The Mediating Effect Of Job Happiness On The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction Essay Sample For College

Introduction

Employee happiness has attracted significant attention from scholars and practitioners because employees who are committed and engaged in their work exhibit greater performance and lower turnover intentions (Othman et al., 2018). Studies frequently associate workplace social contract, psychological contract, and work engagement with employee happiness. However, these studies mainly examine the individual relationship between these variables and neglect the subject of how moderating and mediating factors such as decent work factors may affect the relationship. Therefore, this literature review aims to explore and synthesize relevant research studies on workplace social support, psychological contracts, work engagement, and employee happiness in the UAE.

Employee Happiness

Early research studies on organizational behavior tended to focus more on the constructs of negative psychology applicable in the workplace, such as distress, anger, anxiety, burnout, and depression. Intensification of work, due to the persistent economic uncertainty and intensified competition, has spurred a gradual focus on examining the posit facets of human strengths that have become more substantial such as employee happiness at work (Dahiya & Rangnekar, 2018). During the current situation, employee happiness becomes subjective as well as an emerging topic in business and management (Joo & Lee, 2017). Employee happiness is given more importance because there is an influence on employee feelings, outcomes, emotions, and attitudes for happy and productive employees (Kiran & Khurram, 2018). Dahiya and Rangnekar (2018) argue that contemporary business organizations can achieve strategic business goals and objectives only if they adopt an appropriate management system with a positive approach that encourages and increases the happiness of their workforce. Therefore, the importance of employee happiness for both employees and employers cannot be underestimated.

Scholars and practitioners define the concept of employee happiness differently. According to Al-Ali et al. (2019), happiness generally describes an individual’s psychological well-being. Based on their research on fast-food restaurants in Jordan, Alserhan et al. (2021) found that happy employees are more satisfied with their work-life, exhibit positive emotional experiences, and have higher turnover intentions. According to a conceptual framework of happiness developed by Wesarat et al. (2014), the construct applies to positive emotional experiences related to the individual’s life and job. In the workplace, some scholars and researchers relate happiness to employee engagement (Othman et al., 2018). In this regard, employee happiness relates to how a person feels about the job and life in general.

Happiness has an impact on several employee and organizational outcomes. Majorly, employees who are happy at work are said to be more engaged and satisfied with their job, perform better, and tend to be more loyal to their employer (Claypool, 2017; Alserhan et al., 2021). Mérida‐López et al. (2019) stated that employees consider themselves happy when they are satisfied with the workplace. Joo and Lee (2017) mentioned that work-related employee happiness relates to the work environment as per the understanding of well-being or happiness. According to Eshelman and Rottinghaus (2019), there are five sub-dimensions to measure employee happiness. They include survival and power, social connection, self-determination, and meaning. Workplace happiness is also about career and work happiness, and there is a considerable relationship between work engagement and subjective well-being.

The important role of investing in employee happiness to ensure organizational success is being recognized in Arab countries. For instance, the UAE launched a national happiness program to enhance Emirati people’s happiness on a continuous basis depending on their emotional health as well (Estopace, 2017). Estopace (2017) explained that the program includes Emirati people being positive and happy. In 2016, the Government of the UAE launched the Ministry of Happiness to achieve a happier society as a part of the national project. It is considered to be one of the unique and innovative programs in the UAE that ensures that the people in the UAE are happy. Petkari and Ortiz-Tallo (2018) stressed that the population of the UAE is more than 9.5 million, and there are only 1.4 million Emiratis because the majority of the population are Filipinos, Pakistanis, and Indians. The launch of the national happiness program shows that the UAE is interested in the happiness and mental health of Emiratis.

There are empirical studies that focus on the UAE population in general. However, scholars have argued that there is little research focus on the Emiratis region only (Petkari & Ortiz-Tallo, 2018). Petkari and Ortiz-Tallo (2018) also stated that there are studies conducted either qualitative or quantitative, and triangulation is not considered for higher reliability and validity of happiness findings in the UAE. All these facts highlight the importance of research study on the happiness of Emiratis in the UAE with the use of blended research methods.

