is chiefly focused on creativeness and finding solutions for the complex jobs faced by CEO. Tata is besides chiefly focused on demands of the client by offering improved and differentiated merchandises. Tata focal point on the client demands and productiveness is designed harmonizing to its demands and wants.

Labour productiveness: – Tata used a alone scheme in commanding the labor by apportioning functions, duties and activities to all the four classs of workers such as white neckband, lasting, day-to-day labors, contract workers across sections.By presenting this scheme it can happen out whether the activities performed added value or non and several productiveness betterment techniques in order to cut down work force ( http: // )

Productiveness in quality confidence: – Tata used four chief schemes in order to run into the client ‘s aims and ends. It is done by upgrading accomplishment and cognition in order to make full the spread of important country.So this is done by adding more work force that are qualified and efficient. New regulations and duties should be redefined for the quality confidence of the merchandise so merely the employee will concentrate on the long term merchandise and procedure betterment. Manpower is reduced by utilizing the modern engineering by upgrading the engineering. ( http: // )

Advanced Marketing Scheme:

Armstrong/Kotler ( 2005 ) argues, “ The rule of invention selling requires that the company continuously seek existent merchandise and selling betterments. The company that overlooks new and better ways to make things will finally lose clients to another company that has found a better manner ” . Armstrong/Kortler ( 2005 ) .

Marketing schemes of Tata: -Tata is concentrating on latest engineerings and invention to drive its concern in India and internationally. For illustration nano auto introduced by Tata, Tata motors schemes which are non used in an adventuresome to media mercantile establishments but to utilize them in an adventuresome ways. Tata did n’t implement any telecasting runs alternatively they largely relied on advanced usage of printed media, wireless musca volitanss and the cyberspace. . ( http: // Examiner~y2009m6d14-Marketing-strategies-of-Tata-Motors-made-public )

Strategic Analysis/SWOT Analysis

Thompson, A. A & A ; Strickland A J ( 2003 ) pointed out swot analysis as, “ It is ever incumbent on direction to measure the organisation ‘s public presentation and advancement. It is direction ‘s responsibility to remain on top of the company ‘s state of affairs, make up one’s minding whether things are traveling good internally, and supervising outside developments closely. Subpar public presentation or excessively small advancement, every bit good as of import new external fortunes, will necessitate disciplinary actions and accommodations in a company ‘s long-run way, aims, concern theoretical account ; , and/or scheme ” . Thompson, A. A & A ; Strickland A J ( 2003 p19-20 ) .

Mintzberg, H. & A ; Quinn J. B ( 1996 ) mentioned, ” The execution of scheme is comprised of a series of sub-activities which are primary administrative. If purpose is determined, so the resources of a company can be mobilized to carry through it. ” Mintzberg, H. & A ; Quinn J. B ( 1996 p49 ) .

SWOT Analysis: Lynch R ( 2006 ) argues the grind analysis in this manner excessively. “ This is an analysis of the strengths and failings present internally in the administration, coupled with the chances and Menaces that the administration faces externally ” . and “ Generic schemes are the three basic schemes of cost leading, distinction and focal point ( sometimes called niche ) open to many concern ” .

The chief strengths of the Tata Group are resources and capablenesss ( People and Raw Material ) , huge experience ( Steel and Automobile ) and the concern theoretical account. The chances are the new markets, exports and acquisitions. The group requires get the better ofing the failing ; such as distribution, value concatenation invention and macro environment, in order to function the planetary markets with high quality and low monetary value. Within the place state the menaces are developing due to the India ‘s recent amalgamations of planetary markets and in planetary markets.



Micro Environment

Business theoretical account

Resources and capablenesss



Value Chain


Macro Environment



New merchandises

New Markets

Acquisition and Mergers


Free Market

Law barriers

Globalization of Economy

Beginning: Johnson G. , Scholes K. , and Whittington R ; ( 2005 ) , hypertext transfer protocol: //


TATA Group has taken advantage of these chances in India and have expanded in India and adult worldwide. Tata has benefited from big inexpensive labor available in India and have enjoyed greater trade of economic systems of graduated table and increased productiveness. It has applied invention scheme successfully to capture a greater portion of the India market.

India has equal legal ordinances that protect investors and authorities liberalisation policies for foreign investors which make India economic system potentially safe for international companies to come in.

With the size of population and the growing rate of India economic system, India ‘s demands will transcend 10s of one million millions of dollars in the old ages in front therefore it would be prudent if companies adapt the India scheme and come in the market with the right merchandises, services, and committedness.

Base on the successes of TATA Group and the big entire trade between US and India in 2008 of $ 63.63 billion, we can reason by holding that “ No big international concern can afford to make without the India Strategy ” .

