The Intersection Of Hip-Hop, Sport, And Movies Essay Example

Hip-hop has become one of the best-known genres in the world. Although the focus of hip-hop is on music, it has influenced many other industries. The most notable is the intersection of hip-hop, sport, and film. The connection between hip-hop and sports is in the competitiveness that both sectors have. The recent movie Black Panther (2018) has served as a great platform to promote the culture to people around the globe. In addition, it helps bring attention to important issues. One of them is connected to college sports and whether student-athletes should be able to receive money for being on the team. These students put in a lot of work to achieve successes and to be able to play in the NCAA Division. Due to the fact that colleges make profits from these games, the student-athletes should be paid for their efforts.

Hip-hop has been an essential part of the US culture for a long time. It is characterized as “America’s most-consumed genre” (Greenburg, 2018). However, it was not always the case. As Payne stated (2018), hip-hop has had a long history from being perceived as a negative influence for people to one of the most popular genres in music. In addition, it is unarguable that hip-hop has influenced other industries, including sport. The movie Black Panther (2018) has highlighted the hip-hop culture, although it is not the first commercially successful project that promotes the genre. According to Greenburg (2018), “the superhero saga has provided a unique mainstream platform” (para. 4). This is beneficial for hip-hop and other industries it influences.

The connection of the movie to sports is not solely in hip-hop. Black Panther (2018) serves as a great promotion of the culture that was taken on by many professional athletes. Many have celebrated their heritage by saluting “Wakanda Forever” which originates from the Black Panther (Boren, 2018). This serves as a connection between hip-hop, movies, and sports. However, there is another connection, “the winning at all costs mentality is not just a college athletics phenomenon,” it is very similar to the mentality of hip-hop (Hawkins, 2017 p. 133). In this light, the question of paying college athletes for their work arises.

The debate regarding whether college athletes should be paid or not is somewhat controversial. On the one hand, the mission of an academic institution is to provide students with knowledge. Paying students create inconsistency in such a purpose. On the other hand, nowadays colleges profit from their athletes through ticket sales and television broadcasts. Therefore, sharing the revenue with the students is a fair payment for the efforts these students put in.

Firstly, the history of college sports had significantly evolved since the NCAA was created. Nowadays, they receive revenue from various contracts. “Numerous universities have changed their athletic conference affiliation for well-publicized financial reasons” (Katz, Vaughn, and Gilleran, n.d., p. 1). It is undeniable that what these institutions are profiting from is the result of work that the athletes present. However, it can be argued that being a part of a popular college team is motivation on its own. “Participation in professional revenue-generating sports will likely remain an aspiration for many collegiate sports participants” (Bimper, Harrison, & Clark, 2013, p. 2).

Secondly, college sports have become extremely competitive, and to have any significant results, one must work extremely hard. Katz et al. (n.d.) state that these athletes can no longer be considered amateurs, considering efforts and professionalism they have to put in to succeed. It can be argued that sports scholarships are a form of repayment for the effort. However, as was previously mentioned, the institutions generate significant profits from college sports.

Finally, professional sports are connected to various injuries that the athletes can receive. With unpaid college students, an issue of compensation for the recovery arises. The New York Times drew attention to the problem after an injury of one of the athletes (as cited in Katz et al., n.d.). As the article stated, the incident “inflamed the debate about the treatment and care of unpaid college athletes who help generate hundreds of millions of dollars for their universities” (as cited in Katz et al., n.d., p. 1). The colleges should provide payments for their students to compensate for the injuries they receive during the games. However, it is essential to understand that not every college can make a lot of money for their sports teams. Those who are not famous cannot be compared to those in the NCAA Division. Therefore, the institutions that do not profit much from their teams should be able to decide whether to pay the athletes or not individually.

Overall, college sports can no longer be considered an amateur sports. Considering the facts, these students should be able to receive money for playing in the NCAA Division, as in most cases the colleges are profiting from the games. The other institutions, whose sports teams are not as popular, should have a right to decide on their own whether they can afford to pay their athletes or not. However, they should provide support in case any injuries occur. The student-athletes that play in the NCAA Division should be able to control and earn money off their likeness.

Critical Analysis

The syllabus is well organized and brief. It gives a clear understanding of what the course is going to be about. The thing that can be added is a detailed course objective to explain in detail what the students should know after they have completed the course.

References

Bimper, A. Y., Harrison, L., & Clark, L. (2013). Student Athletes in College Sport Diamondsin the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male. Journal of Black Phycology, 39(2). Web.

Boren, C. (2018). ‘It’s everything’: Black athletes are celebrating with ‘Wakanda Forever’ salutes. The Washington Post. 

