The Lori Suluk case study delves into a manufacturing enterprise grappling with a persistent slump in sales and profits lately. A solution to this problem has been decided on, which involves evaluating the situation to locate potential areas for improvement and running operations more efficiently. However, some employees have expressed worries about its effectiveness, feeling excluded from the process or not being provided with enough information.
In this case, various aspects of introducing the assessment process and its influence on the company will be explored. This case study uses a systems-based approach to analyze a third-world nation’s multifaceted socioeconomic and environmental issues to determine its origins, dynamics, and possible remedies (Gomes et al., 2020). Socioeconomic, political, legal, and ecological factors all come into play as the study defines the various individuals and their respective roles, desires, and dominance.
Furthermore, the study uses the soft systems approach and participatory action research. Stakeholder analysis will generate and assess potential courses of action regarding viability, efficiency, and longevity. As Anwar et al. (2019) highlighted, a multi-stakeholder strategy must address the problem’s core causes via coordinated local, national, and international activities. The study also stresses comprehensive stakeholder engagement in intervention design, implementation, and stakeholder capacity for effective decision-making. Hence, for practitioners and policymakers in comparable settings, the case study sheds light on the difficulties and potential rewards of taking a systemic approach to an issue of this complexity.
Systemic Understanding of the Different Elements at Play
Lori’s case study presents many challenges for decision-makers and system analysts, as numerous socioeconomic, political, legal, and environmental factors interact in complex ways. For example, according to Grazzini et al. (2021), employing system metaphors can prove advantageous to gain a deeper understanding of these issues. The “ecosystem” metaphor is an apt comparison highlighting the intricate interconnection between diverse elements in a system. As seconded by Ulrich & Reynolds (2020), for instance, the metaphor illustrates the interdependence and influence of various issues, including politics and the environment. As a result, political changes may indirectly impact the region’s economic situation, exacerbating environmental damage. Hence, this analogy highlights the value of taking an all-encompassing approach to tackling issues and making choices.
The ‘machine’ metaphor also encompasses the interrelated components of a system working towards a common goal. The analogy applies to the case study where government officials, environmental activists, residents, and business leaders are critical stakeholders in decision-making (Ulrich, 2021). Each stakeholder operates as a machine component, working towards individual objectives while contributing to the overall purpose. Thus, communication and coordination among stakeholders are essential to achieve the ultimate goal.
In the case study, employing the “organism” analogy articulates the intricate dynamics among various stakeholders and changing factors over time (Grazzini et al., 2021). As per the organism metaphor, the system behaves like a living organism that constantly adapts and evolves to sustain its surroundings. And in this scenario, the metaphor highlights the value of being able to adjust and be agile when making decisions, as it underscores the significance of reacting to environmental alterations.
Moreover, socioeconomic factors hold significant weight, especially in a region with a large population dependent on agriculture and natural resources for their subsistence (Grazzini et al., 2021). As a result, balancing economic growth should be supported by policymakers to be a symbol of the protection of natural resources. Again, Gomes et al. (2020) suggest that political factors come into play, with stakeholders harbouring different agendas and interests. For instance, business leaders may prioritize economic growth over environmental considerations, while ecological activists may prioritize preserving natural resources. Hence, legal concerns can significantly impact the case study (Hao, 2022). Therefore, key decision-makers must account for applicable regulations, including environmental protection laws and zoning ordinances.
To make legally sound decisions that can withstand legal challenges in Lori’s case, it’s crucial to comply with the regulations and laws. While making choices, it’s essential to consider how they can affect the world’s many ecosystems and supplies of natural materials (Anwar et al., 2019). Preserving the region’s forests, wetlands, and waterways is critical to the country’s economic growth and ecology now and in the future, where the setting in which a decision is made is also crucial.
Achieving a balanced and lasting outcome involves recognizing the critical factors at work and their intertwined relationships. Thus, one better grasps the issue’s complexity by adopting terms like ecosystem, machine, or organism (Wu et al., 2021). For example, every aspect requires thorough decision-making analysis, whether socioeconomic, legal, political, or environmental. Hence, the ingredients to success include willingness to be flexible, communication, and coordination between stakeholders, because these critical components are vital for reaching a sustainable solution.
