The Meaning Of The Umayyad Dome Of The Rock Writing Sample

The “Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwun” constructed the “Dome of the Rock” in Jerusalem in the seventh century. The mosque is the oldest continuously used place of worship for Muslims anywhere in the globe. The sacred rock atop the monument is revered by both Muslims and Jews (Lucas, 2017). The Dome, which measures 65 feet in diameter, is supported by a circle of 16 piers and pillars. A railing protects some rare granite under the Dome, and a 24-pier and octagonal pillar hallway rings the circular room. There is a stairway leading down to the geological cavern under the surface. Each of the octagon’s eight sides is around 60 feet in width and 36 feet in height (Renard, 2013). Many windows makeup both the Dome and the outside walls. This artwork analysis aims to show how the Dome’s particular Arabic and Islamic architectural features set it apart as a religious landmark.

Research indicates that the Dome of the Rock has magnificent mosaic, marble, and faience motifs with octagonal outside columns (Cytryn-Silverman, 2020). Contrary to popular belief, research shows that the Dome of the Rock was built over an existing structure that was originally octagonal. Caliph al-Malik and his sons were widely thought to have been personally involved in the planning and construction of the Dome (Pasquini, 2005). In contrast, the cupola’s natural light is let in through 16 hand-crafted glass windows. Its relief and shadow are cast via the columns’ arches and the spaces between them. The inscriptions may be seen wherever one looks, including the rim of the cupola (Renard, 2013), the Mihrab niche, the doorway’s frame, and the frieze along the exterior and interior walls, which depicts a singular figure in the column’s capital.

Critics agree that the cupola’s arc originally had a “horseshoe-like” form, which should have been accentuated because it seems to rise and is reminiscent of a nighttime glimpse into the specially crafted celestial spheres (Lucas, 2017). The octagonal shape of the earth necessitates a drum base, which supports the Dome. According to critics, the original mosaic is more like glass than porcelain. Like the four cardinal portals, the Dome represents the geographic center of the earth. Above the arches surrounding the tomb, Nakshi calligraphy’s subtle effects may be seen as they sing God’s praises.

Even though it is not a mosque, it is the first public Islamic place of worship. According to popular legend, the Islamic prophet Muhammad rose to heaven from this location. The Jewish faith attaches great significance to the site since it is there that Abraham, the progenitor and pioneer of the Hebrews, is claimed to have sacrificed his son Isaac (Cytryn-Silverman, 2020). Although its roots in “Byzantine architectural history,” the Dome’s construction in the seventh century demonstrates an early milestone in developing a distinct Islamic aesthetic style. Christians and Jews equally believed the “Dome of the Rock” to be Solomon’s temple until the Muslim troops retook possession of Jerusalem in 1187 (Cytryn-Silverman, 2020). The “Dome of the Rock” was constructed between 685 and 691 AD by the caliph, who did not intend for it to be a place of worship for the general population but rather a place of pilgrimage (Lucas, 2017).

Researchers have concluded that the Dome of the Rock represents one Islamic worldview viewpoint. On the other hand, the places where it was established, the design, the size, the form, and the color of buildings in Islam all reflect the personal beliefs of the architects who built them. Research indicates that churches modelled the distinctive patterns shown by the Dome of the Rock in Byzantium.


Cytryn-Silverman, K. (2020). The Dome and the Rock Where Adam, Moses, and Jesus Meet. In Jerusalem and Other Holy Places as Foci of Multireligious and Ideological Confrontation (pp. 71-96). Brill.

Lucas, S. (2017). An efficacious Invocation inscribed on the Dome of the Rock: Literary and epigraphic Evidence for a first-Century Ḥadīth. Journal of Near Eastern Studies76(2), 215-230.

Pasquini, E. (2005). Old City of Jerusalem Revitalization Program Honored With Architectural Award. WASHINGTON REPORT ON MIDDLE EAST AFFAIRS24(7), 24.

Renard, J. (2013). Berger, Pamela. The Crescent on the Temple: The Dome of the Rock as Image of the Ancient Jewish Sanctuary. Studies in Religion and the Arts Series. Leiden and Boston: EJ Brill, 2012. Pp. xxvi+ 367+ 132 illustrations. $171.00 cloth. Religion and the Arts17(5), 607-609.