Workplace Social Support and Employee Happiness

Relational resources, particularly workplace social support, have a significant impact on employee happiness and success in the workplace. Workplace social support refers to the “exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or the recipient to be intended to enhance the well-being of the recipient’’ (Shumaker & Brownell, 1984, p. 13, as cited in Schutte & Loi, 2014). Kiran and Khurram (2018) and Parent-Lamarche and Marchand (2019) provided similar definitions of workplace social support by describing the construct as the support from employee’s colleagues and supervisors. Schutte and Loi (2014) explained that support from supervisory or managerial positions may take different forms, including direct, instrumental assistance with handling job-related problems and advice. Luchman and González-Morales (2013) agree with Schutte and Loi (2014) that workplace social support may manifest in a positive relationship with managers or supervisors. Workplace social support is a form of social capital – social networks, norms, and trust, which allow employees to cooperate and coordinate for mutual benefit (Schutte & Loi, 2014). Thus, workplace social support comes from all organizational levels and may take many different forms.

Furthermore, employees who receive support from their colleagues and supervisors tend to be happy in the workplace. Support from colleagues and supervisors have a positive impact on employee happiness. In a recent study of antecedents and mechanism of happiness at work, Qaiser et al. (2020) found that employees who receive support from their colleagues tend to be happier and thrive more at work than their peers with unfulfilled promises and expectations. In their study of 281 childcare teachers in Korea, Yuh and Choi (2017) established that support from both management and junior workmates predicted job satisfaction. Supervisors and colleagues showing social support enable happiness, and employees feel there is continuous support for problem-solving (Kaushal, 2020; Mérida-López et al., 2019; Jackman et al., 2020). Parent-Lamarche and Marchand (2019) also mentioned that social support enables better levels of well-being at the workplace because people feel they are important.

Workplace social support has a positive impact on employees’ health and overall well-being at work. The results of the investigation undertaken by Mundia et al. (2017) stated that people are happy at the workplace due to better work relationships showing less stress and good interpersonal relationships. Luchman and González-Morales (2013) explained that social support, particularly positive relationships with supervisory or management staff, may contribute to employee happiness by reducing job demands. Cho (2019) made consistent observations which showed that social support contributes to positive psychological wellbeing. These findings are confirmed by a recent study by Qaiser et al. (2020), which established that support from colleagues reduces the risk of employees feeling overwhelmed by job-related tasks. Therefore, it is essential that colleagues and supervisors are caring to enable social support at the workplace. The presence of an unsupportive and poor workplace means unsatisfied employees and higher rates of absenteeism.

Social support has been cited as one of the productive workplace behavior in the UAE. Jabeen and Isakovic (2018) found that organizations are able to achieve social support and interpersonal support through participation in decision-making. However, this study did not emphasize employee happiness but instead career satisfaction and trust. In another research by Waxin et al. (2020), it is possible to facilitate social support during social events and networking, where all employees get to attend. It includes socializing events for all employees and a mix of both work and non-work-related environments.

Hypothesis

This study hypothesizes that there exists a direct positive relationship between workplace social support and employee happiness. That is, employees who receive support from their colleagues and management are likely to be happier at work.

Psychological Contracts and Employee Happiness

A psychological contract is a psychological or cognitive state which defines how an individual perceives and relates to an organization. It refers to “an individual’s beliefs regarding the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange agreement between the focal person and another party” (Rousseau, 1989, p. 123, as cited in Hansen & Griep, 2016). It represents a sense of duty between the employee and employer or perceived mutual obligation to offer specific resources between the two parties. The psychological contract develops and is nurtured primarily based on how the employee interacts with the organization and its people, policies, and procedures (Hansen & Griep, 2016). Drawing on the psychoanalytic perspective, Driver (2018) regarded this mental model as to how employees perceive the way they relate or interact with their employer. In this regard, psychological contract relates to employees’ relationship with their work and organization as a whole.