Application of the Chosen Systems-Based Methodologies
Understanding the case study ideas, goals, and structure is crucial for successfully implementing the selected system-based techniques. Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) are the preferred approaches (Ulrich & Reynolds, 2020). In the scenario of Lori’s case, for example, CSH seeks to discover and critique the system’s fundamental assumptions and ideals; SSM is a participative method focusing on problem-solving under challenging circumstances. Ulrich (2021) also contends that pluralism is permissible as long as a primary methodology leads the intervention and one or more methods are employed in a supporting capacity.
Establishing the direct approach driving the intervention is the initial step in implementing these practices. As SSM excels in encouraging group effort in solving complicated problems, it will be the primary approach used in this scenario (Ulrich, 2021). CSH will be the supportive approach since it complements SSM by highlighting and challenging systemic assumptions and values. Also, CSH will be included in each of the five phases of the implementation to offer essential insights, as described by soft system methodology.
Determining who is affected by the issue is seconded by the first step. At this phase of the system’s development, the spider web metaphor depicts the relationship between the issue scenario and its many stakeholders (Hao, 2022). By using CSH, the challenge is taken-for-granted beliefs about the issue and its stakeholders. Doing so will aid in illuminating any hidden motivations or power dynamics that may contribute to the topic. Again, the second step is analyzing the Loris case from a systems perspective. The issue scenario is modelled after a map, with each node representing an aspect of the system (Grazzini et al., 2021). Stakeholders will be helped in their comprehension of the system by the use of SSM. And with CSH’s help, the system’s values and assumptions are examined, especially as they pertain to the needs and goals of the many parties involved.
The third step is to create theoretical representations of the issue at hand. After analyzing a wide range of interested parties, a comprehensive picture of the problem may be built (Grazzini et al., 2021). For example, the stakeholders’ conceptual models will be developed with the help of SSM. Hence, any assumptions or values that may be shaping the models will be unearthed with the help of CSH. Moreover, the fourth step is to check the theoretical frameworks against empirical data (Gomes et al., 2020). At this phase, the conceptual models are inspected closely to find any inconsistencies with reality and the microscope metaphor, which is utilized to describe the process. Thus, the stakeholders will review the models with the help of SSM. Using CSH, probing the stakeholders’ worldviews for unquestioned assumptions and beliefs is significant.
The last step is to create solutions that can be implemented and are welcome by all parties involved. At this point in the process, stakeholders utilize their expertise and insight into the issue to chisel away at the system metaphor and reveal the improvements that can and should be made (Gomes et al., 2020). Changes will be more easily identified by the stakeholders engaging in the implementation of SSM. Therefore, assumptions and values impacting stakeholders’ change identification will be uncovered via CSH.
In analyzing Lori’s case, one must be intimately familiar with the foundations, goals, and architecture of SSM and CSH before attempting to put them into practice. As long as one primary technique is utilized to guide the intervention and one or more methods are employed in a supporting role, using a pluralistic approach, including these approaches, is permissible (Grazzini et al., 2021). Five phases are planned for the rollout and CSH, which should be included to offer essential feedback. Conversely, using the right system metaphors at the right time helps stakeholders see the big picture, uncover hidden assumptions and values, and create improvements that can be implemented and improved upon.
The Decision Maker’s Options and Their Expected Outcomes
The decision maker must consider the available alternatives, the resources needed, the repercussions of each course of action, and the human impacts or operations which require being altered or enhanced while determining the various potential steps to take (Gomes et al., 2020). And the oil leak in the coastal region has caused adverse effects on the environment, which the decision-maker must now remedy.
In this scenario, the decision-initial maker takes no action and lets events unfold naturally. However, the option may severely impact the local economy and will not likely improve environmental circumstances. Wu et al. (2021) again commented that the second choice is to begin cleanup to remove the oil. In Lori’s scenario, the resources needed to put this strategy into effect are substantial. For instance, properly arranging the cleaning effort would also be necessary to reduce the stress on the local population and animals. Therefore, the third choice is to take precautions to avoid leaks, which would need more regulation and better oil firm safety and maintenance practices.
