The Influence Of Frank Sinatra On Modern Music Essay Example For College

Introduction

One of the most influential figures, and perhaps one of the most popular, in the music industry was Frank Sinatra. He had not only dominated the entertainment world for the longest time, he was also a familiar figure in almost every aspect of the American culture. But what made Sinatra dominate the music industry? Why was he so popular that his name appears in every book related to the history of popular music? Certainly, Sinatra had the charisma and the voice that attracted the audience. But these were not the only reasons why he had been so influential in the music scene. Sinatra had introduced to the entertainment world something that set him apart from the rest of his contemporaries. His style and attitude in singing was what made him remarkable and was his contribution that has forever changed the music industry.

Sinatra and His Music

Sinatra started his career in singing as a vocalist for the James band but gained popularity when he joined the Tommy Dorsey band. However, in 1942, Sinatra left the Dorsey band and continued his career as a solo artist. The music industry was dominated by big bands during the 1930’s and the 1940’s with the vocalist usually being just another part of the band—that is the emphasis usually lies with the band, not the person who is singing. When Sinatra came to the industry, the emphasis slowly began to shift from the band to the vocalist. While the decline of the big bands could be attributed to the musician’s strike in 1942-44 and as a consequence of the World War II, Sinatra had been influential into bringing the vocalist in the limelight. Much was the success of Sinatra in the music scene that even when the big band’s popularity began to decline in the late 1940’s he continued to become popular as a solo artist. No longer did the vocalist need to have a popular band to succeed, he or she could now enjoy a following as long as there is a proper and respectable musical accompaniment. This, again, set Sinatra apart from his contemporaries. Even as a solo artist, he maintained a strong musical connection with his accompaniment.

Sinatra’s appeal and showmanship had helped him gain popularity. He appealed not only for the adults to whom music was composed and performed before, but also to the young. As a result of his appeal, new audiences were revealed and a different presentation of themes and subject in musical composition were thus introduced. His appeal to the bobby-soxers has earned him to be the first singing teen idol. He has, in fact, the first to provoke a mass hysteria among the female audiences, young and old, in a way that has never before been experienced in popular music, and which only a few, like Elvis Presley and The Beatles, could have. Even if we believe that others have become more popular than he, none of them has remained popular for as long as Frank Sinatra—he had become popular before the others, and his popularity survived them all. Having been a celebrity for almost six decades, Sinatra was able to adapt to the changing times and was able to appeal with each new decade.

His appeal was backed up with talent and sincerity with every performance he makes. His ability to groove—that is, the proper execution of rhythm within the pulse—is a big part that distinguishes Sinatra from any other singer. He had determined and started the idea that the key to swinging is more dependent upon where the singer stops notes than where the notes are started. The fact is Sinatra has introduced a lot of new ideas that has forever changed singing, some of which were objected by critics. As an example, Sinatra was criticized as being irreverent to when he occasionally replaces the word ‘the’ for the word ‘that’ in the lyric of a song. However, experts suggests that there is musical intention in doing so in that the latter word could groove more into the rhythm of a song than the word former. Using the latter would also give the song more clarity since it has a clearly defined meaning. Furthermore, as the latter is a word with a short sound, it can be accented and punctuated in ways that the word ‘the’ could not. It must be noted that Sinatra only does this when the meaning of the song is not altered. Being able to mix long and short sounds allowed him to give lyrical emphasis to certain words. This is why, as according to David Finck, “Frank Sinatra was perhaps the one of the first vocalists of the twentieth century to develop the ability to communicate American popular songs to listeners in their most complete form—the music and lyrics presented simultaneously—without ever sacrificing the importance of one for the other. He integrated and balanced swing, tone color, phrasing, diction, and intonation in a way that created unequaled performances… Attack, delay, diction, phrasing and vibrato are among the tools he used to fuse with his musical surroundings. However, it was undoubtedly his sense of rhythm that proved to be his most powerful tool” (10). John Collis, in his book The Complete Guide to the Music of Frank Sinatra, backed this up stating that “Sinatra put great stress—literally—on clarity of diction. He enunciated the ends of words rather than chewed them off. This helped to give his work its intimate, conversational, even confessional character” (9).