Psychological contracts fall into two broad distinctive forms: transactional or relational. According to Knapp et al. (2020), transactional contracts tend to be short-term and based on monetary contracts, thus individuals pay more attention to materialistic gain rather than getting involved in others’ lives and activities. In light of this form of contract, workers are motivated largely by salary and wages. On the other hand, relational contracts go beyond monetary outcomes to include mutually rewarding socio-emotional relationships. Bal et al. (2013) explain that “the relationship between employees and employers is predicated on longer-term, open-ended engagement that enables workers to develop and grow with that employer” (p. 553). A positive psychological contract predicts employee happiness as employees who relate with an organization’s management tend to thrive and be happier at work (Qaiser et al., 2020). The way employees perceive their employer’s actions influence how they behave and feel about the organization. Therefore, when workers believe that their expectations are fulfilled, they are likely to exhibit positive attitudes and behaviors.

Hypothesis

In light of the existing literature, psychological contract is positively related to employee happiness.

Work Engagement and Employee Happiness

Practitioners and scholars are paying attention to employee engagement in a diversified field. Employee engagement is defined as the expression of people under employment showing positive feelings and a state of mind (Shuck et al., 2017). According to Eldor and Vigoda-Gadot (2017), employee engagement has been widely defined in the organizational behavior literature as “an active, fulfilling and work-related state of mind that includes a strong identification with the organization and self-expression” (p. 526). The construct has been associated with individuals who are more involved, passionate, enthusiastic, and energetic in the workplace (Eldor & Vigoda-Gadot, 2017). Othman et al. (2018) and Claypool (2017) consistently emphasized the need for scholars and practitioners to consider the aspect of employee engagement when measuring happiness. Othman et al. (2018) explained that happy employees exhibit higher commitment and engagement in their work. On the same note, Kumar and Pansari (2015) highlight five major dimensions of employee engagement, which are satisfaction, identification, commitment, loyalty, and performance. They equally characterize employees who are happy at work.

The growing interest in the link between employee engagement and happiness can be attributed to the value of positive emotions in the workplace. According to Kiran and Khurram (2018), work engagement is the engagement of employees at work based on emotional, cognitive, and physical involvement. Work engagement is about the feelings of employees being connected with their organization, and they are able to move ahead. Organizations usually pay attention to employee’s work engagement for the achievement of organizational goals. Halinski and Harrison (2020) studied employee work engagement, and the findings were interesting towards positive outcomes of the organization. Kotze (2018) stated that work engagement is actually a good and positive feeling and state of the mind so that employees can better handle their work-related demands. The characteristics of work engagement are absorption, dedication, and vigor. In light of the conceptual framework developed by Kumar and Pansari (2015), individuals who are engaged in their work tend to be strongly committed to, identify with, and be satisfied with what they do and their current employer.

Many companies in UAE are investing in programs focused on making both their human resources and customers satisfied and happy. Lasrado (2018) presented employee engagement within the UAE’s context for business growth and productivity. The emphasis of this study is not employee happiness but rather employee involvement to improve business performance and customer and employee satisfaction. Costantini et al. (2017) found that workers who exhibit higher engagement tend to be more energetic and have a good level of connection with what they do in the workplace. It is also considered as the positive behavior where positive outcomes are achieved. However, this study did not consider investigation with workplace social support or the role of decent work factors. Therefore, it is a good point for organizational motivation to ensure employee work engagements are boosted and particularly in the public sector.

Hypothesis

The research study anticipates finding that high engagement (job and organizational) increases employee happiness.

Moderating Effect of Decent Work Factors

Decent work makes up an integral component of employees’ happiness and overall wellbeing. Decent work is characterized by safe working environment that is free from any form of abuse, flexible work arrangements that allow work-life balance, and fair compensation, including access to adequate healthcare (Duffy et al., 2016). When all of these conditions are fulfilled, work is deemed decent, and employees become happy at work. The results of the study undertaken by Duffy et al. (2016) showed that many factors influence the ability to secure decent work, including marginalization, economic constraints, and feedback loop. This relationship may be mediated by an individual’s work volition and ability to adapt to the career, and moderated by variables such as proactive personality, critical consciousness, economic conditions, and social support (Duffy et al., 2016). However, the findings of this investigation are limited by the focus on people who are poor, marginalized, and facing low work opportunity.

Hypothesis

The researcher expects that the results of this investigation will show that decent work factors moderate the positive relationships between workplace social support, psychological contract, and employee engagement and employee happiness.