Oil around the shoreline and in the water may be cleaned using skimmers and blowers. The employees would be required to operate the equipment and monitor the sanitation procedure (Anwar et al., 2019). Hence, the money would be required to pay for elements such as hiring staff and renting necessary equipment. The outcomes vary depending on the choice, and environmental deterioration will continue without intervention, threatening residents’ ability to earn a living (Gomes et al., 2020). The area animals and residents might be negatively impacted if a cleaning effort is launched. Also, the cleaning effort could not be successful, leaving some oil behind. The oil corporation and regulatory agencies may push back against any efforts to establish steps to avoid future disasters.
The safety and maintenance operations of the oil industry are examples of human activities or processes that might need some tweaking or fine-tuning. Hao (2022) revealed that the oil business would have to spend money on education and tools to ensure spills don’t happen again. Regulatory control must be strengthened to ensure the oil business adheres to safety norms and laws. Therefore, the decision-maker must weigh each option’s pros and disadvantages before choosing, including stakeholders in the discussion is crucial, such as locals and environmental groups (Wu et al., 2021). This will guarantee that the choice is well-informed by several viewpoints and addresses the concerns of all stakeholders.
Ultimately, the decision maker in this situation has several options, each with its repercussions, necessary resources, and human activities or processes that need adjusting or improving. A choice that addresses the environmental deterioration caused by the oil spill while also considering the requirements of the residents and animals would require a careful assessment of these considerations (Hao, 2022). Conversely, the case study’s decision-maker must weigh several factors to conclude. They may stick with the status quo of cleanup operations, increase the intensity of cleanup procedures, or look into other possibilities, such as bioremediation.
There will be repercussions, additional resource needs, and modifications to current human activities or processes with any of these choices (Ulrich, 2021). Hence, decision-makers must compare these factors with those of local people and animals to determine the best way to restore the oil spill’s damage. This calls for a holistic and coordinated strategy that weighs the immediate and long-term effects of all potential courses of action.
Conclusions and critique
In conclusion, many systems-based approaches were used in the case study’s systemic intervention, including the soft systems methodology, the feasible systems model, and the strategic alternatives formulation and analysis. In the case study’s setting, these approaches were utilized to dissect the decision-makers’ problems and provide potential solutions.
The intervention had a mixed impact, where decision-makers could comprehend the interconnected dynamics at play better and generate a variety of approaches thanks to the use of the systems-based methodology. To do this, identifying relevant parties and mapping the interests and concerns was the first step, and developing scenarios and potential solutions was vital. Nevertheless, the intervention also revealed some difficulties and restrictions in putting systems-based approaches into reality. The strategies were labour- and resource-intensive, making their implementation in real-world circumstances difficult. The analysis’s restricted focus and small sample size may have excluded some stakeholders.
In general, systems-based approaches may be an effective strategy for handling complicated situations, especially ones with several players and interdependent elements. The resources needed and the possible constraints of these approaches must be carefully considered. All stakeholders must be involved to achieve buy-in and ownership of the solutions reached.
Therefore, in complicated and ever-changing settings, a systems-based approach to problem-solving is stressed towards the conclusion of the case study. Using various methods and resources may help decision-makers understand and solve problems. The time and energy required to execute multiple strategies, and their relative merits, must be carefully considered. Eventually, decision-makers may better handle complex challenges and develop more sustainable and practical solutions by taking a systems-based approach and including all stakeholders.