Sinatra’s understanding of music is perhaps what made him a great singer. That was his talent. But his talents were emphasized more with his stunning performances. He was the first who viewed himself as a creative singer, often regarding the microphone as his instrument, not merely using it as a prop. He had a vision of what singing could be and strove to perfect his style and capture the hearts of audiences of each generation. His passion and dedication to music set him apart from even the most talented of his contemporaries.

Other singers were more concerned about their voices rather than their delivery of the songs. Sinatra was perhaps guilty of this when he was just starting his career. However, he had developed his style as to deliver his songs as if he were living it. He already had the voice to begin with, but there were others, perhaps more gifted, in terms of the quality of voice, than he was. But none of his contemporaries were as talented as him in performing. His breathing technique reinforced his voice and greatly improved the quality of his singing. New York Times stated that Sinatra “had learned to breathe in the middle of the note without breaking it. He was the first popular singer to use breathing for dramatic effect, and learned to use his microphone to enhance his voice.” Collis stated that Sinatra’s “His legato technique, holding a note, bending it, shading it into the next, eliding a sequence together without apparently pausing for breath, was in itself a departure” from how singing was previously performed (6). Much was his singing technique that he touches the hearts of his audience, singing as if he was telling a story, placing his pauses accordingly. John Turner, in his book Frank Sinatra, summarizes how Sinatra has captured the heart of his audience: “The charismatic magic of Sinatra made him the entertainer supreme on any stage. What made the magic? It was an inner incandescence that could glow or blaze. He actually became each song he sang. He assembled his whole being and projected it to us complete. He articulated our aspirations and defined our emotions… an incredible quality was there—the phrasing, timing, inflection, control, and sheer living spirit” (2).

Not only did Sinatra display his supremacy in a characteristics display of performance on stage, he also delivered carefully arranged and compiled albums. He was one of the first to introduce concept albums. His albums usually compose of songs with themes which characterize the exhilarating highs of romance and the profound lows of loneliness—but mostly of loneliness. Chris Rojek explained that Sinatra used the introduction of the 12-inch long-players to develop a concept or narrative line.

Conclusion

Frank Sinatra has introduced some new concepts that had changed the way singing, and therefore music, was presented. His breathing technique, diction and phrasing, and the way he presents his songs through his singing performances, through gestures, facial expression and the use of the microphone, were effective in stirring the audiences’ emotions, singing as if he was living the story that the song presents. His popularity was such that it shifted the focus of music from the band that plays the accompaniment, to the one who is singing. Sinatra had also pioneered thematic albums and has introduced a new album experience by so doing.

Frank Sinatra is widely held to be the greatest singer in American pop music and was the first modern pop superstar. His popularity provoked mass pandemonium, in much the same way that Elvis Presley or The Beatles were greeted and treated by their fans. His tender romanticism and the freshness of the way he presented his songs attracted audiences of different ages.

The praise that Sinatra receives for his music may be overstated, but what he did for the music industry is so significant that he ranks as one of the most influential singer’s in the history of American music. As Finck explained, “In music, as in any art form, the exchange of ideas is fundamental to the learning process. The contribution that Frank Sinatra made to the education of musicians is more than substantial. His performances overflow with information that has educated generations of musicians… He offered a wealth of information from which future artists may grow” (13).

Works Cited

Collis, John. The Complete Guide to the Music of Frank Sinatra. London, UK: Omnibus Press, 1998.

Finck, David. “The musical skills of Frank Sinatra.” In Frank Sinatra: The Man, the Music, the Legend. Jeanne Fuchs and Ruth Prigozy eds. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2007

Rojek, Chris. Frank Sinatra. Malden, MA: Polity Press, Ltd., 2004.

The New York Times Company. 15 May 1998. “New York Times: Frank Sinatra Obituary.” 27 May 2008. http://www.arjazz.org/archive/obituaries/980516_sinatra.html

Turner, John Frayn. Frank Sinatra. Lanham, MD: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2004.

