The Making Of The Good Neighbor Policy By Bryce Wood: A Book Review Essay Example

            The book entitled “The Making of the Good Neighbor Policy,” written by Bryce Wood is a very important piece of document for those who are dealing with the foreign relations of America and other countries, especially that of the Latin American countries. Wood emphasizes that this is not a book the deals with the history of politics or the past of the Good Neighbor Policy but is rather an essay about politics and how the country has formed an alternative to coercive intervention when it comes to its dealings with Latin America. There are three things that served as the focus of the account done by Wood and this includes how the Policy has been created, the acceptance of US to a non-interventionist principle as a result of the sequence of events that happened in Cuba and Nicaragua, and the use of the non-interventionist principle in the cases faced by US oil companies in the countries of Bolivia, Valenzuela, and Mexico.

            The attempt of the researcher to provide a deeper understanding of the Good Neighbor Policy has been successfully achieved in this book especially so that it uses an approach of defining and describing instead of usinga historical approach. The extensive research is evident in the volume of information that can be found in every page. It does not simply wish to provide a mere picture of the Policy but actually places the actual accounts into detail and uses this to contribute to the understanding of the Policy. The extent of research that has been done using archives from the State, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, and other documents in history is a very strong point taken as a strength of this book.

            More so, the sections of the book have showcased a deep and critical analysis of the events that surround the Policy. The combination of analysis and research has provided the author the power to create an account that would serve the future generations a comprehensive and easy-to-understand guide on the past policies towards the Latin American countries. The words and terms used in the book allows the readers — historians, common enthusiasts, or politican — to understand the concepts and the ideas found within the book. This particular characteristic of the book enables it to reach a wider set of readers. Thus, the book is seen to have the right mix of research, analysis, and simplicity to provide a concise and logical presentation of the Policy.

            However, there are also weakenesses that could be found in the text. First, it lacks a bibliography that should have contained the details of the references consulted by the author in the making of the project. The bibliography would have made the book a more credible account because it shows what has been consulted and presents the authenticity of the claims when one would review the references upon which the book relies on. More so, the bibliograpy would also give the readers the chance to add more to their knowledge as it leads them to read the other references that they find interesting in the book. Second, there are parts in the book where the subjectivity of the author is introduced despite the lack of need for such. Third, it is also observed that some parts of the book exhibites repititiveness.

            In its entirety, the book is a good reading for both the academic and political community to enhance their knowledge about the Policy and as a source of information for the purpose of their future decisions.

Works Cited

Bryce, Wood. The Making of the Good Neighbor Policy. New York: Columbia University Press: 1961.


Film Review: Clash Of The Titans

            The film Clash of the Titans (2010), directed by Louis Leterrier, is a serious battle for power between men and kings, and kings and gods. However, the battle of gods themselves could devastate the world. Perseus (Sam Worthinfton), a demigod brought up as a man, is powerless to put away his family from Hades (Ralph Fiennes), the unforgiving god of the underworld, who feeds himself from human fear. Perseus put himself upfront to organize a dangerous mission to defeat Hades before he could overthrow Zeus (Liam Neeson) and expose hell on earth. Leading a group of courageous men, Perseus heads off on a dangerous journey into the heart of forbidden worlds. Fighting with worldly demons and fearsome beasts, he will only go beyond this challenge once he recognizes his power as a god and disregards his fate and create his own destiny.

The film begins with a narration portraying the three Olympians who fought the Titans in the past: Zeus, Poseidon (Danny Huston) and Hades. Hades showed their way of conquering the Titans with his own creation, the Kraken, a giant sea monster. After the fall of the Titans, Zeus created humans and lead them while Poseidon governs the sea, On the other hand, Hades who have been betrayed by his brother Zeus, was forced to lead the Underworld and discovers an unusual way to have his power from humans that was different from his brothers gaining theirs from prayers. For him, he can obtain power through human fear.