Anwar, A., Anwar, S., Ayub, M., Nawaz, F., Hyder, S., Khan, N., & Malik, I. (2019). Climate Change and Infectious Diseases: Evidence from Highly Vulnerable Countries. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 48(12), 2187–2195. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974868/
Gomes, L. A., Santos, A. F., Pinheiro, C. T., Góis, J. C., & Quina, M. J. (2020). Screening of waste materials as adjuvants for drying sewage sludge based on environmental, technical, and economic criteria. Journal of Cleaner Production, 259, 120927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120927
Grazzini, L., Acuti, D., & Aiello, G. (2021). Solving the puzzle of sustainable fashion consumption: The role of consumers’ implicit attitudes and perceived warmth. Journal of Cleaner Production, 287, 125579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125579
Hao, Y. (2022). The relationship between renewable energy consumption, carbon emissions, output, and export in industrial and agricultural sectors: evidence from China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20141-0
Ulrich, W. (2021). Critical system heuristics | BetterEvaluation. Www.betterevaluation.org. https://www.betterevaluation.org/methods-approaches/approaches/critical-system-heuristics
Ulrich, W., & Reynolds, M. (2020). Critical Systems Heuristics: The Idea and Practice of Boundary Critique. Systems Approaches to Making Change: A Practical Guide, 255–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-7472-1_6
Wu, J., Li, H., Zhang, J., Gu, Y., Zhou, X., Zhang, D., Ma, Y., Wang, S., Nian, X., Jin, W., Li, R., & Xu, Z. (2021). Microbial diversity and function in response to the occurrence and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in combined sewer overflows. Journal of Cleaner Production, p. 279, 123723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123723
Legal Controversies: Critical Thinking On Affirmative Action Essay Example
The civil-rights movement presents a challenging paradox in that the prohibition of racial discrimination has increased difficulty in addressing its lingering consequences. After the Constitution was amended and laws were enacted to safeguard individuals of color from discriminatory treatment that could cause them harm, the government encountered difficulties in implementing programs that different treatment towards people of color in ways that could potentially be advantageous. The removal of race as a factor was initially implemented. However, it was later recognized that to achieve equal opportunities and outcomes for all individuals in the United States, it was necessary to reintroduce race as a consideration. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as affirmative action. Contemporary society is characterized by the perpetual evolution of legal regulations and business environments, giving rise to contentious issues that present dual perspectives. Critical thinking is crucial when analyzing these subjects to arrive at well-informed conclusions. Advocates of affirmative action contend that it is imperative to rectify historical inequalities and furnish equitable prospects for individuals who have been previously marginalized. Notwithstanding, critics argue that affirmative action results in reverse discrimination, weakens the principle of selection based on merit, and generates societal conflicts. This essay aims to critically analyze the arguments presented on both sides of the affirmative action debate and give our current position. In light of this, the present paper explores the contentious issue of affirmative action and its continued viability in addressing historical discrimination. Utilizing Brookfield’s critical thinking methodology, the central points about affirmative action will be identified and analyzed, alternative perspectives will be evaluated, and an informed position will be taken.
First, let us start with a definition of affirmative action. The US Commission on Civil Rights defines affirmative action as “any measure, beyond simple termination of a discriminatory practice, that permits the consideration of race, national origin, sex, or disability along with other criteria and which is adopted to provide opportunities to a class of qualified individuals who have historically or actually been denied those opportunities and to prevent the recurrence of discrimination.” (US Commission on Civil Rights). John F. Kennedy initially instituted this regulation in 1961 with Executive Order 10925. With the creation of the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, he mandated that all federal contractors take “affirmative action to ensure that applicants are treated equally without regard to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.” (Menand, 2020).
Affirmative action proponents argue it levels the playing field for historically discriminated against marginalized groups. Affirmative action is viewed as a means to increase minority workforce participation and provide historically denied opportunities to these groups. Affirmative action is also considered necessary because discrimination still exists in our society. Without affirmative action, minority groups may continue to be denied access to numerous employment opportunities (Bengtson, 2022; April 2023). An argument in support of affirmative action posits that it serves to rectify historical discrimination by creating a more equitable environment. The initiative enhances the presence of underrepresented groups in the labor market and expands prospects for historically marginalized minorities. The persistence of discrimination in our society and the lack of complete colorblindness necessitate implementing affirmative action as a viable solution (Lippert-Rasmussen, 2022). Notably, a crucial rationale behind implementing affirmative action is its capacity to foster egalitarianism in a society that historical occurrences of prejudice have marred. To a certain extent, it can be argued that affirmative action has been instrumental in enhancing the representation of women and minorities in the workforce. Nevertheless, there exists a disputed debate concerning the extent of these progressions.
