The Meaning Of Khaldun’s Words On Man’s Weakness Sample Paper

By stating that man is weak and deficient, Khaldun establishes the limits of his own knowledge and, consequently, of the book. He contrasts his awareness with the God’s, claiming the superiority of the latter. The author restricts his explorations to the Maghrib region specifically because of his inability to portray in-depth other territories. Ignorance is a part of the weakness and deficiency of man. Hence, the phrase accentuates that Khaldun understands his ignorance regarding areas outside the Maghrib and perceives admitting it as his duty.

Additionally, the philosopher refers to Mas‘ûdî’s, whose portrayal of the region was defective, although he claimed his work to be complete. Another example of man’s weakness in the text is in Khaldun’s discussion of historiography, in which he expresses his concern for the study, as weak-minded and uncritical individuals invaded it (Khaldun75). Overall, this Khaldun’s phrase serves to explain the text’s limitations.

Work Cited

Khaldūn, Ibn. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Abridged and edited by Nessim Joseph Dawood, translated and introduced by Franz Rosenthal, Princeton University Press, 2005.

The Investigation Of Aging On A Molecular Level


There are two categories of theories on ageing namely the damage based theory which explains that aging may be caused by low metabolism or inefficient immune system that occurs over a long period of time. The programmed theory suggests that tough environmental factors may lead to aging and death with the main cause of aging in this theory, genes, determine the lifespan of a mammalian (Frick, 2012). The human being aging is associated with the cellular, molecular and physiological changes of the body, which are characterized by deteriorating homeostatic balance associated with the increasing of neoplasia and other associated diseases (Becker et al., 2009). Aging is associated with the increase of telomere attrition, DNA mutation, and changes in pattern of methylation at the molecular level, which may interfere with the normal function involved in maintenance of genomic integrity, proteins in cellular growth, responses to cellular stress and inflammation according to Dr Sige Zou Phd. In Investigator Functional Geometric Unit research, Gaillard and Hua (2009) describe aging as a biological process that occurs in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic analyses have discovered that mutation in genes can affect the lifespan of an organism (Rubin & Babbie, 2010).

Research Questions

In investigating the molecular basis of aging we consider how genes determine the lifespan of a mammalian theory on gene support the fact that people with parents who lived long are likely to live long together with their generations, The molecular and physiological changes in the body and the role of DNA in the molecular level of aging. The study will investigate how knowledge can help in prevention of related diseases in aging? (Peters, et al. 2012).

The Aim of Research

The aim of this investigation of aging at molecular level is to investigate whether the research done may also investigate gerontology, the study of the aging process in the aspect of longevity, aging and death. Therefore, research on molecular virology in brief will be examined and entail the molecular basis of viral interaction with their hosts (Zglinicki, 2003). The investigation will also center on the genetic theory telomeres, research on DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) replication in microorganisms and repair of mammalian cells when exposed to damaging agents of DNA signals transduction and Gene regulation, which will basically focus on transcriptional responses and signaling of cells in relation to their environment and to microbial pathogens (Stachoń, et al., 2010). The focus will be on Research done by the Department on Microbiology and Molecular Genetics in the University of Pittsburgh shows that due to cellular senescence process, most cells cannot divide indefinitely (Kenyon, 2012).


The methods to be used in the research will include both qualitative and quantitative approaches where experiments could also be used to establish the process of aging with regards to involvement of cells (Salkind, 2009).

Expected Outcome

In conclusion, biogerontology aging is mostly concerned with genes, and studies are more focused on biology, chemistry, genetic life extension or anti aging treatments (Wisdom, Cavaleri, Onwuegbuzie & Green, 2012). Some biogerontologists argue that before we can cure aging, we must understand it fully, and due to the remedy of aging. In one of the studies conducted on projection of demographics, it was established that people who maintain a healthy lifestyle usually increase their lifespan as compared to those who do not (Fu, Csanaky & Klaassen, 2012).