Red Robin Marketing Promotions

Red Robin Restaurant


The paper is related to Red Robin Restaurant which has been operating for a very long time. In this paper we will discuss several approaches the Red Robin Restaurant can take in order to increase its Sales.

Company Profile

Starting as a tavern in 1940 Red Robin restaurant, a specialist in gourmet burgers has expanded over the years as one of the successful kid and family restaurants in US. It has around 420 outlets all over the country. The company has its own unique style of making delicious burgers and establishing a connection with its customers (Red Robin, n.d.).


Our marketing company has planned to devise a promotional plan for Red Robin. An effective and well thought plan can surely pull the sales upwards further. The objective behind this campaign will be to persuade the existing customers in order to built long term relations with them and inform the potential customers.

The first step towards this campaign would be to segment the market for this restaurant because based on that further analysis and positioning could be done and educated decisions can be made. By classifying the customers it makes it easier to utilize the best of marketing efforts on the right people and achieve goals. After that the Swot analysis will be done that would outline the strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the company. Such analysis will help in allocating the resources to the weaker and stronger areas of the company.

Current promotional activities of Red Robin

About the promotional research of the company the following information was found out. As it is known that having a good taste and food quality is not all that is required to become a successful restaurant. Customer relationship management and making a connection with them is equally important. The food, the ambiance and the service is what makes a good place to dine in and Red robin completely understands this fact as the company has its own way of making their customer feel special through their bridled acts (Hisrich, 2000).

Role of employees

The company has an energetic team of members all over the outlets who work hard and are dedicated towards living up to the core values of the company that are honor, integrity, continuous knowledge and in the end not to forget having fun. These values are ingrained on their uniform sleeves in order to remind them of their duty all the time.

The company believes that each and every employee is part of the marketing team such as the kitchen staff because that chef is not merely chopping the mushrooms, he has to see that how would the customer use it therefore they are involved in the research team of the company too because their feedback and involvement is as important as the managers of the team.

The advertising budget/strategy

Most of the advertising budget of the company is spend on the print and the radio ads which they believe are not the strategies but only tactics because the real marketing that takes place is within the restaurant itself. The company does not spend too much on broadcasting ads on television. Broadcasting ads cannot promote all the range of burgers being offered by the restaurant and this is important when one has to advertise to the new customers who don’t know about it, like opening an outlet in a new area. The company uses push promotional strategy by making use of its work force to uphold and market the brand. They believe more on public relations. All this is to increase brand loyalty among the customers who should choose them over the rivals and make repeated purchases (Kaynak, 1993).

Integrated marketing communication is a management process where all the aspects of marketing are consistent and the experience related to a brand to a customer is relevant. The employees at Red Robin tend to support the company to build and recognize the brand. It is the duty of the server to give good service to the customers and educate them on the related menu and the promotions. As the employees work together they develop a team spirit and communication skills and the ability to counter stress related problems. The team members as part of their duty promote the regional and national campaigns in order to boost the sales of the company (Ward, 2009).

What needs to be done based on the current market position

As the restaurant industry has grown larger firms are increasing their budgets on advertising in order to widen the gap between their smaller yet rival firms. Places such as Panera Bread Co., the bar chain Buffalo Wild Wings Inc., Darden restaurant Inc.’s have increased their allocated budget for the time being in order to make television ads and other campaigns where as dine in places such as Red Robin has cut down their advertising expenses in order to hold back during the recession period. These days due to recession the amount of consumer spending on dines in restaurants is relatively falling back. These causal dinning places such as Red Robin can increase its sales if they promote their offers of such as “all you can eat offers”, and other attractive deals that can attract customers, such as buy two and get one free and many more.

Restaurants that are cutting back on the budgets right now will have a fall in the sales in the future too. This is because when there is very little difference in the menus of restaurants and they are selling more or less the same then the restaurant has to differentiate on the kind of deals and variety and other services they are offering to the customer. Customer is the king; therefore customer satisfaction is the most important aspect of marketing which comes from the integration of all the elements of marketing (Guiltinan & Paul, 1985).

Red Robin can bring more variety into their menu such as offering different and new flavors of ice cream. Not only bringing good deals is enough but promoting them is also as important. The company will invest more on the TV ads because large audience can be targeted by doing that. Apart from that the weekly magazines, newsletters and newspapers is what they have already been doing. The TV ads need to be attractive and tempting. The 30 seconds should be able to convey the message to the masses. All this depends on the amount of advertising budget that the company would allocate for itself. If they have substantial amount then they can offer their place for some TV show that would give promotion to the restaurant, however this would require a lot of budget. The reality shows today have become a good way to promote brands and they have been effective too (Mercer, 1996).Similarly Red Robin needs to do the some thing like this. Offering the customers loyalty cards, memberships, and benefits of dining more frequently are always welcomed by the customers. The prices will be competitive because customers tend to come to you for lower rates rather than going to the competitor for the same quality of food.