Thousand years later, Spyros (Pete Postlethwaite), a fisherman, comes across with a coffin floating in the sea, where he found a baby, Perseus, lies together with his dead mother, Danae. The fisherman comes to a decision of bringing up Perseus as his own son. Years passed, Perseus and his family are in the sea, fishing together when they saw a group of soldiers from the army of Argos tearing down a statue of Zeus as a proclamation of war against the gods. Hades reveals himself and orders harpies to kill the soldiers. Moreover, as he sees the fishing boat of the family of Perseus, he also destroyes it and sinks into the middle of the sea. As Perseus tries to rescue his family, without any reason, the surviving soldiers of Argos detain Perseus back to their homeland. During the feast for the soldiers who survived the battle, King Cepheus (Vincent Regan) and Queen Cassiopeia (Polly Walker) of Argos are differentiating themselves together with their daughter, Andromeda (Alexa Davalos), to the gods to protect their kingdom. Moreover, after persuading his brother to loose the monster on humankind to reprimand them for their disobedience, Hades shows himself in the courtroom before executing the remaining soldiers while Perseus is untouched. Hades reveals that Perseus is a demigod son of Zeus. He also warns that if Princess Andromeda is not sacrificed to the Kraken, Argos will be devastated in ten days. Hermes (Alexander Siddig), the messenger of god, comes up to Zeus on Olympus to reveal where his son Perseus is. While Hermes recommends giving Perseus a safe haven, Zeus proclaim that he shall have his own fate together with the other mortals.

The king asks for the help of Perseus after he is imprisoned. Perseus refuses at first until he meets Io (Gemma Arterton), a woman whose not growing old as a reprimand for refusing to be seduced by a god. Io then tells him about his origin and the punishment done by Zeus on Acrisius (Jason Flemyng), the former king of Argos, who was married to Danae, for opposing the gods. Acrisuis immediately orders the death of Danae and the baby Perseus after her giving birth. He decides to have them in the coffin float into the sea. However, an infuriated Zeus struck Acrisius with lightning, resulting to a dreadful damage to him.

As Io finished her story and after knowing that defeating the Kraken will let him to have his vengeance with Hades, Perseus agrees together with Argo’s most formidable soldiers. They are also accompanied by Persian monster-hunters named Ixas (Hans Matheson) and Kucuk (Mouloud Achour), and Io, get on board on a mission to look for the Stygian Witches, the three women with gray skin and have one eye.

Into the woods, Perseus and the soldiers discover a sword created in Olympus which will only illustrate its true power in the hands of Perseus. Wandering away from the group, Perseus runs into Zeus’ sacred herd of flying horses, the Pegasus. On the other hand, Perseus turns down the god’s offering- the sword and the pure-black Pegasus, as he doesn’t want to be a god. As per the order of Hades, Calibos attacks the group of Perseus and tries to take his life. Number of soldiers was killed in this act but Calibos failed to murder Perseus, and loses his hand before he can get away. But the drop of Calibos’ blood develops giant scorpions from the sand, which then attack Perseus and his men. Though the group was able to kill several scorpions, many of the soldiers were slain as well, and those who survived faced more monsters to fight with. Perseus and his group were saved by Djinn, a bunch of desert sorcerers who were humans before but changed their human flesh with ash and dark magic. The Djinn were able to put the scorpions under their spell. Helping Perseus to heal his wounds, Sheikh Suleiman (Ian Whyte) – Djinn leader, decided to join Perseus’ group to witness the gods’ obliteration of Argos.

These brave men reached the Garden of Stygia, wherein they gathered information, from the Stygian Witches, that the head of the Gorgon Medusa (Natalia Vodianova) has the power to kill the Kraken, with the risk that they might be slain in the process. As they continue their journey, Zeus got to see Perseus to offer him a sanctuary at Mount Olympus, but still, Perseus refuses the offer. Instead, Zeus gives him a golden drachma, which he learns to be a means to buy off Charon for a way to the Underworld. On the other hand, Io was left outside of Medusa’s den, where a spell was cast that no women will be able to enter the area. Perseus, together with the remaining soldiers, gives all their strength to stay alive, but one by one, they turn into stone with her gaze. With Suleiman self-destructing himself and the sacrifice of Draco (Mads Mikkelsen), Perseus is able to behead Medusa. He came out in time to witness how Calibos kill Io by thrusting a sword from behind. Perseus challenges Calibos in a battle and kills him with the sword given to him by the gods, which transforms Calibos back to his human form. As Acrisius draws in his final breath, Hades’ power leaves him and tells Perseus to refuse to be a god. Perseus stays with Io until she passes on, then rides on to Pegasus and prepares himself back to Argos with Medusa’s head. At the same time, some of Argos’s citizens founded a cult of Hades, who is planning to sacrifice Princess Andromeda to the Kraken, in opposition to the king’s wishes. Hades enlightens Zeus that the fall of Argos will bestow him enough power to remove the other Olympians from power. He then left Zeus defenseless to guarantee his triumph.