Underpinning Theory

There are varying theories of employee happiness and its relationship with other organizational outcomes. Kahneman’s (1999) happiness theory is based on objective happiness with both positive experience and hedonic that shows an emphasis on subjective experience. Diener and Lucas’s (2000) theory of happiness is about subjective well-being based on positive experience, satisfaction of life, and hedonic. According to Haybron (2003), there are three basic views of happiness theory, and they are hedonism, life satisfaction view, affective and subjective well-being. Waterman et al.’s (2010) happiness theory is about Eudaimonic well-being, and the focus is on personal excellence. Comparison Theory by Festinger’s (1954) implies that if one simply lowers one’s standards, one will be happy. It does not set any minimum standards for “a good life.” Affect Theory by Silvan Tomkins (1962) views happiness as a positive emotion that reflects an appraisal of how an individual feels. However, this theory does not capture the qualitative aspect of life experiences. Self-Determination Theory by Ryan et al. (2008) asserts that the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs, which are autonomy, competency, and relatedness, is essential to achieving personal growth, integrity, and happiness.

Some models of happiness identify varying dimensions and components of a happy life. According to the authentic happiness model developed by Seligman (2002) cited in Seligman (2011), an all-round happy life is marked by a sense of engagement, meaning, and pleasure. The revised framework includes five variables that are central to positive human wellbeing “positive emotions, Engagement, positive relationships, meaning, and Accomplishment” (Seligman, 2011). In light of the updated model, people who are highly engaged and relate positively with others in the workplace are likely to live a fulfilling, happier, and meaningful live. The recently published Psychology of Working Theory (PWT) makes more contribution to the psychology of working theory. Unlike other theories, it emphasizes the role of socioeconomic constraints in shaping work and well-being outcomes such as employee happiness (Duffy et al., 2016). According to the PWT, decent work consists of “(a) safe working conditions, both interpersonally and physically, (b) hours that allow for rest and free time, (c) organizational values that align with family and social values, (d)adequate compensation, and (e) access to fair health care” (Duffy et al., 2016, p. 127). Both the new well-being theory and PWT are fitting and will inform the proposed research.

Conclusion

The relationship between workplace social contract, psychological contract, work engagement, and employee happiness has been studied extensively. Research has established that workplace social contract, psychological contract, and work engagement are directly and positively related to employee happiness. However, these constructs are largely examined individually in different studies, thus, there is little understanding about the relationship between these variables. In addition, research on these relationships in Arab countries, remain relatively scarce. These findings suggest a need for further research to examine the relationship between workplace social support, psychological contracts, work engagement, and employee happiness in the UAE and how decent work factors moderate this relationship.

References

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Appendix A

Format for Literature Review Assignment

In recent years, the study of employee happiness has attracted significant attention from scholars and practitioners and has become an increasingly important research topic in the field of organizational behavior. Studies frequently associate workplace social contract, psychological contract, and work engagement with employee happiness. However, these studies mainly examine the individual relationship between these variables and neglect the subject of how moderating and mediating factors such as decent work factors may affect the relationship. Therefore, this literature review aims to explore and synthesize relevant research studies on workplace social support, psychological contracts, work engagement, and employee happiness in the UAE.

Employee Happiness [DV]