Red Robin already has a brand name in the restaurant industry and this could be seen by the new openings that the restaurant has been doing lately. The business is growing all over the nation which means there is something unique about the brand that is making customers come back again so the advertising budget will be increased relatively. In such cases the pull factors become important since we are targeting the mass market and they are an effective tool to communicate with the customer. In planning a promotional campaign the organization of resources is very important. This is only possible when you are clear about your goals and current state in the market. If the above mentioned changes are implemented effectively then Red Robin is sure to see a changing trend in its sale.


Guiltinan, J. P & Paul, G W (1985), Marketing Management: Strategies and Programs. McGraw-Hill

Hisrich, R D. (2000), Marketing. Barron’s Educational Series

Kaynak, E (1993), The Global Business: Four Key Marketing Strategies. Haworth Press

Mercer, D (1996), Marketing. Blackwell Publishing

Red Robin (n.d.) History. Retrived on March 9, 2009 from

Ward, S (2009) Marketing, Available from <>, retrieved on 21st February’09


Figures Of Speech In Robert Burns ‘ A Red, Red Rose’ Analysis

            Figures of speech are very effective means of conveying emotion in poetry.  However, these tools should not be used without purpose otherwise, a piece of poetry becomes more confusing because figures of speech, when used appropriately, serve to make poetry less ambiguous and more accurate in conveying the intentions of the poet.  In Robert Burns’ “A Red, Red Rose” there is a profusion of similes and hyperboles to intensify the emotion of love in the poem.

            Similes are identified with the signal words “like” and “as”, and these figures of speech are normally used in poetry to liken an abstract concept to a concrete representation.  In the beginning of the poem, the simile, “Oh my luve is like a red, red rose, / That’s newly sprung in June:” (1-2) for instance likens love which is an abstract emotion to a rose.  In this case, the simile is used to make the abstract idea more tangible and more material for the reader so that when the reader sees a red rose he/she would remember the emotion of love, or in some cases, it may be the other way around.  Another simile, “Oh my luve is like the melodie, / That’s sweetly play’d in tune.” (3-4) still refers to the abstract emotion of love, but this time implies that there is harmony in love; that two people in love should share the same emotions and intentions, hence, the likening of love to a melody that is ‘played in tune’.  Other than these three similes that refer to love, there are no other similar figures of speech in the entire poem as the tone also changes, because from describing the kind of love that the voice in the poem is feeling, the voice moves on to describing what he/she is ready to do for the subject.  In this aspect, the more effective figure of speech would be the hyperbole.

            The hyperbole, loosely translated, means to exaggerate.  The hyperbole is normally used to express an intensity that is not easily expressed by comparison or superlatives.  In effect, the hyperbole expresses intensity in emotion that is beyond what is measurable.  Quite similar to the simile in the intention of expression, the hyperbole is also sometimes used to express an abstract concept of measurement.  So, in the hyperbole, “And I will luve thee still, my dear, / Till a’ the seas gang dry.” (7-8) the voice wants to convey the duration of his/her love for the subject, and to show that this duration will never end, or will last for eternity, the voice expresses this duration in the time it would take for all the seas to grow dry; which, quite truthfully, is when the world ends, and that is a time that nobody can accurately pin-point.  This hyperbole is complemented by the lines, “And the rocks melt wi’ the sun; / And I will luve thee still, my dear,” (10-11) which expresses the same exaggerated duration as was earlier expressed.  Surprisingly, while the poem is pervaded with more similes and hyperboles than normal, another figure of speech appears in the next line, the metaphor.  The metaphor is, very simply, a simile without the ‘like’ and the ‘as’.  The purpose of this particular figure of speech is to express a contrast or a parallel instead of a likeness.  The line, “While the sands o’ life shall run.” (12) is a metaphor that expresses how time contrasts with sand that steadily and regularly trickles.  Time acts in the same way, and so the metaphor is accurate; it being true on both the literal and the metaphorical level.  The poem, as expected, ends with another hyperbole in the lines, “And I will come again, my luve, / Tho’ it were ten thousand mile!” (15-16) Here now, one sees that the hyperbole no longer expresses duration but distance.  The voice exaggerates the distance to show that he/she does not care how far he/she must go to be together with his/her loved one.

            The textual evidence in this piece very accurately demonstrates the effects of similes, hyperboles, and metaphors in poetry.  In this particular piece by Robert Burns, the figures of speech used served to intensity the emotion of love by concretizing it and by expressing the boundlessness of the actions that a person in love would go through in the interest of his/her loved one.

Works Cited

Burns, Robert. “A Red, Red Rose.” N.p., 2003. Web. 27 July 2010.



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