 

The Influence Of Mande Expansion

Historical Background:

Mande is one of the many diverse ethnicities of Western Africa. The Mandika is not to be confused with the Mande peoples for the Mandika is only a subdivision of the Mande. Proto- Mandekan evolved 1000 years ago in an area from Sengou in the north, to Niger in the south, to Falem in the west (Bird). Spanning the Western regions of Africa, Mande can be found in countries such as Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal. Once prosperous kingdoms, the Mande influence has been palpable in language and culture of Mali, Songhai, and Ghana. The Mande language is derived from the Niger Congo language existent since around 4,000 B.C. (Meshesha).

Between 1100 and 1500, the Mande people implemented horses to conduct warfare and accomplished the expansion of their empire by mastering this martial technique. The Mande, as typical warrior people concentrated on horse cavalries. Horses also were used as a prime commodity for trade and transport, as a result dense networks of trade routes were forged which facilitated the growth and expansion of the Mande language. The origin of the horse warrior proceeded from the Arabs who were excellent warriors and industrious traders since the 8th century A.D. The horse warrior propagated the regions of West Africa and due to the rigid social hierarchy, a ruling warring elite arose which asserted claims to dominion. One Mande language, known as Bambara, is spoken by up to 3 million people in Senegal, Mali, Guinea, and Cote d’Ivoire. Other important Mande languages are Mende in Sierra Leone and Kpelle in Liberia. The Mande languages are believed to be the oldest offshoots of the parent Niger-Congo language spoken more than 5,000 years ago.

The Mande diaspora has birthed the expansion reaching several countries so that it becomes distributed to neighbouring countries. Kuranko and Kono are tribal groups residing in the forest areas of southern modern-day Mali and northern Guinea. Kissidougou emergence came about around 1630 however today the formerly inhabited areas of the Kissis are now considered Mande. The etymological amalgamations have arisen through the general nomadic patterns of the tribes and the prevalence of intercommunal commerce and warfare. Among the Kissi captives, the Mande were warlords hence one sees the simple imposition and adaptation of the victor’s language on the Kissi. The captives of the conquered societies were highly inclined to learn Mandekan languages in changing their social status from nonpersons to individuals associated with protectors and kin groups. The Lele is another variant of the linguistic sector of the Kissi. Lele has very strong connections to the Kono-Mandekan language. Although not prominent, the Lele and the Kono had established ties since the fifteen century. However in the 18th and 19th centuries, the strengthening of the Kuranko people uprooted them and forced them to move more southward of the Sahara. Upon conquest, the Kissi languages would adopt a Kuranko equivalent so that the Mende language becomes infused into Kissi and vice versa. The Maninka is another dialect of the Mande which originated with the horse warriors which pervaded West Africa for business and conquest.

v Greeting Expressions:

Balèka or Níwalí (Thank you)

Hakató (Excuse me)

Ise or Lawose (Hello or Greetings)

Wóní Walí (Congratulations)

Yandíí (Please)

Idííyo or Idííyale (Goodbye)

v Family Relations:

As in most African communities, the Mandekan peoples treasured a patriarchal system which gave precedence to the male therefore the family structure can only be understood in harmony under the gender-distributed roles. The concept of kulusijala legitimizes paternal domination and appropriation of the children so that the father has an advantageous claim for the children rather than the mother. Kulusijala prefers to surname the first two children after the father while the mother is only entitled to naming the third, sixth, and ninth child; as a consequence, the father has a 2/3 majority. The male’s role is that of breadwinner and due to the polygamous system, a man can wed several wives and father many children. This kulusijala system causes ambiguities on issues of right to inheritance since family rule is usually passed down among brothers rather than from father to son. The matriarchal concept, called kònòwolo, meaning the womb signifies the woman’s right over the children. However since the kulusijala philosophy take pre-eminence, the kònòwolo has had little influence. At his prime of life, the male-dominated ideology is in force, on the other side, when the patriarch of the family ages and begins to be in need of the care of his wife’s children, the female concept comes in. The female relationships between men can also feminise the male identity. A man can be recognized as the male ‘mother’ to his sister’s children, so that the bènkè, signifying maternal uncle, starts with ba (mother); therefore the term uncle is gendered female. The language of Mande contains some overtones of gender heterogeneity (Kone 2004). Another twin sex-based school of thought ruling the family is the sibling relationships: the badenya (mother-childness) and the fadenya (father-childness)