On his way to Argos, Hades sends out his harpies to obstruct Perseus’ way back to Argos. Perseus overcomes the number of harpies sent by Hades and let the Kraken met the gaze of Medusa which turns the monster into stone. During this upheaval, King Cepheus was killed by the cult leader and has been crushed under the debris of the broken body of stoned Kraken. Hades shows up and scorns Perseus that he cannot kill him, since he is a god. Perseus snaps that Hades can live forever but it will not be in the world of men. He then uses the sword to send away Hades back to the Underworld. After saving Argos from destruction, Princess Andromeda advocates that Perseus should be the king and rule Argos at her side. Zeus gives Perseus a visit and offers to make him a god. Perseus declined both propositions. Zeus then advised Perseus that when Hades gathers enough fear from humankind, he will arise and return to rule the world in darkness. But Perseus will be prepared enough to stop Hades for the second time since he has all his intention of staying on Earth. With this, Zeus brings Io back to life, and the two rejoice while Pegasus flies above them.


            The movie is a remake of the film Clash of the Titans that was aired almost thirty years ago. The first film was produced in 1981 and the new version of the movie is an inadvertently entertaining retelling of a classic Greek mythology. Fanatics of the earlier version of the film will not be in favor of the remake because of their concept of perfection of the original version. Thus, if movie goers will search for the original substance of the movie, they will be dissatisfied. However, for viewers who are searching for simple, enjoyable and exploration loaded with enormous mythological creatures of the original edition they will definitely take satisfaction in this movie directed by Louis Leterrier and distributed by Warner Bros. Picture.

            As a Turkish person, I chose B&M Magazine to publish this review since B&M Magazine accepted to publish my article in their May issue. At first, I am encountering problems in conceptualizing the film since many parts of the original version were cut and modify. However, since I was inspired by the movie Avatar which was aired in 3 Dimension (3D), the curiosity grew more as it was aired in more than hundred theaters in UK last month.  As I watched this movie, I found out that this was an action-packed movie from beginning to end and I believe that generation of viewers today will be convinced that this film is better than the 1981 film in term of effects and cinematography.

            Many of us know that the element of Greek mythology is filled with sex, anger, and envy and other shortcomings. The film Clash of the Titans portrays the story of Perseus, son of Zeus- the ruler of the heavens, as he leads the humans in a combat against the gods of Olympus. Particularly, Persues has an unwell will against Hades, brother of Zeus and ruler of the Underworld, since the god killed Perseus adoptive family out of anger. Zeus adores the humans and believes he needs their worship, but Hades disagrees. He thinks that humans, particularly those in Argos, are high and mighty who believes they do not need gods. At the time that Queen Cassiopeia compared her daughter Andromeda, and claims that her daughter is more beautiful than Aphrodite, the gods instigate war on humans to teach them a lesson. The screenwriters, Travis Beacham, Phil Hay, Matt Manfredi felt  that political power struggle between the gods was not interesting enough, so the film focused on vengeance. Aside from Zeus and Hades, no other gods or goddesses are integrated and it seems that their arguments are better to be just a reflection rather than the film’s driving factor.

            The writers chose to keep the majority of the elements, order of events and even the dialogues from the original film, but then decided to change certain elements or add characters in the story. From the original movie, characters of Andromeda and Calibos have much greater roles. Also, other characters like Poseidon, Ammon, Pegasus, Hera and Thetis, who played significant roles in the original, have either minimal roles or do not appear in this remake. Some personage have different roles but are in both films like Danae, who is the wife of Acrisuis and mother of Perseus, but from the original film, Danae is the daughter of Acrisuis impregnated by Zeus. With the original film,   Perseus’ love interest is Andromeda, and not Io, whom he married and became the King of Argos, which he declines in the remake. Things that the two films have in common are the attack of the scorpion, the combat with Medusa, and the final with the Kraken, and for Perseus being the son of Zeus.

            The movie started out as 2-dimensional film, but with the release of the 3-D movie Avatar, the Clash of the Titans was converted to 3-D. According to Director Leterrier, “The adaptation to 3-D adds unbelievable depth to each scene, enhancing the chronicle and providing an all-encompassing clash familiarity.”[1] There are movies that are intended to be produced in 3-D. However this film was originally intended for 2-D version, but because of the success of Avatar, the director and producer decided to release a new version also intended for viewers who wanted to watch this film in 3-D. This new version in 3-D adds to the excitement but not to the entire effect of the story. The special effects, mostly digital, have been purposely made to gather some with the original film. However, viewers of this film may be perplexed to find the substance of 3-D since the dimensional layer does not agree with the camera. Moreover, the high dimensions of graphics also exposed little to the viewers. Thus, I would recommend to watched the film and in 2D instead of 3D to further appreciate the context of the film.