Nevertheless, it is a valid assertion that affirmative action may result in the occurrence of ‘social stigma’ by fostering a notion that individuals from minority groups are employed solely based on their race or gender. Consequently, such circumstances may give rise to heightened intergroup hatred based on race and generate strain within the professional environment. Advocates of affirmative action contend that it is imperative to rectify historical inequities and furnish commensurate prospects for individuals who have been systemically marginalized. The belief is held that historical discrimination has resulted in an inequitable society, and implementing affirmative action is deemed necessary to avert its reoccurrence (Salib, 2022). Advocates contend that discrimination persists and that our community has not achieved colorblindness.
Nonetheless, there exist counterarguments to support the notion that affirmative action may not be an optimal approach. Hiring individuals from minority groups based solely on race or gender can develop a “social stigma” and heightened racial awareness, leading non-minority individuals to believe the hiring decision was based on factors other than merit. Implementing affirmative action policies has the potential to generate workplace tension (Adams, 2021). It may only sometimes lead to selecting the most competent candidates for a job or opportunity. An additional significant contention opposing affirmative action is that contemporary society differs from the one that existed three decades ago, during the inception of affirmative action. After that time, noteworthy progress has been made about parity, with numerous marginalized factions achieving substantial advancements regarding financial remuneration and prospects.
Moreover, affirmative action may have a detrimental effect, as it has the potential to result in a scenario where competent candidates are overlooked in favor of unskilled ones. In broad terms, critics of affirmative action contend that it results in reverse discrimination and erodes the principle of selection based on merit. The belief is that affirmative action engenders social tensions and may result in individuals not being evaluated based on their values. In addition, the argument posits that affirmative action has a detrimental effect on the self-worth of women and ethnic minorities and is merely a political maneuver by left-leaning Democrats aimed at societal manipulation (Bengtson, 2022). Individuals exhibit a sense of civic pride when they are part of a workplace or educational institution that embraces racial diversity. Several individuals prefer to avoid closely considering the methods utilized to attain a specific outcome.
The Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is a relevant factor to consider when analyzing the constitutionality of affirmative action. Does the policy allow for the inclusion of race in the decision-making process for undergraduate admissions? The topic at hand is still a subject of discussion and disagreement.
Upon conducting a thorough analysis of the various perspectives surrounding the issue, affirmative action represents a crucial policy tool for redressing historical discrimination and advancing principles of equity. Although there are apprehensions regarding the possibility of reverse discrimination and the erosion of merit-based selection, affirmative action measures can be formulated to guarantee that preference is accorded to competent individuals (Dorsey & Chambers, 2023). Moreover, implementing affirmative action policies can mitigate disparities and enhance the inclusivity of underrepresented demographics within the labor market. Implementing affirmative action is deemed necessary until our society attains a state of genuine colorblindness and eliminates discrimination.
Through my analysis, I have identified the underlying assumptions upon which affirmative action policies are predicated and evaluated the assumptions’ accuracy and validity. After examining the matter from multiple angles, I have concluded that affirmative action served a crucial purpose in remedying past discrimination. However, exploring alternative approaches to establish equal opportunities in contemporary times may be more effective. One potential approach to decision-making is prioritizing merit-based selection procedures rather than considering factors such as race or gender (Sangiuliano, 2023). The objective should be to establish a societal framework where individuals are evaluated solely based on their qualifications and competencies, regardless of race or gender.
Conclusively, affirmative action continues to be a contentious subject within the legal sphere and the regulation of commerce. While some critics contend that affirmative action compromises merit-based selection and engender social conflicts, advocates assert that it is indispensable for rectifying historical disadvantages and promoting equal opportunities. Through a rigorous examination of the various viewpoints and underlying assumptions, we contend that affirmative action remains a crucial measure until our society achieves genuine colorblindness and discrimination is eliminated. Critical thinking is paramount when analyzing contentious matters about the legal environment and business regulation. The efficacy of affirmative action in promoting equal opportunities in contemporary times warrants a critical appraisal, despite its historical role in mitigating discrimination. Prioritizing selection procedures based on merit and establishing a societal framework that evaluates individuals based on their abilities and qualifications is paramount. The effectiveness of affirmative action in advancing equity for minority groups in the United States has been subject to scrutiny, and alternative strategies may be more suitable for attaining this objective. Despite its historical necessity, the contemporary efficacy of affirmative action is a subject of debate.