Commerce ; Number Terms:

The commerce of the Mande revolved around gold and iron mining due to the widespread influence of the smiths. In particular, Mali boasted rich deposits of gold so that it became of the wealthiest kingdoms of Africa. The smiths were the kings in society for they governed fishing and hunting, the main careers since these rely heavily on metal-wrought tools. A form of proto-Mandekan became a trade language, and the simplified rules of such language transformed into the norms for the whole society (Bird). The rise of the smiths in society takes place so that the demand was always high for men equipped with these specialties and seemingly inexhaustible resources. The importance of gold and iron commerce forged secret societies so that the secrets to success in these professions were guarded. Lying on the coastal areas, fishing also became another sought-after occupation. The economy was not agriculture-based.

1

kili?

2

fula

3

saba

4

naani

5

luulu

6

wooro

7

worowula

8

sey

9

kononto

10

ta?

11

ta? ni? kili?

20

muwa?

30

ta? saba

40

ta? naani

100

keme

1000

waala?

Fig. 1 The Number System of the Mande

http://www.sf.airnet.ne.jp/~ts/language/number/mandinka.html

Traders and smiths helped carry abroad the Mande linguistic ethic. History annals note that these specialized artisans moved to meteorological, geographic, and social reasons. Since the 1100s, the blight of drought and the search for raw materials for manufactured products stimulated mass movement. Implements produced by smiths and weapon terms are essential to life and livelihood since the Mande were a fierce group of hunters. Hunters were distinguished above the rest of members of society since they are the ultimate breadwinners. Hunter techniques become vital not only in capturing game but also in fighting warfare. Hunter implements are not simple tools. They were often made by very skilled artisans who would then permeate these magnificent tools with magical powers daliluw to ensure success. The hunter in Mande folklore is popular so that hunters are the highly praised heroes. Horns and stones are the raw materials of the implements. Since the Mande had male secret societies the circumcision tools with pointed ends. The binye or horn means any pointed projectile with the ability to cut sharply. Modern day bullets are translated as binye. In Proto-Mande, kaa is the term which means to cut and which also means respect. The word tege signifies the noun cut, and tege-na equates to cutting tool. These cutting tools were symbolic of the initiation process into manhood and warfare (McNaughton).

Music becomes an integral part of society since it is used for religious rites and in oral historical transmission. Music is one of the essential keys to power in society since the Mande peoples believed that music had a magical quality which could influence the gods. The sora are the musicians who would praise the feats of the hunters and the warriors. The sora are perceived as an imitation of the jelis of the Mali empire who played the kora or simbi harp-like instruments, told stories, and speechified. The bala, the xylophone is an instrument which was popularized around the Mali’s Sundiata era. The jembe drumming is another musical tool which served to call the village together, celebrate, or spur warriors and workers alike (Charry).

Kissi has borrowed some of its vocabulary from other Mande languages. A salient example is garden and vegetable garden.

Works Cited:

Brooks, George E. Ecological Perspectives on Mande Population Movement, Commercial

Networks, and Settlement Patters from the Atlantic Wet Phase (ca. 5500-2500 B.C.) to the present. Indiana University.

Brooks, George E. 1993. Landlords and Strangers: Ecology, Society, and Trade in Western

Africa, 1000-1630. Boulder, CO; San Francisco, CA; and Oxford: Westview Press.

https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/3270/Mande+-+George+Brooks.pdf;jsessionid=5C125773AEC98D60C0BF581610471880?sequence=1

Charry, Eric S. Mande Music: traditional and modern music of the Maninka and the Mandinka of

West Africa. University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Childs, George Tucker. A Grammar of Kisi: A Southern Atlantic Language. Mouton de Gruyter,

1995.