Becker, M., Kleinsmith, L. J., Hardin, J. & Bertoni, G. P. (2009). The World of the Cell. 7 ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

Frick, M. (2012). Building a better hormone therapy? How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline. Behavioral Neuroscience, 126(1), 29-53.

Fu, Z. D., Csanaky, L., & Klaassen, D. (2012). Gender-divergent profile of bile acid homeostasis during aging of mice. PloS One, 7(3), 504-512.

Gaillard, E. & Hua, F. (2009). Aging in the human lens: molecular level studies of possible mechanisms of damage. Illinois: Northern Illinois University

Kenyon, M. (2012). Healthy Aging in the 22nd Century. Futurist, 46(5), 40-43.

Peters, L. et al. (2012). Lead concentrations in relation to multiple biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: the normative aging study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(3), 361-366

Rubin, A. & Babbie, E. (2010). Research methods for social work. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

Salkind, N. (2009). Exploring research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Stachoń, A., Burdukiewicz, A., Pietraszewska, J., Andrzejewska, J. & Chromik, K. (2010). Biological symptoms of aging in women regarding physical activity and lifestyle. Human Movement, 11(2), 172-178.

Wisdom, P., Cavaleri, A., Onwuegbuzie, J. & Green, A. (2012). Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles. Health Services Research, 47(2), 721-745

Zglinicki, T. (2003). Aging at the molecular level. New York, NY: Springer.

Human Relations: The Manager With A Disgruntled Employee


You have just been hired by Yummy Juicy, a national corporation that sells organic juices at most major retail stores. You have been hired as the West Coast Distribution Manager. After about five weeks on the job, you get the following email:


You are hurting this company. You have continued to try to force all of us to change our ways and follow procedures that are no good. I am not sure why you got the job. You trained us on the new procedures, which wasted hours of our time. Don’t bother to reply to this email, I know nothing will change.

R/Bob (disgruntled employee)

An email response

Dear Bob,

From your email, I have understood that you are dissatisfied with my management activities. It seems that you did not see any improvement following my training procedures. Thus, I would like to respond to your email to handle the situation.

A 20-year experience of working with Yummy Juicy makes you a respected employee, and it is reasonable to listen to your opinion. Simultaneously, the company has many other employees who also make valuable contributions to the business. It is a typical case that they can have different views regarding existing practices. That is why it is not a problem that you and I have different opinions regarding the new procedures that I have implemented.

However, since an issue exists, my responsibility is to find an existing solution. Please note that I am not going to stop implementing the procedures. On the one hand, I have sufficient experience to be sure that these activities will lead to improvement for the company. On the other hand, I keep receiving positive feedback from other supervisors, meaning that the new processes can be beneficial. However, as I have already stated, I appreciate your work and experience, and that is why I would be glad if you contact me and disclose more specific concerns regarding my processes. In this case, we will have an opportunity to negotiate this issue and find a mutually satisfying solution.

Looking forward to hearing from you!

Yours sincerely,

West Coast Distribution Manager.

Is it difficult to be assertive in the personal and professional life?

When it comes to my professional and personal life, being assertive is sometimes a significant challenge. It is so because the necessity to be assertive arises when I feel that I am mistreated. In such situations, emotions overwhelm me, and it becomes difficult for me to stay calm and control my thoughts. For example, it was challenging for me to avoid responding aggressively to my school teacher’s criticism, especially when I thought that I did not deserve that treatment. However, I try to do all my best to ensure that emotions and impulses are under control, which is necessary to be assertive.

The risks of being assertive with Bob.

It is worth mentioning that being assertive implies some risks, and the case with Bob is not an exception. It is so because Bob can think that my assertiveness is the manifestation of aggressiveness. In this case, the disgruntled employee can also become more aggressive, which is harmful to business relations. Another risk refers to the fact that Bob can perceive my assertiveness as a sign of over-confidence. It can mean that Bob will not respect my decisions and words since he will consider me arrogant.


Van Bavel, R., Rodríguez-Priego, N., Vila, J., & Briggs, P. (2019). Using protection motivation theory in the design of nudges to improve online security behavior. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 123, 29-39. Web.

error: Content is protected !!