The Issue Of Ethics In Software Systems Sample College Essay

Introduction

Ethics in software systems is one of the greatest factors to be put into consideration by software developers. Software systems are very necessary to all users, and this factor calls for high levels of ethics among all software users. Therefore, software systems developers need to ensure good and friendly relations between them and the software system users. Without considering positive behaviors among the software systems users, good morals would deteriorate hence leading to potential unforeseen ethical lapses in the software solution. This paper focuses on issues and devises remedies for ethical lapsing in online job boards as one of the software systems.

Main body

It is the responsibility of the system developers to enhance ethics between all the parties involved as users of software systems. Ethics is the study of principles relating to right or wrong conduct; in other words, morality should be considered adversely. Good and positive morals should be embraced and put into action by all the users of the system software. According to Ozkaya (2019), open computer programming models, together with consumer-to-consumer and business-to-business internet businesses, naturally presented remarkable design problems in areas, for instance, security, ownership, access rights, data rights, external system reliance, etc. All these software systems design concerns are directly related to ethics.

Unforeseen lapses in ethical controls have been a big challenge. For instance, in the case of online job boards, critically, it is right to conclude that this sector is affected by ethical issues. This problem has been due to the outcome of the increased accessibility of macro or big data systems and, more so, the infiltration of artificial intelligence (AI) into the software-empowered systems. Most apprehensions today regarding software engineering spin around the ethics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) (Ozkaya, 2019). The apprehensions mostly pay attention to the unbiased and fair use of data of system users. Artificial Intelligence is the opinion and growth of computer systems able to carry out tasks requiring human Intelligence. This Intelligence includes visual recognition, decision making, speech acknowledgment, and language conversion. All these factors make it possible for software system users, in this case, online job boards, to have access to software customers’ information or data.

To some extent, evil-minded persons convince some soft-hearted software users and lure them with false online business promises which even do not exist. They end up stealing hefty amounts of cash from these customers. This theft factor, therefore, clearly explains the unethical behaviors of such evil-minded individuals. To combat this issue, software systems developers need to put some strict measures on such persons. It must be done to secure the lured people on such false promises regarding benefiting from an online job that does not even exist in the real sense. This is a feasible remedy as the system developers can access each activity happening or happening on their system; hence easier to track the persons whose ethical or good morals on using a system software have lapsed. This action, therefore, will help cater to the most vulnerable people who are most likely to be lured, for example, the aged and the illiterate persons.

To another extent, ethical lapsing may result in to use of online job boards in some ways that may lead to dilemmas. According to (SHRM, 2021), posting a job ad on an online job board that does not exist is an ethical dilemma that arises in recruiting. This act can impact the reputation of the involved company and the individual recruiter. On the other hand, the applicants, after realizing that the posted position was imaginary, may end up lacking the interest to apply to the victim company in future posts even if the positions will be there. This behavior will result due to a lack of trust by the job applicants due to earlier false posts and promises. This action then will adversely affect the organization’s performance if it lacks the required workforce. To avoid this issue, the online job board software system’s developers will need to regulate the check-out of the company’s posts regarding position seekers. Again, this remedy will be achievable as the developers have access to anything posted on the system.

Software developers greatly consider ethics in their development of software systems. This is of great importance to the system developers to evade some ethical challenges. This factor is to protect the software systems’ customers’ privacy and protection against illegal invaders (Ozkaya, 2019). Therefore, system developers face some consideration to challenges in formulating software systems. To avoid leaking and exposing system customers’ data and information to unnecessary persons and invaders, developers need to find implications on how to develop the software and how it will be configured, deployed, and validated.

New technologies raise some new ethical and legal questions when used for hiring purposes. Online job boards, therefore, fall under this category when it comes to posting and hiring individuals online. These questions arise around the privacy of the software systems’ customers and users and should be considered keenly by developers. One example of such questions that system developers should be asking in hiring concerns would be what temptations would the companies face concerning the candidate’s privacy relating to personal characteristics? Big or macro data and artificial Intelligence will continue to be able to determine the proxy for private, personal characteristics with increased accuracy as technology advances. Due to artificial Intelligence, an online job board can use online platforms, such as Facebook, to infer sexual orientation and race. This option would infer considerably more accuracy due to AI. These actions clearly describe the ethical lapse of the company using individuals’ protected information in the even unlawful hiring process.