            On the other hand, the movie is definitely filled with striking settings and extraordinary creatures. Pegasus, the flying horse, is portrayed beautifully and the massive numbers of scorpions are indisputably frightening. The Kraken, a gigantic sea monster, is less remarkable than the trailer would have you believe. The film was shot in very lavishing scenery. As for the cinematography, it is very vibrant- jumping out and zooming in or out around each character all the way through ravines and desert landscapes.

            Many of us know that Greek mythology gives emphasis on power, intelligence and beauty of the gods and goddesses. However, the interesting aspect such as beauty is not shown in the new version. Not a single goddess delivered an argument in this film. But still, Io is able to fill the missing part of the movie, showing more reasonable and more likeable female character and love interest than Andromeda.

            Moreover, I find the movie drew a cast of familiar faces. Sam Worthington showed only one emotion throughout the movie, seriousness, as Perseues, the most important character in the film. Liam Neeson, Ralph Fiennes and Dunny Huston portrayed as the three main Greeks gods: Zeus, hades and Poseidon. Not much participation for Neeson and Huston has very little to do with the movie. Character of Io, played by Gemma Arterton, a woman cursed with agelessness and watch over Perseus through his mission. Alexa Davalos as Andromeda, the princess offered as a sacrifice for the Kraken.[2]

            In over all, Clash of the Titans is perhaps the first 3-D movie intended to the generation of today. However, it is very hard for me to visualize that this movie will incarcerate wider audience since more of the viewers will undoubtedly attend for its nostalgia value. Moreover, it offers no-frills approach for classical movies with monsters, chaos, and violence abundantly with just enough limits not to over step the leap of the PG-13 rating. For those viewers who will watch this movie in 2D might debate that it harkens back some of the classic fantasy adventure in the middle decades of the 20th century. Thus, I find the movie a flawed but a very entertaining remake of the Greek mythological elements.


Covert, Colin.  “Review: “Clash of the Titans” is action-packed fun”. Star Tribune. 11 April 2010. p. 7.

Puig, Claudia . “‘Clash of the Titans’? The gods must be crazy”. USA Today. 7 April 2010. p.8.

Turan, Kenneth. “Movie Review: “Clash of the Titans”: 3-D Makes the Film More Difficult to Follow in Places, and So It Crashes to Earth.”. Chicago Tribune. 2 April 2010. p. 14

Wayland, Sara. “Director Louis Leterrier Interview CLASH OF THE TITANS”. The Collider. 28 March 2010. P7.

[1]Sara Wayland. “Director Louis Leterrier Interview Clash of the Titans”. (The Collider. 28 March 2010). P7.

[2] Kenneth Turan. “Movie Review: “Clash of the Titans”: 3-D Makes the Film More Difficult to Follow in Places, and So It Crashes to Earth.”. (Chicago Tribune. 2 April 2010) p. 14


Critical Review: Chapter Enrichment Program Teams

            Jeffrey T. Polzer and Anita Williams Woolley’s case study entitled Chapter Enrichment Program Teams at the American Red Cross reviews the programs and plans of the national organization American Red Cross, particularly in the situation of one of its chapters, the Evans County Red Cross Chapter. The article is a very thorough and detailed study that tackles ideas of leadership, team performance, and program planning for an organization’s well-being. This paper critically reviews the case study of Polzer and Woolley, highlighting the essential issues raised by the two authors on the strengths, weaknesses, and the efficiency of the team who conducted the Chapter Enrichment Program in the Evans County chapter.

            Chapter Enrichment Programs (CEP) are defined as a review of the “local chapter operations and make recommendations for improvement” (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 2). The program brings together teams of Red Cross professionals, with usually five to eight members, to observe and evaluate different chapters around the nations, with the main objective of evaluating a local chapter’s efficiency and recommending plans that could help the local chapters increase their thoroughness, performance, and service. This enhancement programs are important in improving the function and service of the local chapters of the American Red Cross. But over the year, the capability of the team members to effectively evaluate had grown worrisome.