Coogler, R. (Director). (2018). Black Panther [Film]

Hawkins, B. J., Carter-Francique, A. R., & Cooper, J. N. (Eds.). (2017). Critical Race Theory: Black Athletic Sporting Experiences in the United States. New York, NY: Springler Nature.

Greenburg, Z. O. (2018). ‘Black Panther’ Boosts Hip-Hop Where the Grammys Couldn’t (Or Wouldn’t). Forbes.

Katz, R., Vaughn, I., & Gilleran M. (n.d.). Nine points to consider regarding the payment of college athletes. Web.

Payne, O. (2018). 3 Areas of Society Hip-Hop Culture Will Dominate By 2020. Forbes.

Jamaica’s Economy: Problems And Solutions

Introduction

Global economic competitiveness is what every country aims at, and is determined by several factors. These include the legal and administrative framework that governs a country’s institutions, economic policies, labor market efficiency, and economic innovation (Hamalainen 2003).

Jamaica’s economy

Jamaica is a third world country with an economy that is largely dependent on services such as the manufacturing industry, tourism, insurance, mining, and agriculture. These services account for about 65% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product. However, Jamaica’s economy is threatened by high crime rate (due to rampant drug trade), corruption, unemployment, and under-employment and public debt. The ailing economy reached its peak in the early 1990s (Bank 2004).

Economic problems

Unemployment arises from the high levels of poverty. Consequently, there are a large number of school drop-outs and this impacts on the workforce directly. Jamaica is a well-known hub for drug trade. This has spurned the emergence of violent gangs by drug cartels and therefore means an increase in the crime rate. The level of crime in Jamaica is so high that it accounts for the single-most cause of economic instability. Insecurity is a very big threat to the economy since economic investors tend to shy away from such risk. Corruption in the country’s institutions also discourages economic development since public funds as well as those from donors and development partners are not put into good use. Jamaica’s huge public debt arises from the government’s effort to bail out other ailing sectors of the economy that necessitated heavy borrowing of funds from the international community. Debt servicing hinders the government from investing in other areas of the economy, leading to stagnation even though monetary sources from donors tend to lighten the burden to some extent (Karagiannis & Witter 2004).

Good governance and economic policies

Global economic competitiveness can only be achieved through good governance and management. The government has the prerogative of implementing sound economic policies that would ensure positive economic growth. The government of Jamaica realized this and took a firm stand to salvage the country from an economic stagnation by government initiative to implement sound economic policies. The economy operates on a free market and this applies to state enterprises as well as private organizations. The government set out on a path to achieve economic liberalization and stability by introducing economic policies geared towards these goals. Such actions as removing exchange controls, stabilizing the currency, reducing inflation to single digit percentages and removing restrictions on foreign investments all set a platform for stringent financial discipline necessary for attracting investors and opening up international trade.

It should not be forgotten that the global oil crises of 1974 and 1979 left the country reeling in an all-time high inflation that worsened the petroleum-dependent country’s economy. The Jamaican economy continues to suffer many setbacks in the increasingly competitive global environment. The economic fluctuation that continues to haunt the country can be attributed to the global recession and high inflation. Poor policy implementation is also at the helm of Jamaica’s economic problems. For instance, as I had mentioned earlier, the country is heavily indebted due to the government’s initiative to finance the sectors of the economy that perform poorly at the expense of others.to create a balance, the government is forced to borrow from external sources ,leaving them in debt. The government policy of debt servicing through an agreement with the International Monetary Fund serves to further depress the economy. The other policy of exchange rate devaluation in an effort to ward off the high inflation rates also tends to lessen the value of the country’s currency (Karagiannis & Witter 2004).

Economic solutions

The solution to Jamaica’s ailing economy lies in tackling the root cause of these economic problems. The country must invest in good governance. A government should commit enough to implement government policies that are aimed at achieving sustainable growth. Such policies can include improvement of the education sector. Targeting the education sector ensures that a more qualified workforce reaches the job market. The major problem facing Jamaica’s economy is the insecurity that undermines economic development. The government has set out to curb this problem by rigorous public campaigns to get more children enrolled in learning institutions. The high crime rate can be curbed since children will be spending their time in school instead of joining dangerous drug cartels. Solving the crime problem will indirectly enable the problem of unemployment to be dealt with to ensure a sounder economic environment favorable for growth. An educated nation implies an empowered nation, and one that is able to generate a productive workforce. The financial sector can be improved by the government availing loans to small scale borrowers to help relieve the public debt. This would greatly reduce the government’s need to borrow heavily from international financial institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