Bengtson, A. (2022). Affirmative Action in the Political Domain. Political Studies, 00323217221095379. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/00323217221095379
Adams, M. (2021). Nonideal Justice, Fairness, and Affirmative Action. J. Ethics & Soc. Phil., pp. 20, 310. https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/jetshy20§ion=21
Salib, P. N. (2022). Big Data Affirmative Action. Nw. UL Rev., pp. 117, 821. https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/illlr117§ion=28
Menand, L. (2020). The changing meaning of affirmative action. The New Yorker, pp. 306, 339. https://cf.linnbenton.edu/artcom/social_science/clarkd/upload/MenandonAFFIRMATIVEACTION.pdf
Lippert-Rasmussen, K. (2020). Making sense of affirmative action. Oxford University Press.
April, K., Dharani, B., & April, A. (2023). Affirmative Action and Empowerment. In Lived Experiences of Exclusion in the Workplace: Psychological & Behavioural Effects (pp. 155-168). Emerald Publishing Limited. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/S2051-233320230000007006/full/html
Sangiuliano, A. (2023). Justifying Antisubordination. American Journal of Law and Equality, forthcoming. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4365177
Dorsey, D. N. T., & Chambers, T. T. V. (2023). Working the Intersections of Interest Convergence and Whiteness as Property in the Affirmative Action Legal Debate. Foundations of Critical Race Theory in Education. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=rE-eEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT186&dq=arguments+of+whether+affirmative+action+is+still+a+viable+option+for+our+society+to+deal+with+past+discrimination.&ots=CfON_qE1II&sig=jRvN3IsVQrhJ3thGsvLSaOxX8-s
Literature Review Essay Essay Example For College
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are the infections hospitalized patients get while receiving treatment at a healthcare facility. The infections are usually not present or incubating during hospital admission. HAIs are acquired after hospitalization, and they manifest 48 hours after admission. They are attributable to weak infection control practices in healthcare facilities. Clinical care should be mindful of recent invasive procedures, underlying comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and immunosuppression. Direct contact with clinical personnel can also lead to HAIs. Although many HAIs are preventable through evidence-based nursing practices like prevention and surveillance programs, their prevalence has risen worldwide. For example, nurses should promote hygiene and patient safety to curb soft tissue and skin infections while caring for open sores and wounds.
Hospitals worsen patient outcomes without adherence to hand hygiene, antimicrobial guidelines, patient safety stewardship, screening, and public health surveillance. Such a phenomenon can also lead to a heavy workload as infections spread between patients and healthcare workers. Hand hygiene reduces the chances of transmitting pathogens, while antimicrobial guidelines such as disinfectant use help kill the pathogens and complement other control measures. Enhancing patient safety through wearing personal protective equipment prevents staff from contracting infections even when exposed to the pathogens. This reduces the chances of cross-contamination. Surveillance systems help monitor compliance to measures and detect outbreaks early. Therefore, implementing the approaches such as patient safety and hygiene stewardship leads to better patient outcomes among hospitalized patients, such as quicker recovery and reduced length of hospital stay.
Comparison of Research Questions
A study by Yacob Habboush et al. (2022) focused on the factors for developing a hospital-acquired infection. It also identified the most prevalent morbidity and mortality related to a hospital-acquired infection. The study summarized key education points health professionals should impart to their staff concerning preventing hospital-acquired infections. Another study by Cilloniz Catia et al. (2019) investigated the outcomes of the global threat and ways of management caused by the multi-drug resistant gram-negative pathogens. Monegro et al. (2022) explored the pathophysiology of hospital-acquired infections. The study also sought to evaluate the laboratory tests for access to hospital-acquired infections. Additionally, it summarized the management of the various types of hospital-acquired infections and delineated the importance of improving care coordination to prevent infection transmission. Sally Stewart et al. (2021) examined the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections.