Polzer and Woolley’s study follows one case of a CEP conducted on one of the nation’s county. The Evans County Chapter of the American Red Cross was the main subject of the case study. Since Polzer and Woolley (2004) specifically defined CEP studies in their work as something voluntarily asked for by “chapters interested in significantly expanding and improving the quality of their operations”, it is safe to assume that the Evans County chapter specifically requested a review of their area on how to improve their services (p. 4). Based on the evaluation and presentation of authors Polzer and Woolley in their case, the problem of the team that evaluated the Evans County chapter was that they lacked appropriate recommendations to the mishaps that they have noticed on-site. Important points that were raised were not fully addressed in the report anymore for several reasons. One of which was that the team lacked in experts or authorities that should tackle the issue in the county. Another reason was that team members opted not to mention the issues for the protection of the county chapter workers themselves. This dilemma of the team was followed in the case study through Anne Munroe, program officer of the CEP at the American Red Cross. Munroe noticed that CEP reports are starting to become less efficient and the recommendations of team are sounding to be generic and rote already. Also, some points that were questioned in discussions were not included in the report anymore. The team that reviews Evans County chapter mentioned while visiting the site that they noticed that the “chapter had too many staff members for an operation its size” (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 1). They even questioned the presence itself of the chapter when a similar chapter operated in an adjoining city. But this significant topic was not dealt with in the report submitted by the team. This event hints diminishing efficiency in enrichment programs for chapter reviews because it seems that not all problems or questions can be successfully raised or explored by the CEP teams.

The case study of Polzer and Woolley reviews the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the CEP in Evans County chapter and in all other chapters. The strength of the program lies on its capability to produce detailed guidelines in modules that would be beneficial in aiding and enriching the different local chapters of the American Red Cross. Over the years, the CEP has been able to create a set of guidelines that trains team members on how to appropriately work with the program. But its weakness lies on the underlying problem of the team in giving justice to their observations and analysis. The team members assigned to the Evans County chapter noticed that there are staff sizes and service redundancy issues but they have not written these in the report. They were thinking that “any hint the team made about downsizing or merging with another chapter would upset the Evans county chapter managers” so they opted to not mention this anymore even if it may have a significant effect to the whole organization (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 2). Every member interviewed or asked by Munroe about the question of the staff size commented that the issue may be out of their powers and that it would be better if they are not the person to be asked about it. It appears that these people are forgetting that “all team members are responsible for their team’s success” and if they fail to take action when they have noticed a problem already, the issue might just grow out of proportion in the future (University of Toronto). CEP studies face challenges and threats. The review itself is deemed lacking in substantiality and resources because of the failure of the CEP system itself to encourage its members of their importance to the whole Red Cross organization.

To understand the relevance of the teams concentrated on CEP to the whole American Red Cross organization, authors Polzer and Woolley devoted time in explaining a little history of the American Red Cross, how it branched out to different chapters around the state, and how CEP studies and operation reviews emerged. This is important because every case study needs to analyze the company or organization’s history, growth, and crucial development. According to the study, chapters of the American Red Cross are significant branches that aids in improving the services of the organization. The history of the American Association of the Red Cross dates back on May of 1881 and was originally propagated by Clara Barton. The objective of the Red Cross was to respond and help during disasters and emergencies, both locally and abroad. And to make the services more widely reachable, Red Cross created chapters that would branch the organization to the local communities. During World War I, “the number of Red Cross chapter suddenly grew as the public sought ways to become personally involved in the war effort” (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 2). Chapters reached an all-time peak of 3,864 all around the country. As the American Red Cross goes through different transitions and changes, the organization decided to develop a program that would help address problems and issues in a chapter. It organized its own system composed of structuring, staffing, improving, and organizing through teams that are tasked to review the organization’s local chapters and develop plans for growth. This led to the formation of Operation reviews and Chapter reviews intended to solve dilemmas and improve the well-being of the organization. American Red Cross took upon the challenge of public health leadership by creating branches, known as chapters, to fully extend the initiative to help other people. This form of leadership needed in Red Cross “includes a commitment to the community and to the values” that the organization stands for (Rowitz, 2009, p. 5). This had an essential impact to the creation of the enrichment programs for the organization’s local chapters, a project that is still essential up to today.