Author/Year Variable Methodology Findings Gaps
Dahiya & Rangnekar (2018) Employee happiness Literature review Organizations can use positive emotional contagion to modify their employees’ behavior to do what they want. Limited research on how to foster or nurture employee happiness in Indian organizations
Joo & Lee (2017) Organizational support, psychological capital, and happiness Cross-sectional survey of South Korean employees Employees who scored highly on work engagement, career satisfaction, and wellbeing reported higher happiness (perceived organizational support and psychological capital). The research was limited to knowledge workers in South Korean for-profit firms
Kiran & Khurram (2018) Flextime and employee happiness Quantitative survey of software houses in Pakistan Flextime was positively related to employee happiness (affective organizational commitment, employee engagement, job satisfaction) Lack of knowledge about the relationship between employee happiness and other types of workplace flexibility (e.g., compressed workweeks, part time work/ reduced hours schedule, shift/ break arrangements, etc.).
Al-Ali et al. (2019). Employee happiness, job satisfaction, employee performance, and turnover intentions Case study Job happiness mediated the relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance and turnover intention. The study was limited to the oil and gas industry in the UAE.
Alserhan et al. (2021) Employee happiness, quality of work-life and intentions to quit Cross-sectional survey Quality of work-life positively related to employee happiness and turnover intentions. Employee happiness mediated the positive relationship between quality of work-life and turnover intentions. The study relied on data from a small sample size drawn from a select firms in the Jordan fast-food restaurant industry
Othman et al. (2019) Employee happiness and engagement Two-faced study involving a focus group and a survey Three components of engagement (trait, state, and behavioral) had a significant influence on employee happiness The study does not take into consideration factors that may moderate or mediate the relationship between employee engagement and happiness.
Claypool (2017) Employee happiness and engagement Quantitative, correlational study Employee engagement is directly related to employee happiness There is a need for further research to determine how happiness outside the workplace affects employee happiness.
Mérida‐López et al. (2019) Emotion‐regulation ability, perceived workplace social support, job satisfaction and employee happiness Correlational study Emotion‐regulation ability and perceived support were positively associated with both job satisfaction and employee happiness The findings of the study are limited to working adults from Spain
Petkari & Ortiz-Tallo (2018) Character strengths, employee happiness and mental health Cross-sectional design Transcendence strengths and young age were associated with higher levels of happiness and mental health The study does not consider the effect of factors such as self-esteem which could mediate the relationship between character strengths and happiness.

Workplace Social Support

There is a direct positive relationship between workplace social support and employee happiness (Joo & Lee, 2017; Kaushal, 2020; Mérida-López et al., 2019; Jackman et al., 2020).

Psychological Contracts

Positive psychological contract predicts employee happiness as employees who relate with an organization’s management tend to thrive and be happier at work (Qaiser et al., 2020).

There is a positive relationship between psychological contract and employee happiness

Employee Engagement

Employee engagement is significantly directly related with employee happiness because individuals who are engaged in their work tend to exhibit higher job satisfaction, commitment and loyalty to the organization, job performance, and collaboration with colleagues (Kumar & Pansari, 2015; Kiran & Khurram, 2018; Kotze, 2018)

There is a positive relationship between employee engagement and employee happiness

Decent Work Factors

Decent work factors (such as safe working conditions, flexible work arrangement, and adequate compensation) impact the relationship between workplace social support, psychological contract, and employee engagement and employee happiness (Duffy et al., 2016).

Decent work factors moderate the positive relationships between workplace social support, psychological contract, and employee engagement and employee happiness.

Underpinning Theory

Author/Year Methodology Area of Study Findings
Duffy et al. (2016) Literature review Vocational psychology, multicultural psychology, intersectionality, and the sociology of work Socioeconomic constraints shape work and well-being outcomes such as employee happiness
Seligman (2002) Literature review Happiness and wellbeing Engagement and positive relationship can help people work towards a life of fulfillment, happiness, and meaning.
Haybron (2003) Literature review The theory of happiness There are three basic views of happiness theory, and they are hedonism, life satisfaction view, affective and subjective well-being
Waterman (t al. (2010) Questionnaire survey Validation of the Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being (QEWB) Results of the study showed that QEWB is a valid instrument for assessing eudaimonic well-being
Kahneman (1999) Literature review Happiness theory Wellbeing or happiness is objective

Conclusion

The relationship between workplace social contract, psychological contract, work engagement, and employee happiness has been studied extensively. Research has established that workplace social contract, psychological contract, and work engagement are directly and positively related to employee happiness. However, these constructs are largely examined individually in different studies, thus, there is little understanding about the relationship between these variables. In addition, research on these relationships in Arab countries remains relatively scarce. These findings suggest a need for further research to examine the relationship between workplace social support, psychological contracts, work engagement, and employee happiness in the UAE and how decent work factors moderate this relationship.

The California High-Speed Rail Project Communication

Executive Summary

Communication is one of the most vital elements for project accomplishment in the construction sector. For instance, information in blueprints, instructions, and construction procedures must be conveyed from one expect to another throughout the construction process. As a result, all construction projects require excellent communication amongst construction specialists throughout the project’s execution. This paper discusses the importance of project communication planning in the California High-Speed Rail Project. The communication implications on the project construction are discussed, including site meetings, annual reports, performance evaluation schemes, and job breakdown structures. It is anticipated that these findings will aid in the elimination or reduction of communication problems in construction projects.