Hoeth, Sabine. Southern Samo Language Contact. University of Frankfurt, Germany. Nordic

Journal of African Studies 12(1): 57-77 (2003).

http://www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol12num1/sabine.pdf

Kassim Kone, Kassim. When male becomes female and female becomes male in Mande.

Wagadu Volume 1, Spring 2004

McNaughton, Patrick R. The Shirts that Mande Hunters Wear

https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/3289/shirts.pdf?sequence=1

McNaughton, Patrick R. The Mande Blacksmiths: knowledge, power, and art in West Africa

Meshesha, Million. C. V. Jawahar. Indigenous Scripts of African Languages. Center for Visual

Information Technology, International Institute of Information Technology,

http://cvit.iiit.ac.in/papers/Million07Indigenous.pdf

Rodney, Walter. A History of the Upper Guinea Coast 1545-1800. Oxford: Clarendon

Press, 1970.

Schaffer, Matt. Bound to Africa: The Mandinka Legacy in the New World. History in Africa,

Published by African Studies Association. Volume 32, 2005, pp. 321-369.

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/history_in_africa/v032/32.1schaffer.pdf

The Influence Of Quick Response Manufacturing

Introduction

Today, organizations use computers for complex yet routine business tasks (Schragenheim & Ptak, 2004). Examples of such systems are ERP, APS and Shop Floor Data Collection. All these software have separate modules to assist companies with specific business functions. However, they can be integrated together to provide even greater benefits in the form of efficiency, accuracy and performance enhancement.

Moreover, if a methodology to reduce lead times such as QRM is applied in an organization, these software can play a major role to complement it.

This paper will discuss the three mentioned technologies separately and identify their respective modules. Following this, the paper would analyze how they can be integrated together to gain maximum benefit. Moreover, this paper will highlight what Quick Response Manufacturing is, how it can be implemented and how it can be integrated with the three technologies. The potential benefits and roadblocks are also mentioned.

Enterprise Resource Planning Software – JD Edwards World A9.1

Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP is a software solution for organizations that allow them to integrate all the departments of the company so as to make information exchange and communication easy. It is different than software that were used earlier such as MRP in that it had relational databases, fourth generation languages, integrated computer aided engineering tools and open-system portability to integrate systems such as Advanced Planning and Schedule (APS) (Schragenheim & Ptak, 2004) software (as will be discussed in a later section). Organizations who adopt such solutions early on gain operational wnhancement, a competitive edge and new upgrade tools allows a lower overall cost.

One such ERP system is by Oracle, introduced in 2007 as Oracle’s JD Edwards World A9.1. This system provides over 1250 upgrades to gain operational excellence, enhance customers’ upgrade activities and minimize the cost and complexity that goes into integrations (TechNews, 2007).

Any ERP system has a number of modules that can be combined together considering the needs of the particular organization where it is being implemented. One module could be used for one functionality whereas another for a different functionality. These are then combined together to give an integrated package and hence, benefit. Some of these modules include (Glenn, 2008 pp. 74):

¨  Production Planning – Includes planning productions, capacity, forecasting and the availability of materials

¨  Inventory Control – Provides functions such as stock maintenance, moving finished goods and raw materials

¨  Sales Module – Facilitates with quotations, order entry, generating invoices, shipping, etc.

¨  Marketing Module – Generates leads, assists with marketing and maintains customer relationships

An example of module integration is that Production Planning can be integrated with Inventory Control. For instance, production planning will be carried out using information about the stock available.

Oracle’s JD Edwards World A9.1 solution additionally, in exception to existing modules, provides clients with Service and Warranty Management. This facilitates managing, identifying and implementing service and warranty contracts, enabling users to keep record of service contracts, take in returns for repair, carry out back or repair orders and effortlessly calculate the cost of these repairs and send it to the customer (TechNews, 2007).

There are some customers who wish to implement a service-oriented architecture (SOA) as an integration approach so that integration can be improved to create an adaptable Information Technology infrastructure. For such customers, Oracle’s JD Edwards A9.1 provides better extensibility and higher performance. Using this software, customers have a higher control over moving data between the solution itself and the many spreadsheets that an organization uses from sources such as APS or SDFC software.