Drohan et al. (2019) investigated whether subsidies encourage regional spending on hospital infection control. A study by Gowler et al. (2022) evaluated the impact of assuming that asymptomatic individuals are likely to have longer hospital stays than other patients. Hsu et al. (2020) explored the association between incentives and disparities in HAIs. Shepard et al. (2020) assessed the impacts of HAIs reduction on healthcare profits.
Comparison of Sample Populations
Habboush et al. (2022) collected data from large healthcare facilities. Cilloniz Catia et al. (2019) collected data on the number of infections per facility and tested pathogens causing infection and its transmission. Research by Monegro et al. (2022) analyzed literature according to the author’s inclusion criteria. The study by Stewart et al. (2021) collected data from a sample that met the international definition of health-acquired infections. Drohan et al. (2019) collected data from multiple community hospitals. Research by Gowler et al. (2022) analyzed patients in a clinical setting, while Hsu et al. (2020) collected data from four acute hospitals. Shepard et al. (2020) used patients in Stanford Healthcare Center, which has an acute care capacity of 63 beds.
Comparison of the Limitations of the Study
The study by Drohan et al. (2019) did not have data regarding the making of hospital budget decisions. Research by Gowler et al. (2022) had biases in results when estimating the impact of an intervention in reducing the infection rates of HAIs in a hospital. Hsu et al. (2020) had several limitations that included excluding non-targeted outcomes to avoid the risk of ascertainment bias associated with the lack of mandated reporting.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Infectious diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality. The infections increase the length of hospital stay, thus increasing healthcare costs. HAIs are common in older people and individuals with emergency cases, and the infections increase during summer and winter. They are common in older people and individuals with underlying conditions since they have weakened immune systems that easily give in to disease-causing organisms. Interventions to reduce HAIs include maintaining high hygiene standards and strict adherence to control measures. Proper hygiene and compliance to control measures reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens from one person to another. Additionally, financial incentives given to hospitals lower infection rates. The incentives are used to support the implemented interventions. Therefore, implementing interventions to reduce HAIs positively impacts healthcare organizations in the long run.
Recommendations for further research include investigating the impact of collaboration among professionals as a strategy to enhance prevention management and the effect of considering the local ecology and individual patient risk factors. Research on the interdisciplinary involvement of members and professionals in healthcare in infection management was also recommended. Additionally, the studies suggested investigating the role of appropriate technologies in evaluating the financial impacts of HAIs as an area of further research.
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Drohan, S. E., Levin, S. A., Grenfell, B. T., & Laxminarayan, R. (2019). Incentivizing hospital infection control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(13), 6221-6225. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1812231116
Gowler, C. D., Slayton, R. B., Reddy, S. C., & O’Hagan, J. J. (2022). Improving mathematical modeling of interventions to prevent healthcare-associated infections by interrupting transmission or pathogens: How common modeling assumptions about colonized individuals impact intervention effectiveness estimates. Plos one, 17(2), e0264344. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0264344
Habboush, Y., Benham, M. D., Louie, T., Noor, A., & Sprague, R. M. (2022). New York State Infection Control. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK565864/
Hsu, H. E., Wang, R., Broadwell, C., Horan, K., Jin, R., Rhee, C., & Lee, G. M. (2020). Association between federal value-based incentive programs and health care–associated infection rates in safety-net and non–safety-net hospitals. JAMA Network Open, 3(7), e209700-e209700. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/article-abstract/2767991
Monegro, A. F., Muppidi, V., & Regunath, H. (2022). Hospital acquired infections. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441857/
Shepard, J., Frederick, J., Wong, F., Madison, S., Tompkins, L., & Hadhazy, E. (2020). Could the prevention of health care–associated infections increase hospital cost? The financial impact of health care–associated infections from a hospital management perspective. American Journal of Infection Control, 48(3), 255-260. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0196655319308430
Stewart, S., Robertson, C., Pan, J., Kennedy, S., Dancer, S., Haahr, L., & Reilly, J. (2021). Epidemiology of healthcare-associated infection reported from a hospital-wide incidence study: considerations for infection prevention and control planning. Journal of Hospital Infection, 114, 10-22. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195670121001870