CEP “evolved as an internal consultancy to try to improve local chapter operations” (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 3). The programs began in 1996 and its first task was to review one of the top largest chapters of the Red Cross, experiencing serious financial problems. As the years passed, the role of these chapter review bodies has expanded to cover more than financial dilemmas and include the different areas where the chapter is involved. Polzer and Woolley (2004) also specifically differentiated the meaning of operations review from CEP. The first is “directed at chapters experiencing serious performance issues” while the second is more prescribed for those chapters that seeks to “identify the initial strengths, challenges, and opportunities they saw for the chapter in their assigned areas” (p. 5).In the case of the Evans County chapter, since the team was not invited to evaluate the issues that the chapter was particularly dealing with and since their job requirements are not in authority to question operation itself, they thought that it would be best for them to leave it alone.

The CEP team of the Evans county chapter was composed of six members from outside the chapter and “each responsible for one or two of the 10 functional areas the chapter had invited the team to analyze” (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 2). According to the case presented by Polzer and Woolley, the team assigned at the county was lacking in initiative and further leadership that could enhance their analysis on the chapter’s performance. The team members are all experienced professionals but their reports do not contain essential analysis on the bigger problems of the chapter. After conducting two conference  calls to acquaint the chapter with them team and week-long on-site visit to see the situation firsthand, “many teams recommendations concerned superficial issues that could apply to almost any chapter in the Red cross, while neglecting larger issues altogether” (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 2). This trend was becoming to be apparent in all other chapter reports of CPE teams. Recommendations and evaluations are treading safe ground and were not considering large issues anymore. The program officer of CPE noted that it was “not a problem of low motivation” since Red Cross is an organization run through volunteerism and the team members were willing to take on the challenge even if they are not getting paid (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 2). The problem seems to lie in the strength of the program itself because workers are restricted by their job description and what areas should they only explore. The module guidelines designed to improve each member’s contribution to the team actually limit the overall capability and performance of the team members. But this dilemma could pave way to better opportunities for the whole program and the whole organization. What the CEP probably needs is a revamp on the guidelines it has for the teams administering the programs. Addressing the problems on poor communications, improve “alignment or the amount of resources in insufficient”, and solving leadership problems would be the best first steps to make the teams conducting CEP more organized and efficient (McNamara, 1999, n.p.).

The case study of Polzer and Woolley also noted something that was often noticed by officers of CEP. “There was an overall shortage of qualified advisors” to take action on the role of CEP to the different local chapters of Red Cross (Polzer and Woolley, 2004, p. 7). And because of the limitations of the modules from the system, team members of chapter reviewing bodies are restricted from exploring or giving out ideas, making their reports monotonous. The study analyzed that the teams are good but they are afraid to extend farther from what they are supposed to be doing. Team members are usually chosen “based on their individual abilities to contribute to achieving those objectives” (Lee, 1996, n.p.). The people who take part on CEP are professionals with enough experience on working with local chapters. But not all has the expertise to work on specific job and very few are willing and capable to lead their whole teams. What the CEP teams need are members who can take the initiative and “no delegates” who cannot make decisions for themselves and for their team (Maruca, 2000).

            Based from Polzer and Woolley’s evaluation of the case in the Evans County chapter, readers get an image of some important parts of the American Red Cross. The case study provided an appropriate picture of the program amidst its role in the organization. All the underlying strengths and significant weaknesses of the program that should be improving the organization are also pointed out. And, Polzer and Woolley also highlighted possible recommendations that could counter the dilemma. After analyzing the case study, the best recommendation probably for the teams conducting CEP would be to start the enrichment on their own. Over the years, their efficiency has dwindled and could not always produce significant recommendations anymore. The teams handling CEP are too limited by their own guidelines, when in fact; they should be given the liberty to point out everything that could improve not just the chapter but the whole organization as well. The challenge would be for the future teams to be able to be creative and free in giving opinions that could really improve chapters in the most significant ways.


Lee, E. (1996). Life Cycles of Executive Team. Retrieved from

Maruca, R. F. (2000). “What Makes Teams Work?” Fast vol. 40. Retrieved from


McNamara, C. (1999). “The Basics of Conflict Management.” Field Guide to Leadership and

Supervision. Retrieved from

Polzer, J. and Woolley, A. W. (2004). “Chapter Enrichment Program Teams at the American

Red Cross (A).” Harvard Business School. DOI: 10.1225/402042.

Rowitz, L. (2009). Public Health Leadership: Putting Principles into Practice. Massachusetts:

Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

University of Toronto (2000). Management Skills: Being a Valuable Team Member.

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