The functionality mentioned above is especially useful in this scenario where this ERP solution by Oracle is to be integrated with two other software and ultimately with a Quick Response Manufacturing solution.

Advanced Planning and Scheduling Software – Preactor International

Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) software are solutions, as the name suggests, that facilitate planning tasks in all departments and devising production schedules. Such a solution typically comes with a number of software modules such as (Stadtler, 2008 pp. 110):

¨  Strategic Network Design – Assists with plant locations, new markets, etc

¨  Demand Planning – Allows estimations such as long-term demands or mid-term sales planning

¨  Demand Fulfillment – Allows short-term sales planning

¨  Master Planning – Synchronizes planning from all departments such as procurement, manufacturing, logistics on a mid-term planning level

¨  Production Planning – This may contain two different modules where one assists with lot-sizing and the second with manufacturing scheduling and shop floor control.

¨  Transport and Distribution Planning – Assists with short-term logistics planning

¨  Purchasing and Materials Requirements Planning – Helps with short-term procurement planning

All these modules are responsible for non-probabilistic planning. Planning tasks for different organizations may vary and according to their needs, specific modules are provided to them.

These modules may be called different names by different solution providers. Preactor International is the World Leader in Production Planning and Scheduling software used by a wide range of businesses. Case Studies show that the benefits that can be obtained after installation offer a return in investment measured in months, sometimes weeks (Preactor, 2010).

Preactor’s APS software called 400 APS has the added functionality to handle even more intricate scheduling issues and consider the restrictions that materials impose.  Orders for BoM (Bill of Material) will be created by most ERP systems.  It includes production orders and the bought-in materials.  These can be connected together using dedicated tools for it.  These connections are then used in the scheduling process in such a way that manufacturing orders that are dependent on certain materials are not scheduled till eery material they need acquired by the producing orders. For every material, there are plots available so that the timing of shortages that halt the manufacturing process can be identified (Preactor, 2010).

Preactor 400 APS provides other enhancements also that can be customized in the form of ‘rules’. For example, regular dispatching rules include rules that reduce the time to setup, minimize delayed orders, allow a desirable sequence, schedules bottlenecks and helps with campaigns (Preactor, 2010).

Preactor is created in such a way that it cam be easily integrated with other solutions such as ERP and Data Collections, etc.

Shop Floor Data Collection Software – RFgen Wireless Data Collection

A Shop Floor Data Collection software is responsible for collecting data regarding employees and products right off the shops. It requires lesser input than a manual system and helps with real time prioritization, correct job costing, real time status of the job and gathering information regarding payroll hours.

Specific to RFgen, the Relevant RF Data Collection Module makes use of the DataMAX’s RFgen program to collect data from both RF and non-RF devices and send to Relevant rapidly and flexibly through wireless communication. Moreover, the accuracy of the data is that of bar-code scanners. This module provides all the necessary support to validate order numbers, status and quantities. It formats records, and gives warning messages such as confirmation or error to the distant device.

The functions provided by this technology include Data Collection of Inventory, Purchase Order Receipts and Back Orders, Radio-frequency Input to maximize speed and flexibility, Bar-code Input for accuracy and Output (TechTarget, 2010) .

This product has some general features of Shop Floor Data Collection. In addition to this wireless Radio Frequency devices are provided by the software. It allows online updating of the databases, background processing, RF collection continuous during down time, validating data during import, provision of error and logic for reversals (TechTarget, 2010).

The RFgen’s Connectivity Suite allows easy integration with software such as World and Preactor.

Integration of Software

The modules for all the three technologies identified above can and should be integrated to make the most of them. They can be integrated so that they meet their clients’ requirements and organizational needs in the best possible fashion. All three World, Preactor and RFgen can be integrated to provide customized support for the client in question.

ERP and APS can be integrated so that users have the ability of working simultaneously using both solutions via two separate interfaces and a single database (Perrson & Olhager, 2007 pp. 181). When both these solutions are combined, the architecture in Figure 1 is what the integration of ERP and APS would look like.

