Nelson Mandela, who was born on July 18, 1918, was the son of the head of the Tembu tribe, an ethnic group of the Kosa. His first name, which was given at birth, is Rolihlahla, which means ‘to tear a branch of a tree’ in the Kos language, a figurative sense that means troublemaker (Sewpaul 699). Nelson studied at the school at the Methodist Church, Hilltown College in Fort Beaufort, then at University College in Fort Hare. He was expelled from the university because, as a member of the representative student council, he did not want to give in to the university administration in negotiations regarding student meals. Since 1942, combining his studies with work in a law office in Johannesburg. Although he did not have enough time to study, he ended up passing the qualifying exam in order to become a lawyer. Nelson then became part of the African National Congress (ANC), a party that advocated the elimination of the apartheid regime and the rule of the white minority in the country.
Nomzamo Winnie (Winnifred) Madikisela-Mandela was born on September 26, 1936, in Bizan, Pondoland, Transkei. Winnie is the daughter of a pair of teachers belonging to the main Tembu family. From 1953 she attended the Jan Hofmeier School of Social Work in Johannesburg and was the first black social worker to pass exams in 1956. In 1992, she received her Ph.D (Hassim 1159) in Medicine from the University of Johannesburg. Winnie then worked at Baragwanath Hospital in Johannesburg, where she was politicized by her work as a social worker. In 1958, when she became an active member of the African National Congress (ANC). Her radicalism and fearlessness made her a symbol of youth protests that erupted in Soweto in 1976, so she led her husband’s movement while he was imprisoned against the white government.
In mid-1952, the ANC and other organizations launched a campaign of defiance of discriminatory laws, led by Mandela. He traveled and explained the campaign’s goals and methods all over the country, after which he was arrested. Speaking at the trial in the case of high treason, Mandela explained that his ideal is a multiracial, classless society and that the ANC, in his opinion, could achieve democracy through not revolution. Still, the expansion of voting rights and the Freedom Charter provided not for the elimination of capitalism but only for monopoly mining companies. During this period, Nelson Mandela gained worldwide fame and became one of the symbols of the struggle against apartheid in Southern Africa. In February 1991, Nelson Mandela was released from prison, and three years later, he was elected by the new parliament as the country’s first black president (Ciulla 2). Five years after, in 1999, he made a farewell speech and retired from active politics.
As Nelson continued to work on his vision of peaceful system change on Robben Island, where he was imprisoned, Winnie delved deeper into the issues of day-to-day racist politics. Its political power was based on Madikizela-Mandela’s ability to combine the daily life of black people in a racist state with their own individual lives (Hassim 897). Mandela was accused of preparing for a terrorist act several times and was jailed for 1.5 years. After the massive protests in 1976, when several hundred students died, she was exiled to the town of Brandfort for seven years. Winnie Mandela has held a number of government posts in South Africa and led the African National Women’s Congress league. She is well known as the mother of the nation and a veteran of the fight against apartheid, Winnie Mandela died in a Johannesburg hospital at the age of 81 due to a long illness. In June 2013, Nelson Mandela was admitted to the Heart Medical Hospital in Pretoria, and on December 5, Mandela, along with his family, died from the effects of pneumonia.
Nelson Mandela began fighting for the rights of black Africans as Chairman of the African National Congress ANC Youth League. As Mahatma Gandhi showed in India, Mandela also developed the concept of peaceful protest, however, his organization was banned by the state, and Mandela was ordered not to leave the country. On August 19, he also founded the Nelson Mandela Foundation, which aims to ideally continue his life’s work and the history of the anti-apartheid movement. Nelson Mandela is a famous figure of freedom and justice who has campaigned under the motto The fight is my life and has successfully struggled for the rights of blacks in Africa. In the issues against racial segregation in Africa, civil rights activist spouses Mandela have survived everything, including thirty years of captivity. During his presidency, he enacted new laws and thus ended apartheid: whites and blacks finally became equal, and Nelson Mandela became their hero. Even after his presidency ended in 1999, Mandela was zealous in fighting political injustice, which is why Nelson and Vinnie Mandela are some of the most important civil rights activists in history.
Ciulla, Joanne B. “Searching for Mandela: The Insights of Biographical Research.” Leadership, vol. 12, no. 2, 2016, pp. 186–197, Web.
Hassim, Shireen. “Not Just Nelson’s Wife: Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Violence and Radicalism in South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 44, no. 5, 2018, pp. 895–912, Web.
Hassim, Shireen. “The Impossible Contract: The Political and Private Marriage of Nelson and Winnie Mandela.” Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 45, no. 6, 2019, pp. 1151–1171, Web.
Sewpaul, Vishantie. “Politics with Soul: Social Work and the Legacy of Nelson Mandela.” International Social Work, vol. 59, no. 6, 2016, pp. 697–708, Web.
The Healthcare Availability In The USA
The debates about the healthcare system that would embrace all communities not depending on people’s income have raged in the USA over decades. Today, with the pandemic on the march and healthcare bills steeply increasing, the debate is as bitter as ever. Many people believe that it would be better if the US adopted a universal healthcare system and made quality services accessible to all citizens with or without insurance. However, the US is not willing to give up on its healthcare system established throughout the years.
Under the US system, the quality of services provided directly depends on the level of insurance a person can afford. Healthcare services are relatively costly due to several factors: a high level of bureaucratic expenses, inadequate level of competition in the pharmaceutical industry, and high salaries of doctors and nurses (Braithwaite, 2018). The US healthcare system attracts a lot of investment, and many healthcare facilities are privately owned. By many, the US healthcare system is seen as a profitable industry that generates income through private payments by patients and insurance coverage (Braithwaite, 2018). These investors can be influential enough to lobby their interests in Congress and finally get what they want.