In explanation, when companies are tempted to use such tools to screen candidates, they may engage in unethical behaviors due to discriminating against candidates upon their gender, sex, place of birth, or native language. This unethical behavior will be stimulated by artificial Intelligence to access protected individual personal data and information without the knowledge of the owner. The company can further illegally access private and protected information that it does not have the right to examine, such as mental ailment and likely physical illness. It is unclear how the court can control such a situation where employers have depended on using these proxy variables.

Despite this uncertainty about court decisions on such a situation, the fact remains that it is illegal to take adverse protected individual information and attributes, no matter how the data was learned and deduced. This action hence becomes evidence of unforeseen ethical lapse on online job boards. In addition, the Employee Polygraph Protection Act typically forbids employers from using lie detector checks as a pre-employment screening tool. On the other hand, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act forbids using genetic details in employment determinations. These acts hence help to resolve the ethical lapse issue among employers using online job boards.

Another question that developers should be asking themselves when formulating and developing software systems is what temptations will corporations face in terms of the candidate’s privacy concerning their way of life and activities? Employers using online platforms can easily approach and access all information regarding candidates’ daily activities, for instance, check-ins. The check-ins may include activities such as church attendance on Sunday, their visit to their grandparents, a candidate’s wedding during the weekend, or even another filing a divorce in a civil court (Harvard Business Review, 2021). Again, access to candidates’ check-ins is stimulated by artificial Intelligence making the candidate’s privacy to be easily accessed by individuals not meant to access the information. The software community, therefore, needs to put some strong measures regarding their customer’s private and protected information access to irrelevant persons online. This action will, therefore, include employers and prevent them from accessing candidates’ information without their knowledge to avoid employers’ unethical practice of discrimination against the candidates they hired online using online job boards.

Among the other many questions that systems developers should ask themselves upon formulating and developing software systems, they should ask themselves, what temptations would the corporations face about candidates’ privacy in relation to disabilities? Due to the new technology and AI, employers can have access to private information of their candidates regarding their private attributes, private lives, state of mind, and private challenges. This access will mean an ethical lapse in online job boards by employers due to illegal access to candidates protected and private information without the candidate’s consent. Therefore, the software community needs to formulate new and strong strategies to help them combat these issues of access to people’s private information. Furthermore, software engineers should willingly and faithfully follow and avail of the available Software Engineering Code of Ethics in their software development (HyperionDev Blog, 2021). They should therefore act consistently in the interest of the public and safeguard their customers’ private information as tight as possible.

Online job boards, employers, and recruiters have got some key roles to play to combat ethics, elapsing to the software systems whenever they use them. Human resource individuals of various companies should use Artificial Intelligence in a way that prevents job discrimination in the job market. By doing this, all controversial features that could result in legal and ethical consequences for corporations regarding candidates’ discrimination and unfairness in the job market could be evaded. Therefore, the human resource department, in their recruitment process, should not discriminate against candidates as they interact with them through the help of Artificial Intelligence online. The HR, therefore, should not discriminate against candidates based on facial expression or physical attractiveness, sexual orientation in images and voice, age, race, gender, the connotation of words, and so on (Fernández-Martínez & Fernández, 2020). This act will help evade unethical behavior of the company’s HR individuals hence combating the ethics lapse problem on online job boards.

Conclusion

Conclusively, there should be consequences for unethical software, especially for system engineers. The system engineers of a software system whose ethics have adversely lapsed should be subjected to face the consequences upon violation of the Software Engineering Code of Ethics. This would be appropriate to protect employers against discriminating candidates upon finding and accessing all their private information on various software systems platforms. These actions will help companies use the online job board to eradicate the problem of unethical behavior towards their candidates hence combating unforeseen ethics that elapse on online job boards.

References

Fernández-Martínez, C., & Fernández, A. (2020). AI and recruiting software: Ethical and legal implications. Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 11(1), 199-216. Web.

Harvard Business Review. (2021). The Legal and Ethical Implications of Using AI in Hiring. Harvard Business Review. Web.

HyperionDev Blog. (2018). How to handle ethics issues in software development. Hyperiondev blog. Web.

Ozkaya, I. (2019). Ethics is a software design concern. IEEE Software, 36(3), 4-8. Web.

SHRM. (2021). what are some common ethical dilemmas that HR professionals face during the recruiting process? SHRM. Web.