Figure 1 Integration of ERP planning and transaction modules with APS (Source: Perrson & Olhager, 2007 )

This Figure shows that ERP planning and transaction modules can be integrated with the APS for improved planning techniques.  There are two separate interfaces, one for transaction and one for planning. The ERP planning module is linked with the APS planning module.

On the other hand, ERP integrated with the RFegn wireless Data Collection software is illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2 RFgen integrated with ERP (Source: DataMAX, 2009)

RFgen takes advantage of the strong networking procedures and tools of JD Edwards to integrate technologies in such a way that they are most competent, dependable, and cost-effective solutions for JD Edwards data collection. It is built using JDE/Net and JDE/Fat Client components, supports all data types, tables and structures. No additional third party middleware or server side code is required to integrate them (DataMAX, 2009).

Data collected regarding inventory from RFgen on the shop floor can be integrated with World’s Inventory Module to provide that module with real time information on how inventory data is changing on the shop floor. Sales, procurement and other decisions may be made according to this updated information available due to connection of the two software. On the other hand, data collected through RFgen regarding sales order shipments may be used to send information to the Transportation Module of APS to plan logistics of the goods.

Some may think that the functionality provided by Preactor or even RFgenn may overlap with that of an ERP system. This is not the case – the aim of integration is to further enhance performance. Generally ERP systems such as JD Edwards World provide functionality to facilitate the production process for MRP or material planning in the long run. In contrast and integration, Preactor is responsible for organizing production cycles thoroughly by planning the production/factory work load on a routine basis. As a result, production plans are spawned keeping in mind the limitations so that production efficiency can be maximized whereas re-order lead time can be minimized (Open Data, n.d.).

Moreover, many ERP systems wish to collaborate with a powerful and flexible tool like Preactor instead of developing their own APS solution (Open Data, n.d.). However, this is not the case for a powerful ERP system such as JD Edwards. It has its own Planning module available. However, it can be integrated with Preactor to enhance the planning tasks and other related processes.

APS Integration with products such as Preactor also supports real-time transactions between the APS products and other J.D. Edwards via the extended Process Integration (XPI) architecture (Klee Associates, 2004). This kind of integration is critical for ensuring that APS contains updated and dynamic data elements and that World is updated with planning task messages while they are being accepted and published in APS (Klee Associates, 2004).

One kind of integration is Outbound Integration (Klee Assciates, 2004). This flows from JDE World to the APS such as Preactor capturing data elements such as Sales orders, Purchase orders, Work orders, Inventory balance adjustments, etc.

World sends a notification in real time when one of the ERP processes generates a transaction by, lets say, changing a sales order. When integrated with APS, this ultimately results in the Preactor software receiving this new information.

Another kind of integration is Inbound Integration (Klee Associates, 2004). In this, integration goes from APS to World and flows are managed through the progress of planning messages (Klee Associates, 2004). In general, the adapter at Preactor end send these messages to the XPI Broker, which then sends it forward to the World adapter. These events are then translated into business function calls by the adapter (Klee Associates, 2004).

Quick Response Manufacturing

QRM or Quick response manufacturing is a company-wide approach that attempts to minimize lead times (Suri, 1998). It modifies the basic structure of an organization’s manufacturing work in significant procedures to reduce the inefficient use of time. Quick response manufacturing supports a persistent and constant focus on lead-time reduction. It meets and answers customers’ needs by quicker designs and manufacturing processes and products specialized for those customers and their needs, and minimizing lead-times in every aspect of a company by eliminating waste (Stalk and Hout, 1990 and Suri, 1998). The purpose of QRM is to get the right product to the right place at the right time  and at the right price (Epicor, 2004).

In order to reduce lead time reductions, a number of activities are carried out namely developing product-oriented work cells that contain cross-trained workers responsible for controlling cell activity. Moreover, production must be done in smaller lot sizes of product and smaller batches of information also. A thorough analysis of processes from time-to-time must be carried out to identify any waste in the processe. Also, the time taken to carry out activities must be shortened in all the other departments also except manufacturing. A detailed bill-of-materials (BOMs) must be developed for better material requirements planning. Reduced variability in manufacturing processes also leads to shorter lead times. A combination of push and pull strategies for production must be utilized to the maximum. Most important, the mind-set of the entire company needs to be changed of lead times are to be managed.