Vera Skincare Enterprise Free Sample

Executive Summary

Search for beauty is a current social trend, and ladies are determined to become more attractive by improving the appearance of their skin. Vera Skincare Enterprise (VSE) will provide different cosmetic products, such as body lotions and hair relaxers made using fruits as the main ingredients. The products will help improve the skiing appearance, making it smooth and more beautiful. Lemon, avocado, oranges, and palm fruits are among the target fruits that the enterprise will use as raw materials for producing oil and body lotion that will make skin smooth and soften the hair making the ladies more attractive. The enterprise will offer products to young and older people interested in improving their skin health and texture. The lotions will help enhance skin health for ladies aged between 15 and 45, the main target customers. Body lotions, moisturizing creams, and hair relaxers will be the main products of the enterprise.

Business Need


Vera Skincare Enterprise (VSE) will provide different cosmetic products. The cosmetic business is one of the fastest-growing industries in the UK. In the last five years, many customers have been showing interest in using organic and sustainable products, and most of them have refrained from purchasing beauty products that are not organic. In the UK, over 40% of the clients would prefer purchasing organic products making the organic beauty market grow (Goulde 2022). The future of the cosmetic market in the UK will be monopolized by skincare products that are organic, simple, and eco-conscious. However, there are few inquiries that are producing organic beauty products, hence, creating a business gap. Therefore, Vera Skincare Enterprise will locally manufacture cosmetic products to treat skin diseases using vegetables and fruits, as shown in the product plan form below.

Table 1

Summary of the Product Plan Form

Summary of the Product Plan Form


The business will be based in England. Although there has been an increase in consumer demand for cosmetic products, limited delivery channels are making the large population using cosmetic products need more suppliers. Moreover, as ladies look for beauty, there is an increasing demand for body lotions from natural raw materials. According to Goulde 2022, the lockdown during COVID-19 facilitated growth in the beauty industry within the UK. While people were at home, they focused more on self-care, making the skincare market grow to over €3 billion (Goulde 2022). Goulde 2022 notes that moisturizers and creams that can help relax the body after a long day of work have increased in demand resulting in a growth of the industry by 38%. After the restrictions, people returned to their saloons for skin care products, increasing the demand for UK skincare products.


The enterprise will need direct marketing and online advertisement to help in promoting the brand. Jodie 2022 notes that social media influencers are leading in popularizing the makeup industry in the UK. Beauty and wellness have been trending through social media channels, such as Instagram, making more people interested in the cosmetic industry. Consequently, there has been a rise in the number of companies registered using the word “beauty “as part of their name.


The increase in inflation is a severe factor to consider when setting the prices of products. However, the cost-plus pricing strategy will be the best approach at the start of the business. Through cost-plus pricing, it will be possible for the enterprise to break even within a short period. Therefore, different sizes of products will be changed based on their cost of production and the prices set by competitors.


The enterprise will engage employees who are excellent at providing customer service to serve as salespersons. A positive customer experience will give the business a competitive advantage within the UK. The customer care team will be accessible, efficient, and practical and provide free consultancy services. The staff will include a senior manager, operation and production staff, sales and marketing persons, skin therapy and hairdressing staff, records keeping and accounting, inventory control staff, retailers, and distributors.


The enterprise will reach the market through online advertisements and online shopping. Since the products will be extracted from natural products, environmental sustainability will be at the center of the enterprise. The distribution will be made through retailers, wholesalers, and individual distribution.

Physical Evidence

The enterprises understand the need for physical evidence of products and sales. It will establish a physical store where clients can visit and have an experience with the brand and ask questions for further clarification.

Ancillary Revenue Streams

The business will generate ancillary revenue through perfumes, eyeliner, mascara, and lipstick sales.

Financial Analysis

Direct Product Costing

The raw materials used in the production process will be part of the final product. Table 2 shows the specific cost for raw materials the enterprise will need to start production. The table has four columns: the column for the raw materials, the cost of the raw material per kg, the number of Kg needed, and the total cost.


The Direct Product Costing Form for Vera Skincare Enterprise for the First Month of Operation

Raw materials Cost per Kg(€) Number of Kgs needed Total cost (€)
Oranges 2 50 100
Palm fruits 1 40 40
grapes 2.5 30 75
lemon 2 30 60
Chew cumber 1.5 50 75
Avocados 3 50 150
Total 12 250 500

Direct and Indirect Labour Cost

The enterprise will need fifteen staff members responsible for different departments and production stages during start-up, as summarised in Table 3 below.