Home Training And The Issue Of Dancing Outside Of The Home

Dancing and ordinary training at home can be considered a state of human mind and self-expression. People might have an inner motivation to dance and show their emotions through body movements. Some individuals may find this activity as an easy way to receive money and build their future careers. However, the relationship between governmental authorities to public dance performances is not always positive. Discrimination plays a significant role in this problem, and many black people face issues with the police while they dance on public transport or in the streets.

Talented and creative individuals surround people born into a family of dancers, and training at home becomes an integral part of their everyday lives. Sometimes, dancing and home training can help pay less attention to existing problems and give some freedom to emotions to protect mental health. Dancers share their emotional states, and this practice helps to stay energized. Motivation to do some home exercises or practice new dance movements helps the human brain stay active and maintain relatively good health indicators. Physical strength builds self-confidence, and people have more chances to cope with diverse problems when they start expressing themselves outside their homes. Such expressions may decrease the discrimination level and make the attitude of local authorities more loyal.

Governments should support this hobby to introduce more entertainment in small and huge cities. Motivated people with exceptional talents can inspire others and increase their level of happiness. Nevertheless, it is important to control this sphere to make sure that street dancers do not steal or trick others. Consequently, every street dancer should be registered by specific authorities. In this case, the trust level can increase, and the general happiness level does not decrease.

The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders: DSM-5

Background

Among the modern classifications of mental disorders, the most commonly used is the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). It was developed by the American Psychiatric Association and released in Revision 5 (DSM-5). In many ways, DSM-5 differs from previous DSMIVs; the most visible alteration is the switch from Roman numerals to Arabic ones. In DSM-5, the multi-axis system is no longer available. A failure category and a list of associated failures are provided by DSM-5. Among the DSM5 disorders are anxiety, bipolar and related disorders, depression, eating and eating disorders, OCD and associated disorders, and personality disorders. Autistic Spectrum Disorders superseded Asperger’s Syndrome (Zimmermann et al., 2019). Children with bipolar disorder may benefit from treatment that goes beyond simple medication. There are three new categories: premenstrual dysphoria disorders, binge eating disorders, and hamster buying disorders. In spite of the DSM’s usefulness in identifying and treating mental illnesses, a specialist’s training and expertise are required.

Adolescent Development

According to Eric Erickson’s theory of personality development, recorded in the DSM-5, psychosocial identification of a person occurs during adolescence. First of all, a teenager forms his own, ideal models of social institutions of society. The transition from childhood to adolescence is accompanied by the activation of growth and interrelated development processes (physical, sexual, psychosexual and psychosocial). In the puberty period, rapid growth of the body and limbs, the development of the sex glands occur. Following this, secondary sexual characteristics appear, which is accompanied by a change in the structure of the body and internal organs. The content of a teenager’s mental development is the development of his self-awareness. The situation of a teenager’s development (biological, mental, personality-characterological features of a teenager) involves crises, conflicts, difficulties of adaptation to the social environment.

Interpersonal relationships in adolescence differ in a number of features. If a teenager tries to emphasize his independence in communication with adults, then in relationships with peers a teenager is afraid of being isolated. Due to the fact that teenagers do not fully possess interaction skills, it is difficult for them to maintain interpersonal relationships with others. There are quite a lot of reasons and difficulties: egoism of teenagers, categorical judgments, inability of empathy, etc. The family models of a teenager are undergoing significant changes: in some periods there will be an increase in mutual understanding, in other periods of time, on the contrary, the child’s anxiety and suspicion of his parents will increase.

Most often, adolescents are diagnosed with mental disorders such as anxiety, stress-related pathologies, mood disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition, adolescents may experience behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder (ADHD) and others. The most common psychosocial problem in adolescence is the problem of behavioral autonomy. This is due to the fact that a child entering adolescence, there is a struggle (primarily with parents) for their independence, insubordination to adults.

Scientific research identifies three crises that are experienced by adolescents. Firstly, these are physiological reasons that are associated with rapid growth and puberty of the body. During this period, there is a sharp jump in physical development, often the teenager seems clumsy. Blood supply is difficult, so teenagers often complain of headaches, get tired quickly; control over instincts and emotions increases. The process of excitation prevails over the process of inhibition, characterized by increased excitability.

The second crisis has psychological causes related to the formation of morality. There is a discovery of one’s “self”, a new social position is acquired. Teenagers do not always adequately assess their capabilities, there is no clear distinction between their desires and abilities. In this regard, suspicion, bitterness, irritability are observed in behavior. A teenager lives in the present tense, but the past and the future are of great importance to them.