Introduction

The California High-Speed Rail Project is located in Tulare and Kern counties and Wasco. It is bisected in the north at a location — nearly one mile north of the Tulare-Kern County Line and ends in the south at Poplar Avenue, north of Shafter. The project’s 22-mile alignment has created roughly 5,000 jobs and contract opportunities over five years. The construction site is operated by contractors and employees from diverse cultural backgrounds, including African Americans, Chinese Americans, and the Philippines. Project Communication Planning is critical to the project’s success. The California High-Speed Rail Project team comprises Higher-Level Construction Officers, including Civil Engineers, the Chief Construction Officer, and the Building Services Director. The project also comprises those working at middle levels such as Quantity Surveyors, Project Managers, Architects, Building Services Engineers, Structural Engineers, Building Inspectors, Construction Coordinators, and Project Managers. Lastly, low-level skilled workers, such as carpenters and supervisors, are also key personnel in the project.

To ensure the success of the railway project, each member of the construction crew must fulfill their assigned duties diligently. The construction project plan must be communicated from one individual to the next to ensure that each member performs their assigned duties carefully. As the construction project teams grow in size, the problem of keeping everyone focused on the project’s objectives increases proportionately. There is a more significant likelihood of miscommunication or teams becoming out of sync on a critical component of the construction project that influences their work. Such obstacles can derail the construction project and result in unnecessary problems that could have been avoided with improved communication.

Over the years, Construction project managers have acknowledged the concern of effective communication. One of the strategies utilized to address it is Project Communication Planning (Wu et al., 2017). Communication planning in the California High-Speed Rail Project is the process of outlining how team members and stakeholders communicate on the project by identifying communication requirements that may occur throughout the project and ensuring that those requirements are addressed appropriately and timely (Harris et al., 2021). According to Saieg et al. (2018, p. 789), communication should be produced concurrently with the project plan to ensure that the construction project proceeds successfully at each step. According to Rajhans (2018, pp.47-66), the communication planning process considers all the stakeholders and modes of communication necessary to build and maintain good communication channels.

Relevance of Communication Planning in the Project

The construction sector has grown significantly in recent years, becoming one of the essential industrial segments for economic and societal growth and one of the critical areas for job creation. Therefore, its sustained growth and improvement is a barometer for industrial development (Porter and Kramer, 2019, p. 334). In contrast to other industrial sectors, the construction industry is dynamic, multidimensional, multidisciplinary, and extensible (Tay, 2017, pp.261-276; Kerzner, 2017). Proportionately, these characteristics are followed by many difficulties, including inadequate communication planning, leading to project failure.

Effective communication throughout the California High-Speed Rail Project’s lifespan is critical to its success. It encompasses all project stages to transmit performance indicators (Crandell and DEng, 2018; Xu, 2018, pp.90-95). Consequently, Orgut et al. (2020) argue that maintaining an effective communication process and information flow might be critical, given the volume of information and the number of individuals on such a huge project. Hence, insufficient communication advances become a problem in construction projects (Cavka et al., 2017, pp. 169-183). Furthermore, communication planning is viewed as an impediment to maintaining a consistent execution process and good project delivery.

According to a report published by the Project Management Institute (Pmi.org, 2022), over half of all project financial risk is attributable to inefficient communications, incorrect channeling, and inaccurate information transmission time management. Additionally, the survey stated that inadequate and insufficient communication is the leading cause of project failure (Pmi.org, 2022). Furthermore, the British Standards Institution calculated that the cost of rectifying problems caused by inadequate communication in the U.K. construction industry is around £20 billion annually (Bsigroup.com, 2022). Moreover, improved communication and information exchange between engineers, contractors, and designers is important to execute California High-Speed Rail Project on time and under budget.