Table 3

A Summary of Direct and Indirect Labour Costs

Staff Members No. Of Staff Total Monthly Working Hours Total Monthly Compensation (€) Direct Cost Of Labour Indirect Cost Of Labour
Total Monthly Production Hours Compensation For Time Free From Production(€) Total Hours Free From Production Activities Payment For Time Free From Production Activities(€)
The Enterprise General Manager 1 210 600 ……………… ………………… 210 600
Operation staff 3 630 1200 630 1200 ……………… …………..
Inventory managers 3 630 1200 …………….. ……………. 630 1200
Records and financial managers 2 420 600 ……………….. ……………… 420 600
Sales and marketing 3 630 600 ……………. ……………….. 630 600
Skin therapists and hairdressers 3 630 1200 630 1200 ……….. …………
Total 15 3150 5400 1260 2400 1890 3000

The direct cost of labor per hour (DCL/h) is given by;

DCL/h = (Total compensation for the time in production) / (Total time in production)

DLC/h = 2400/1260

DLC/h = €1.905

Direct Labour Cost per Product

Consider a hair relaxer or avocado cream produced within 10 minutes (1/6 hrs.) by the operation team. The direct labor cost per item will be given by multiplication the direct cost of labor per hour by the time taken to produce a product, as illustrated in Table 4 below.

Table 4

Calculation of Direct Labour Cost per Item

Production Activities Time For Every Activity
Mixing raw materials 2 minutes
Loading raw material into the machine 2 minutes
Making final product 2 minutes
Total 6min = 0.1hrs * 1.905 = €0.1905 (direct cost per item)

Indirect Cost

The indirect costs the investors will incur when starting and running the business are illustrated in Table 5 below.

Table 5

Form for Indirect Cost for Vera Skincare Enterprise

Items Indirect costs per month (€)
Water and electricity bills 100
Rent 150
Indirect labor 3000
Insurance and legal documents 30
Depreciation 20
Sales promotion 150
Distribution 200
miscellaneous 100
Total indirect cost 3750

The Total Cost per Item

The total cost per item is indirect, direct labor, and direct materials.

Table 6

Calculation of Total Cost per Item

Related posts Related amounts (€)
Direct labor 2400
Direct material 500
Indirect cost 3750
Total 6650

Cost Benefit Analysis

The projection for sales and revenue for the first year of operation of the enterprise is summarised in Table 7 below.

Table 7

Sales and Cost for the First Year of Operation

Months of the year Details
Sales(€) Direct cost of materials(€) Direct labor cost (€) Gross profit (€) Indirect cost (€) Net profit (€)
Jan. 2000 500 2400 (900) 3750 (4650)
Feb. 3000 700 2400 (100) 3750 (3850)
Mar. 3400 1000 2400 0 3750 (3750)
Apr. 4000 1000 2400 600 3750 (3150)
May 6000 1600 2400 2000 3750 (1750)
Jun. 8000 2000 2400 3600 3750 (150)
Jul. 8000 2500 2400 3750 3750 0
Agst. 9000 2500 2400 4100 3750 350
Sep. 12000 3000 2400 6600 3750 2850
Oct. 14400 3000 2400 9000 3750 5250
Nov. 19000 4500 2400 11800 3750 8050
Dec. 20000 4000 2400 13800 3750 10050
Total 61400 26300 28800 50250 45000 7250

Table 7 shows that the business will give a return on investment, and July will be the break-even month. After July, the company will generate net income, increasing over time. For the first year of operation, the business will cause a net gain of €7250. the analysis indicates that the company is viable, and the investors can start with information that they will start earning profit from the 8th month of the year.

Cost of Equipment’s Needed

For the first year of the business operation, the investors must invest in operation equipment, illustrated in Table 8 below.

Table 8

List of Equipment

Equipment Reason for need How to obtain Cost (€)
Machine Production Purchase 4000
Van Transportation Lease 800
Office furniture Office operation Purchase 500
Office fitting Office set up Purchase 500
Messaging equipment Communication Purchase 200
Total 6000

Total Start-Up Cost

Table 9

An Illustration of the Total Start-Up Cost for Management of the Business for the First Year of Operation

Item Cost (€)
Equipment 6000
The direct cost of material 26300
Direct labor cost 28800
Indirect cost 45000
Total cost 106,100

Implementation and Execution

Source of Funds

From the financial analysis section, the investors will need 106,100 to start the enterprise and run it effectively for the first financial year. The investors can source the funds from the owner’s equity. If the investors opt for taking a lone, they must include the interest on the loan under the indirect cost to find the total cost.