Implementation Process of QRM

There are a number of principles according to Suri (1998) that would lead to the successful implementation of QRM. Some of these principles, as taken from his book, are as follows:

MRP must be used to plan and organize materials. The manufacturing organization must be rescheduled into less complex product-oriented cells. This should be complemented with a new materials control approach that gives the best combination of push and pull strategies.

Most ERP solutions today come with a Materials Module which plays the same role as an MRP. Therefore, QRM can be easily integrated with ERP, and in this case, with JDE World to take advantages of the planning and coordination of materials that such modules provide. It can also be integrated with an APS software such as Preactor for better planning tasks of materials and procurement.

Also when cells are created for separate teams, communication and integration will be needed between them of some sort. This is where integration with ERP will play a critical role. Shop Floor Data Collection by RfGen will also provide these teams with the accurate and speedy data they require to make decisions.

Suppliers must be motivated to implement the technique. This will ultimately lead to better quality and shorter lead times.

Items must be purchased in larger amounts to motivate suppliers. Placing such critical purchase orders can be achieved through better planning. Modules from an APS software such as Master Planning, Purchasing and Materials Requirements Planning will be useful.

Customers must also be informed and educated about the QRM program. They must be informed that they will receive smaller lot sizes at better prices.

Strategic partnerships need to be developed with partners in the supply chain to put this principle into effect. This will show them how they will get smaller orders at reasonable prices. This could be done through better communication with key partners by using the communication and information exchange tools that JDE World provides.

Functional boundaries must be crossed by creating a response office cell which will be responsible for taking feedback. Therefore, this should be closed-loop, multifunctional and must have a well-trained team in multiple areas. It should also have decision making powers.

In order to allow these office cells greater decision making power, they must be equipped with effective planning tools. This is when Data Collection and APS come in the picture to provide them with relevant data and powerful planning tools.

The reason for implementing QRM must be kept in mind; to come to a “lean and mean company with a secure future”.

A lean and a mean company can be achieved by eliminating waste by using methods such as JIT and the like. These methods can be applied only when forecasting is reliable and demand planning is effective. Therefore, in this respect, QRM could benefit from the APS software that will provide it with the necessary modules.

The biggest challenge in implementation would be reluctance of people to adopt this technique. Therefore, this mind-set must be fought with to create a new one. Companies must be engaged in lead time reductions. This could be done by adopting new technologies such as CAD/CAM and rapid prototyping.

However, the education and awareness of employees must precede such technologies. Their minds need to be changed about the implementation of something new and efficient. This could be done through training.

Benefits from implementation of QRM together with the existing software are as follows:

? Overall lead-times will be reduced

? Speed to market will be higher meaning that newer products will be brought to the market relatively more rapidly

? Those who implement this technique together with effective technologies would have a competitive edge over their competitors

? Rework and scrap on reversals or back orders will be reduced and made easier

? Total costs of ownership of software will be lowered

? It could put the company in a position to price their products using premium pricing since they will be of higher quality with shorter lead times

? As mentioned earlier, quality of the manufactured goods will be improved also.

? All of this would ultimately lead to higher customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Potential roadblocks to implementing QRM with effective technologies would be the increased upfront cost in the form of initial investment. Moreover, reluctance of the company people would be a major obstacle which would need to be fought with smartly. All in all, the benefits that the customers and the organizations experience will be greater than the challenges.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the purpose of integration between software is to provide “out of the box” (Klee Associates, 2004) support to different business processes that cover the APS, ERP and SFDC systems. Integration configuration may require heavy initial investments but it leads to a lower total cost of ownership for organizations. For the purpose of achieving this goal, JD Edwards has developed a variety of integration components that allow clients to increase their process efficiencies, complementary solutions, speed up implementations and reduce the maintenance and continuous “firefighting” (Klee Associates, 2004). To get the most out of software investments, it is best to configure these technologies to the best of their utilization.

References

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