Ineffective communication in the construction sector has other negative consequences. Frustration, friction, a problematic work climate, and demotivation are some of the negative consequences of ineffective communication (Vessey and Landon, 2017, pp.531-553). These concerns decrease production and efficiency since employees respond to every situation. Thus, efficient communication is essential to create a more intelligible workplace and encourage employee interaction to ensure project success. Based on a study conducted by Loukaitou-Sideris and Peters (2017) on the California High-Speed Rail Project, the American construction industry is characterized by multilingual and multicultural employees. Multiple languages are spoken, and multiple interpretations are created (Dahir et al., 2018, pp.101-113). The American construction industry employs people of various races, international investors, and labor. The workforce comprises nationals from Africa, Bangladesh, Russia, Jamaica, and Asian nations (Hamzah et al., 2020, p.2020). As a result, communication in the sector has obstacles and impediments to becoming effective.

According to Rahman and Landon (2017, pp.149-153), the most severe communication obstacle on American construction sites is the language barrier, making it difficult for supervisors to talk and deliver information, resulting in safety violations and improper execution project activities. Asadi (2019) examined the communication management between clients and architects during the planning stage. He concluded that improving communication between team members is critical to achieving adequate performance.

A global community has been formed in the California High-Speed Rail Project due to the interaction of individuals from different cultures. DeVito (2019) argues that intercultural communication arises when people from two distinct cultures come into contact. Different cultures worldwide have their own unique set of beliefs and practices. As a result, the project manager, California High-Speed Rail Project, must be careful not to mismanage cultural diversity to expand relationships with diverse cultures. An enterprise from a different culture can fail to develop long-term sustainability by mismanaging cultural diversity. Many elements must be considered while deciding how to interact with other2s, including an individual’s attitude toward hierarchy and communication style and one’s capacity to grasp different languages. When communicating between cultures, nonverbal cues, including body language, facial expressions, eye movements, and voice tonality, can be particularly challenging (Hargie, 2021). For example, there is a propensity in the United States to be very direct in communications and residents’ attitudes towards other individuals. Nevertheless, in other cultures, such as certain Asian regions, there is a tendency of soft-spokenness towards other individuals.

Recommendations

When working on a global, virtual project, choosing a common language for the project’s official business is essential. English has been recommended as a connecting language for international projects (Glikson and Erez, 2020). In order to limit the likelihood of misinterpretation, it is crucial to communicate clearly and concisely. A project’s communications should be centered on a vocabulary of only the most essential and unambiguous terms if English is chosen as the project’s common language. A system of regular communication, such as regular updates and reviews, should be set up for team members and stakeholders. A semi-regular meeting can be called by the project manager of a co-located team in the traditional setting. Team members’ proximity makes it unnecessary to spend a lot of time planning, monitoring, and reporting on meetings.

There would be far fewer virtual projects undertaken regularly if not for the ease of use and quick advancement in information systems. Information System components make it easier for the virtual team members to work together. Internet gateways, e-mail, video conferencing, and group decision support tools are just a few standard technologies used today. These tools enable project managers to collect daily progress reports and provide task-specific feedback. Project managers can also keep everyone updated on impending tasks and objectives. The virtual team can overcome some of the constraints imposed by time, location, sophistication, and multiplicity of participants through information technology (Hanelt et al., 2021, pp.1159-1197). Project team members can build personal ties with each other through information technology.

Conclusion

There is a clear need to improve project communication planning and management to optimize project delivery in the construction sector. According to the studies analyzed in this report, a lack of effective communication between consultants, contractors, and all project stakeholders substantially impacts the success of a construction project. To this objective, all stakeholders in construction projects must establish mechanisms to ensure communication is always a top priority for site workers and management prior to the start and throughout any project. The use of information technology in construction project management is advised for professionals involved in all construction project stages. This will boost performance and increase the likelihood of a project’s success.

Reference List

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Crandell, D. and DEng, P.M.P., 2018. Bringing Metrics to Project Management.

daCavka, H.B., Staub-French, S. and Poirier, E.A., 2017. Developing owner information requirements for BIM-enabled project delivery and asset management. Automation in construction, 83, pp.169-183.

Dahir, A.M., Mahat, F., Ab Razak, N.H. and Bany-Ariffin, A.N., 2018. Revisiting the dynamic relationship between exchange rates and stock prices in BRICS countries: A wavelet analysis. Borsa Istanbul Review, 18(2), pp.101-113.

DeVito, J.A., 2019. The interpersonal communication book. Instructor, 1, p.18.