The Launch Plan

The product launch will involve several activities scheduled at different times during the first two months of operation. The enterprise will borrow the product launch schedule known as the RACE framework (RACE- Research, Act, Convert, and Engage). According to Chaffey 2022, we are in an entrepreneurial era where digital information has the highest audience. Therefore, marketers should avoid minor launch mistakes that may cast the business promotion. Chaffey 2022 suggests that the RACE framework is a better structure that can help organizations trace their journey with the customers. Figure 1 is a summary RACE framework.

Figure 1

The RACE framework (Chaffey 2022)

The RACE framework (Chaffey 2022)

The Gantt Chart

The chart is based on the RACE framework, and the event distribution will be illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Gantt Chart for the Launch Plan

Gantt Chart

Success Factors

The cosmetics industry is one of the fastest-growing business areas in the UK. Malone 2022 shows that many ladies do several homework tests before settling on the skincare oil they use. She notes that there is an opportunity to help the ladies get their skin attractive and healthy by providing them with products made from natural resources. However, due to the increasing population in the country, the current providers need to adequately meet the customers’ demands. Vera skincare enterprise aims to fill the business gap by producing cosmetic products made from organic ingredients. The company’s success is pegged on addressing different cosmetic needs ranging from hairstyle to skin color. The success factors of the business can be assessed through SWOT analysis, as shown in Table 10.

Table 10

SWOT Analysis of Vera Skincare Enterprise

SWOT Analysis
Strengths  Weaknesses
· Availability of raw materials.

· Availability of capital.

· High market demand for cosmetic products.

· Friendly business environment.

· Quality products and packaging.

· Skin therapy will gain fame among women.

· Free consultancy service.

· Limited natural resources such as fruits and vegetables.

· Limited skilled labor experienced in the production area.

· Inadequate market experience as compared to other competitors.

· Few workers would delay production.

Opportunity Threats
· New products with organic ingredients.

· Only some competitors produce the products.

· Competitors need to meet the high demand for cosmetic products.

· Banks within the UK are willing to support business ideas.

· Customers may be loyal to the existing companies and may take time to adapt to us.

· Dynamics in customers’ needs may affect their satisfaction.

Contingency Plan

The investors will place a contingency plan to help address the weaknesses and threats of the business. Table 11 summarizes the contingency plan the investors will apply to address the weaknesses and threats.

Table 11

Contingency Plan

Weaknesses Contingency plan
a) Limited natural resources such as fruits and vegetables.

b) Limited skilled labor experienced in the production area.

c) Inadequate market experience as compared to other competitors.

d) Few workers would delay production.

a) Import fruits and vegetables to supplement the available resources.

b) Offer in-service training of the available labor force.

c) Do comprehensive market research.

d) Employ more workers as the business expands.

Threats Contingency plan
a) Customers may be loyal to the existing companies and may take time to adapt to us.

b) Dynamics in customers’ needs may affect their satisfaction.

c) Invest in marketing to reach a wide area and inform about the new product.

d) Invest in systematic market research to identify the changes in customers’ tastes.

Marketing Budget Distribution

The enterprise intends to invest in an advertisement by using different media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, radio, and shows. Highly skilled marketing managers will help plan product advertisements in other regions within the UK. Marketing will enable the firm to create awareness of the products and persuade customers to have experience with the new products. Moreover, the promotion will assist in informing potential customers of the location where they can get the products and sell the brand image.

Table 12

A Summary of Product Promotion Budget Distribution

Advertisement Details Cost (€)
Banner on the building Showing the name of the enterprise and the list of products 30
Radio Tell clients information on where to find our products 50
Public shows Using music within an area with target customers 50
Stickers Sent to vendors and retailers, and daily customers 20
Free delivery Delivery to customers and retailers 0
Direct selling 0
Total 150

Recommendations and Future Plans

The longevity of the business depends on entrepreneurial sustainability. According to Tur, Roig, and Llorca 2018, sustainability involves addressing business environmental factors and human behavior-related factors. Comprehensive sustainability covers “economic prosperity, environmental integrity, and social sustainability” (Tur, Roig, and Llorca 2018, p.2). The investors in Vera skincare enterprise must consider environmental integrity by producing environmentally friendly helps to safeguard future generations. Exceptional well-being is a critical factor for organizational progress; thus, the investors must value the social capital through a pleasant working environment for all organization members.