Achieving global economic competitiveness

Economic competitiveness is achieved by countries that have a strong performance in relation to labor market efficiency and economic innovation. Innovation is all about using old knowledge to come up with new ideas. Investing in innovation ensures that a country produces marketable products that are protected by intellectual property rights and that are able to compete in the global market. The free market policy adopted by the government of Jamaica encourages productivity from both the private and public sector. Productivity is enhanced by an economic environment that encourages training opportunities, and is thus a direct pointer towards quality education. Labor market efficiency refers to a free and fair market that protects employees and at the same time looks after the interests of the employer. Government policies that spurn investor confidence, such as a transparent and incorruptible legal channel, and a highly accountable public sector should be ensured. Other players that are the landmark of global economic achievement are good infrastructure, highly developed financial markets and quality education (Bank 2004).

Conclusion

Jamaica is a perfect example of a country that is just starting to get back on its feet after years of languishing in economic pitfalls. All countries that are listed to have achieved global economic competitiveness share a common factor of good governance. Jamaica’s problems that undermine its economic development mainly poverty, low quality education, unemployment and insecurity all impact negatively towards achieving this goal as they discourage investment.However,it is worth commending the government for its effort in implementing economic policies that hopefully, will steer the country towards economic stability. In view of all these economic problems, the bottom line remains that good governance, coupled with sound economic policies are the driving force behind achieving a global competitive economy.

Bibliography

Bank, Inter-American Development. Revitalizing the Jamaican economy:policies for sustained growth. Boston: IDB, 2004.

Brown, Harold, and Charles Herzfeld. Global innovation/national competitiveness. New York: CSIS, 1996.

Hamalainen, Timo. National competitiveness and economic growth. Finland: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2003.

Karagiannis, Nikolaos, and Michael Witter. The Carribean economies in an era of free trade. Chicago: Ashgate publishing, 2004.

Differences Between Presidential And Parliamentary Types Of Democracy

In the presidential form of democracy such as America, the President is the executive head as well as the head of state of the government who is aided by his ‘cabinet’ chosen by him. The President thus combines, both the executive functions as well as the diplomatic and ceremonial functions of the state. The President chooses members of his ‘cabinet’ who could be any citizen of the United States whom the President may deem fit to head that post. In a parliamentary democracy, the executive head of the government is the Prime Minister while the head of state is another person who could be the President (example India) or a Monarch (example Britain) who is charged with the ceremonial functions of the state and has residual executive powers, which are mostly exercised only in times of emergency. The Prime Minister’s cabinet ministers are usually members of his own party.

In a presidential democracy, the President is usually chosen directly by the people. In a parliamentary form, the people choose their representatives who then choose a Prime Minister from the party that gains majority and the mandate to govern the country. In a parliamentary form of democracy, a coalition of parties can also be formed to get the requisite majority to earn the mandate to govern.

In the presidential form, the government is divided into the Executive headed by the President, The Legislature with its two chambers of Congress; The Senate and the House of Representatives and the Judiciary. In a parliamentary form of government, the Executive is headed by the Prime Minister; The Legislature has two houses of parliament; the upper and the lower houses and a separate judiciary.

The American presidential form of democracy has instituted a separation of powers between the legislature and the executive with the judiciary having wide-ranging independent power. (Patterson, p. 54).In the parliamentary form of government, the executive and legislature are more integrated. Parliamentary governments take lesser time to pass laws because there is less disagreement between the Executive and the Legislature (McQuoid-Mason, 1994, p. 12) as compared to the presidential form of democracy. Thus the system of checks and balances is stronger in the case of the presidential form rather than the parliamentary form where only the parliament can check the constitutionality of governmental action (Hague & Harrop, 2001, p. 279). Throughout American history, judicial activism has surfaced time and again to challenge either the executive or the legislature, which has at times, limited the ability of the Executive or the Legislative to deliver insufficient time. This is not the case in a parliamentary form of government where there is only one sovereign authority – The Parliament, where the party in power controls both the executive and the legislature that decides and passes all laws of the country.

In conclusion, it can state that the presidential and parliamentary versions differ in a charter of duties, the system of electing people, structure, the scope of a division of powers between the various organs of the government as also the degree of checks and balances that the two systems have.

References

  1. Hague, R., & Harrop, M, 2001, Comparative Government and Politics: An Introduction, Macmillan, NY.
  2. McQuoid-Mason, D. I,1994, Democracy for all: Education Towards a Democratic Culture, Juta and Company Limited, Pretoria, SA.
  3. Patterson, T. E, 2009, American Democracy 9th edition, McGraw Hill, NY.

error: Content is protected !!