The third crisis has socio-psychological reasons related to the assimilation of society, common signs of the world structure. The object of his most important reflections are the future opportunities that are associated with him personally: the choice of profession, the desire to be able to interact with social groups. A teenager has a so-called sense of adulthood: the need to be, appear and behave like an adult, to become independent of guardianship and control, to gain adult rights. Criminologists should take the psychological characteristics of adolescents in their professional activities into account, since many actions can cause offenses under unfavorable conditions. With the right psychological approach to a teenager, it is possible to achieve positive results in a particular case.

The section discusses the DSM-5 chapter structure, the transition from multiaxial to dimensional assessments, and the dimensional evaluations in Section III. Disorders typically diagnosed in childhood, youth, or adolescence have been deleted from the DSM-5 and are now mentioned elsewhere in the document (Zimmermann et al., 2019). At least some DSM-5 chapters, according to a remark under Anxiety Diseases, are relevant in revealing the disorders’ relationships. The DSM’s updating process is first described in detail, including field tests, public and professional evaluations, and expert reviews. Its stated goal is to share organizational structures and collaborate with ICD systems as much as possible. While categorical diagnosis has been questioned, researchers have concluded that adding more categories for the majority of diseases is unnecessary.

For clinician convenience, DSM-5 substitutes the NOS categories with two options: other defined disorders and unidentifiable disorders. One option allows the clinician to explain why a disorder’s criteria were not met, while the other allows the clinician to choose whether or not to specify. In DSM-5, the multiaxial diagnostic approach has been phased out, and all disorders are now classified under Section II. Axis V has been replaced by psychosocial and environmental factors.

Developmental Disorders of the Nervous System

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as follows:

  • For at least six months, five or more symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity contradict the level of development and have a negative influence on social, academic, or professional activities.
  • ADHD and impulsivity disorder are more common in youngsters younger than twelve years of age. Social, intellectual, and professional functioning have been demonstrated to be negatively influenced by symptoms (Vitola et al., 2017).
  • Schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses don’t have a discrete set of symptoms, and they aren’t better represented by another mental condition.

Emerging Approaches and Models

A hybrid dimensional-categorical model for personality disorders is introduced in this bigger categorization system to motivate further inquiry. Section III investigates how different cultures identify syndromes and the causes of their anguish using cultural ideas of distress. To assist clinicians in assessing these difficulties, a cultural formulation interview guide is available, which includes questions regarding a patient’s race, ethnicity, language, religion, social culture, and geographic origin (Garcia et al., 2018). Individuals have the opportunity to explain themselves in their own words as a result of the interview and then link this to the perspective of those who may not share their culture. This gives the clinician a more firm foundation for both diagnosis and treatment.

Several diagnostic categories that had been included in prior DSM-5 versions have been removed due to a lack of validity and research support. In many circumstances, unless the patient has a DSM diagnosis, Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance will not pay for services. Patients should be informed about diagnostic techniques, including the benefits and drawbacks of acquiring a diagnosis. A patient must comprehend the purpose and ramifications of the diagnosis in order to make an informed decision (Barsky, 2017). If a client refuses to be diagnosed, the worker can examine other choices, such as referring the client to non-DSM-based therapy.

References

Barsky, A. (2017). Ethics alive! The 2017 NASW code of ethics. What’s new.

Garcia, D. J., Skadberg, R. M., Schmidt, M., Bierma, S., Shorter, R. L., & Waugh, M. H. (2018). It’s not that difficult: An interrater reliability study of the DSM–5 section III alternative model for personality disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(6), 612-620. Web.

Hopwood, C. J. (2019). A framework for treating DSM‐5 alternative model for personality disorder features. Personality and Mental Health, 12(2), 107-125. Web.

Vitola, E. S., Bau, C. H. D., Salum, G. A., Horta, B. L., Quevedo, L., Barros, F. C.,… & Grevet, E. H. (2017). Exploring DSM-5 ADHD criteria beyond young adulthood: Phenomenology, psychometric properties and prevalence in a large three-decade birth cohort. Psychological Medicine, 47(4), 744-754. Web.

Zimmermann, J., Kerber, A., Rek, K., Hopwood, C. J., & Krueger, R. F. (2019). A brief but comprehensive review of research on the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 21(9), 1-19. Web.

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