Moreover, economic prosperity depends on the nature of products and quality of services. High-quality products are one of the strengths of the Vera skin care enterprise. The investors must invest in quality control on all products to ensure that they keep the standards that meet the expectation of prospective customers (Almohaimmeed 2019). In addition, high-quality customer service will help the enterprise to retain its customers.

Additionally, the future of the business will depend on the quality and frequency of research during the operation. In every industry, the customer is the most precious component. The taste and preferences of customers depend on the quality of products, value, ethics, and emotional factors. Hanaysha, Al-Shaikh, and Alzoubi 2021 note that market researches are the most effective approach that enterprise investors can use to understand the dynamics of customers’ needs (Hanaysha, Al-Shaikh, and Alzoubi 2021). Understanding customer preference will help improve the quality of the products and the nature of the promotion. Consequently, they will increase their customer base and create an opportunity for business expansion.

Finally, the investors should consider the opportunities and use them to expand their business operations. Noting the high demand for cosmetic products within the UK and the new products that the enterprise will offer, there is an opportunity for business expansion. The investors can reinvest the profit to open more stores in different locations to reach more customers and improve the business’s competitive advantage. Moreover, there is an opportunity to invest in the farming of fruits and vegetables to reduce the cost of raw materials and increase the profit. Considering these recommendations will place the enterprise in an excellent financial position such that the investors will have adequate funds to improve the business within the next five years.

Reference List

Almohaimmeed B 2019. Pillars of customer retention: An empirical study on the influence of customer satisfaction, loyalty, and profitability on customer retention. Serbian Journal of Management14(2), p.421-435. Available from: [6 April 2023]

Chaffey D 2022. ‘Product launch marketing plan example.’ Smart Insight. Available from: [6 April 2023]

Goulde T 2022. ‘The growth of the UK beauty industry.’ TechRound. Available from: [6 April 2023]

Hanaysha JR, Al-Shaikh ME and Alzoubi HM 2021. Importance of marketing mix elements in determining consumer purchase decision in the retail market. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology (IJSSMET)12(6), pp.56-72. Available from: [6 April 2023]

Jodie J 2022. ‘The expansion of the beauty industry in the UK.’ Companies House. Available from: [6 April 2023]

Malone M 2022. ‘UK women’s facial skincare market report 2022.’Mintel. Available from: [6 April 2023]

Tur PA, Roig TN and Llorca MA 2018. ‘Factors affecting entrepreneurship and business sustainability.’ Sustainability10(2), p. 1-12. Available from: [6 April 2023]

Comprehensive School Sexuality Education Vs. Abstinence-Only University Essay Example


Comprehensive school sexuality education includes teaching and learning about social, cognitive, physical, and emotional concepts of sexuality based on a curriculum. It enables learners to develop knowledge, values, skills, and attitudes toward understanding health and well-being as far as sexuality is concerned. Comprehensive school sexuality education also promotes respectful sexual and social relationships. On the other hand, abstinence-only education includes teaching learners to abstain from sexual activities before marriage and excludes information regarding the role of sexual protection measures like condoms.

Summary for Each Side

Comprehensive School Sexuality Education

  • Comprehensive school sexuality education empowers learners to make informed decisions regarding sexuality and relationships (UNESCO, 2018)
  • Comprehensive school sexuality education helps address the health and well-being of learners by providing emphasizing values such as equality, empathy, responsibility, non-discriminatory, and self-discipline (UNESCO, 2018)
  • It increases learners’ knowledge and enhances their attitudes toward reproductive and sexual health and behaviors (UNESCO, 2018)
  • According to UNFPA (2018), comprehensive school sexuality education allows learners to safeguard and advocate for their health, dignity, and well-being
  • Comprehensive school sexuality education is vital to combatting violence, discrimination, and abuse and promoting respect for diversity (STRASBOURG, 2020)
  • Comprehensive school sexuality education prevents teens from falling prey to online sexual extortion, cyberbullying, and other sexual exploitation practices
  • It helps reduce the stigma and discrimination related to certain gender identities and sexual orientations (STRASBOURG, 2020)