The other reason is that, in reality, few people understand how healthcare insurance works. In most cases, healthcare insurance is paid by the companies who assure their employees that they get the beat there is. The people are unaware of how the resources are allocated and what part of their money goes to bureaucratic costs. With a vast majority of hospitals and clinics, there is still no universal standard of how much this or that procedure must cost, and the clinics may ask as much as they want. Moreover, the insurance cartels spend vast amounts of money to influence the public and convince people that no changes to the system need to be introduced.
My home state is Charleston, SC and the level of healthcare available for different communities is very different. There are clinics for low-income and uninsured people that offer free medical services and dental care, and there are clinics for those who can afford better treatment. Looking at the services provided by clinics for different communities and their sources of funds, I will discuss the differences in the level of healthcare, which is directly influenced by the funding and recourse allocation within the area.
Cares Primary Care Clinic, Dream Center Clinic Network, and Fetter Health Care Network are among the well-known free clinics. These clinics provide free healthcare services for low-income families and are primarily engaged in primary healthcare services, including basic diagnostics, immunizations, family planning, and behavioral healthcare. For complex diagnostics and in cases where consultation of several healthcare specialists is needed, people are advised to seek outside consultation. The state finances these clinics, and the level of financing is relatively low. Moreover, it differs from year to year and is highly unstable. While these clinics do have a number of board-certified doctors and nurses, mostly, they rely on volunteering work done by medical students and non-medical volunteers. Thus, Cares Primary Care Clinic was started and is still operated by MUSC students whose primary aim is to learn about medical services at large and primary care in particular. The level of service at these clinics is much inferior to the one provided by private clinics.
Private clinics in Charleston, SC, largely rely on funding by insurance companies and out-of-pocket payments from patients and can afford a much better level of service. Investments and donations are a part of their funding; considering the variety of sources, their financial position is stable. They have a large staff of board-certified doctors and nurses who are often well-known specialists in this or that field. These clinics provide a wide range of services beyond primary care and usually have long-term care facilities within their structure. Often these clinics are specialized, and their staff provides in-depth consultations and comprehensive treatment in this or that medical area. The most well-known among these clinics are Palmetto Cardiovascular Thoracic Assoc PA, Sweetgrass Pediatrics, Upper Cervical Chiropractic of the low country, and others.
Braithwaite, J. (2018). Changing how we think about healthcare improvement. BMJ, 361.
YouTube As My Favorite Media Platform
In the constantly changing reality of the modern world, numerous forms of media allow people to communicate and share all types of information. Mass media is changing all the time, and there are different ways to define its forms. They can be divided into traditional (television, radio, books, newspapers, etc.) and new (websites, podcasts, social networks, blogs, video, and music sharing platforms, etc.) forms of media (“What Are Types of Media?”). In my opinion, YouTube is currently one of the best media platforms. Even though the use of YouTube is often considered to have many negative effects, it is my favorite form of media because I have learned to use it as an educational tool.
Many people consider YouTube to be harmful, claiming that it is full of useless information, which poses a special danger to the minds of children and teenagers. It is believed that the way this platform works can make one spend too much time watching videos that they do not intend to watch but get distracted and eventually lose several hours doing it. Furthermore, studies have revealed the connection between the compulsive use of YouTube and mental health problems, such as depression and social anxiety (De Bérail et al.). Nevertheless, the question of whether YouTube should be seen as the ultimate evil might need further consideration.
On the one hand, the compulsive use of this platform does have the potential to reduce its users’ mental well-being and physical health. This is due to its addictive features: “the videos provide us with relevant information that stimulates a dopamine response” (“How YouTube is Addictive”). On the other hand, this is what all of the streaming platforms and social networks do. Although YouTube might currently be one of the most addictive Internet platforms, countless sources can be just as addictive if only one starts to use them excessively.
Therefore, I do not consider YouTube to be harmful or dangerous by itself; moreover, it is my favorite form of media. Firstly, it is a great learning tool for me because I am a visual learner and find it easier to watch a video on a topic than to read about it. I think that YouTube is the platform with the most interesting and original educational content that has ever been created. Courses on history, philosophy, and many other subjects are available to anyone, and that seems truly astonishing to me. Secondly, it has introduced me to so many creative people, which also helped develop my own creativity.
In spite of my fondness for this platform, I was not always able to only use its advantages. While I have admired them from the beginning, I also used to spend too much time watching videos that had no value to me. However, after losing those precious hours, I often got so frustrated that I finally decided to limit my time on YouTube and only watch videos on education, art, science, and everything that intellectually stimulates me.
Drawing on my personal experience, I came to the conclusion that YouTube is the best type of media to use both for educational and leisure purposes. Although some criticize it for being addictive and damaging, I believe that it is the way people use it that makes all the difference. It might be worth focusing on developing one’s inner discipline and self-control in order to use all the benefits of YouTube and other media.
De Bérail, Pierre, et al. “The relations between YouTube addiction, social anxiety and parasocial relationships with YouTubers: A moderated-mediation model based on a cognitive-behavioral framework.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 99, 2019, pp. 190-204.
“How YouTube is Addictive.” Medium, Web.
“What Are the Different Types of Media?” Marketing Analytics and Social Media Reporting | Whatagraph, Web.