Glikson, E. and Erez, M., 2020. The emergence of a communication climate in global virtual teams. Journal of World Business, 55(6), p.101001.

Hamzah, I.S., Sarifin, M.R., Aziz, M.S.A. and Abdullah, M.F.A., 2020. Malaysia as attraction of international foreign workers. J Crit Rev, 7, p.2020.

Hanelt, A., Bohnsack, R., Marz, D. and Antunes Marante, C., 2021. A systematic review of the literature on digital transformation: Insights and implications for strategy and organizational change. Journal of Management Studies, 58(5), pp.1159-1197.

Hargie, O., 2021. Skilled interpersonal communication: Research, theory and practice. Routledge.

Harris, F., McCaffer, R., Baldwin, A. and Edum-Fotwe, F., 2021. Modern construction management. John Wiley and Sons.

Kerzner, H., 2017. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. John Wiley and Sons.

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Orgut, R.E., Batouli, M., Zhu, J., Mostafavi, A. and Jaselskis, E.J., 2020. Critical factors for improving reliability of project control metrics throughout project life cycle. Journal of Management in Engineering, 36(1), p.04019033.

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Childhood Obesity In The US From Economic Perspective

Childhood obesity is a complex issue that requires consideration from the perspective of several areas, including economics. Looking at the problem of childhood obesity from an economic point of view offers an understanding of a wider range of causes and consequences and the definition of government intervention in solving this problem. The economic explanation for the problem of childhood obesity, in general, refers to the inability of a part of the population to provide themselves and their children with healthy food.

The Economic Principles

One of the main economic principles is directly related to the problem of childhood obesity. This principle is associated with the choice of efficiency, that is, what can be used to extract the maximum effect with the minimum expenditure of resources. When choosing high-calorie fast food, a person chooses efficiency to the detriment of health, since high-calorie food is cheaper and satiates for a longer period. The second economic principle is related to the sacrifice in the name of value. Food, among other things, has an opportunity cost; for a cheaper product, people pay with spoiled health. In addition, this association correlates with the time spent preparing healthy meals and ordering fast food quickly, so people are more likely to choose the second option. The third economic principle involves consumer response to incentives. Fast-food advertising encourages the population to make choices in favor of unhealthy food.

The Economic Impacts

The economic consequences of childhood obesity can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct economic impacts include spending on childcare, prescription drugs, and emergency care. Obesity is a serious threat to all body systems, so medical costs will be quite high. Indirect economic consequences include situations when an obese child becomes an overweight adult. The risks relate to the potential employer, who may face low productivity and frequent sick days.

Socioeconomic Factors

The broader socioeconomic explanation for obesity lies in food prices, agricultural policies, and household incomes. Real food prices have generally declined over the past decades. However, prices for fruits and vegetables rose by more than 15% during the last decade (Mehta & Deshpande, 2018). Children and adolescents from families with low socioeconomic status are particularly sensitive to changes in the price of fast food. The cheapening of this type of food is one of the main causes of childhood obesity. The decline in prices may be due to agricultural policy. The trend towards lower prices has led manufacturers to prefer to use fructose instead of sucrose. Fructose, in turn, does not regulate the level of food intake, unlike sucrose, which leads to overeating and obesity. Decreased incomes of the population can also lead to childhood obesity. Higher income may allow families to choose more expensive but healthier food.

Healthcare Organizations

The problem of obesity in general and childhood obesity is of concern to the World Health Organization. The organization suggests that the causes of excess weight can be prevented or eliminated. WHO considers the main cause of obesity in the modern world to be a decrease in physical activity against the backdrop of urbanization (WHO, 2022)? To solve the problem of obesity, WHO offers information about this issue, ways to solve it, and raises awareness of citizens. The World Obesity Day initiative focuses on reducing the stigmatization of people with obesity (WOD, 2022). If there is a comfortable environment for people suffering from this problem, it will be easier to seek help and change their lifestyle.

References

Mehta, P., & Deshpande, R. S. (2018). Meeting the crisis and challenges in prices: In fruits and vegetables. Sustainable Horticulture Development and Nutrition Security, III.

World Health Organization. (2022). Obesity. Health Topics. Obesity (who.int)

World Obesity Day. (2022). People living with obesity. WOD. Web.

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