Abstinence-Only Education

  • Abstinence-only education helps reduce emotional attachment issues
  • Abstinence-only education affects marginalized students and ethnic/racial minorities, and LGBTQ students (Hoefer & Hoefer, 2017)
  • Abstinence-only education is medically inaccurate and compromises learners’ healthy sexual development (Wind, 2017)
  • Abstinence-only education is not effective in reducing incidences of STIs, HIV, and pregnancies among teens (Guttmacher Institute, 2021)
  • Abstinence-only education does not equip learners with information about STIs, contraceptives, and health communication that they need to go through these experiences
  • It is unfavorable and isolating for children and teens who have been forced into sexual practices
  • Abstinence-only education promotes guilt, fear, judgment, and shame around sexuality (Guttmacher Institute, 2021)

Side of Debate that I favor – Comprehensive School Sexuality Education

Comprehensive school sexuality education is more effective and popular than abstinence-only education. Comprehensive sexuality education provides learners with age-appropriate information regarding sexuality, enabling them to make informed decisions about their sexual health and well-being. On the other hand, abstinence-only education emphasizes inspiring children and teens to desist from sexual activity until marriage. However, many studies and expert opinions have proven abstinence-only education medically inaccurate and ineffective. One of the primary benefits of comprehensive school sexuality education includes empowering teens to make informed decisions regarding their sexual health, well-being, and relationships. Learners receiving comprehensive school sexuality education are prepared to understand and discuss consent, navigate through sexual behaviors and experiences, and protect themselves from STIs, HIV, and pregnancies. UNESCO (2018) maintained that comprehensive school sexuality education promotes values such as non-discrimination, equality, responsibility, and self-discipline.

On the other hand, abstinence-only education limits sexual information and encourages teens and children to desist from sexual activity until marriage. However, Guttmacher Institute (2021) argued that abstinence-only education is ineffective in addressing HIV, STIs, and pregnancies. Wind (2017) also claimed that abstinence-only education could interfere with learners’ sexual health knowledge and development. It does not allow learners to understand significant information regarding sexual health communication, STIs, and contraceptives. Abstinence-only education isolates marginalized groups, including LGBTQ, because it does not recognize the complexity of human sexual life.

Comprehensive school sexuality education is fundamental to combatting discrimination, violence, and abuse (STRASBOURG, 2020). It promotes respect for diversity and reduces the stigma associated with sexual orientations and gender identities. Comprehensive school sexuality education prevents adolescents from sexual exploitation practices and cyber-bullying. On the other hand, abstinence-only education can promote fear, shame, and guilt on sexual health practices. Hoefer and Hoefer (2017) argued that abstinence-only education does not provide sufficient information for teens on protecting themselves against STIs and HIV. It is worth noting that comprehensive school sexuality education does not encourage teens to engage in sexual practices, but it educates them about the significance of maintaining healthy sexual practices, including using contraceptives.

Comprehensive school sexuality education is a vital public health tool providing adolescents with knowledge and skills to make informed decisions about their sexuality. It comprises topics, such as community skills and promote sexual relationships. UNFPA (2018) noted that comprehensive sexuality education promotes human rights; for example, it minimizes teenage pregnancies, protecting adolescents’ rights to education. Comprehensive school sexuality education helps adolescents and children understand what is normal. It provides adolescents and children with significant information about maintaining a good hygiene. The approach provides a supportive and inclusive environment that encourages learners to respect diversity. On the other hand, abstinence-only education can spread harmful stereotypes and discrimination, which can negatively impact mental health and well-being of learners.

In conclusion, comprehensive school sexuality education provides children and adolescents with accurate sexual health information. It allows learners to make informed decisions regarding their sexual health and relationships. It reduces stigma and discrimination related to certain gender identities and sexual orientations. On the other hand, abstinence-only education is medically inaccurate and compromises learners’ healthy sexual development and does not equip learners with information about STIs, contraceptives, and health communication that they need to go through these experiences.


Guttmacher Institute. (2021, April 28). Federally funded abstinence-only programs: Harmful and ineffective. Guttmacher Institute.

Hoefer, S. E., & Hoefer, R. (2017). Worth the wait? The consequences of abstinence-only sex education for marginalized students. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 12(3), 257–276.

STRASBOURG. (2020, July 21). Comprehensive sexuality education protects children and helps build a safer, inclusive society. Commissioner for Human Rights.

UNESCO. (2018, February 15). Why comprehensive sexuality education is important.

UNFPA. (2018). Comprehensive sexuality education.

Wind, R. (2017, August 22). Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs are ineffective and harmful to young people, expert review confirms. Guttmacher Institute.