The “Memoir Of Old Elizabeth” Book By Mariwaski Essay Sample For College

At first, the autobiography is set in the 18th-century historical context when slavery was eminent in the United States. Freedom deterred many people of color from enjoying liberty, including practicing their religious rights. Even after the laggard release from enslavement, people, including Old Elizabeth, experienced massive injustices, inequality, and lack of freedom. (Morawski 1999). Regarding the book’s plot, its purpose was to spearhead liberty acquisition and productivity in society. The book Memoir of Old Elizabeth, A Coloured Woman by Lee Mariwaski, showcases America’s transformation from a colony to a democracy. The book has historical significance as it shows the existence of inequality and injustice, which led to freedom acquisition (Morawski 1999). The book intended to convey the historical facts regarding the presence and revolution of slavery in the 18th century in defining who an American is.

The author considers the two main primary issues, which are racial and social-economic conflicts. At first, the book indicates that the United States was composed of native Americans, who had cemented institutions that indicated racism and white supremacy. The whites had different views on the blacks, believing they had no constitutional rights even after receiving their liberty. The author shows increased racial dispute of whites towards black people by showing how they bought young enslaved people and traded them for their gains (Morawski 1999). For example, Old Elizabeth started working for her master at seven years without benefiting. Such dispute escalated because the whites did not want black individuals to attend prestigious schools, acquire property, or enjoy constitutional liberty. The author appeals to the authors’ emotions by making them reflect on the struggles the black people continued to face to have the peace the Americans enjoy today. At the same time, the author uses stories, including how the blacks worked in the white plantations, which they frequently refused as the masters did not value them. The phenomenon shows how the book appeals to the readers’ pathos by showing enslaved people’s defenselessness despite having freedom.

The author discusses the second main theme of gender conflict between the masters and the enslaved individuals. The gender conflict mainly arises between women and males concerning their societal role. In the book, this dissension entails having different expectations and values embraced by every gender. For instance, in the book, the author writes that males frequently demand their females follow in their footsteps per established societal standards. For example, women, including Old Elizabeth, were not mandated to undertake religious meetings or preach to the people (Morawski 1999). In different aspects, women and men are not treated equally, including taking responsibilities like being watchmen, as most were considered sinners. The book uses biblical aspects to appeal to its audience regarding how the enslaved women spearheaded the freedom of Americans by abolishing religious injustices and inequalities.

To a greater extent, some historical circumstances typical to the textbook events include working on agricultural farms, poor diet, deteriorated clothing, and punishment. These episodes are essential in comprehending the enslavement history in the United States and showcasing the author’s main argument on how slavery deterred freedom. For example, the slave trade brought enslaved people from different areas who worked for free and lived in impoverished conditions (Morawski 1999). Significantly, across the United States, people, including Old Elizabeth, had to work on their master’s farms and were punished for engaging in activities such as preaching that could lead to liberty. The author uses imagery to make the reader aware of the typical situations the enslaved people encountered before receiving liberty.

At the same time, the discussed affairs in the textbook are not typical of those of the professor’s notes events. This is because the lecturer’s notes concentrate mainly on post-slavery, while the book concentrates on enslavement. Some of the not typical events include enslaved individuals working in big houses, having a good diet, lack of punishment, being treated nicely, acquiring money, and being allowed to read and write (Chandler 2022). Due to such, the book has weaknesses of bias by showcasing the one-sided nature of the problems that the enslaved people encountered (Foner 2022). Therefore, the book does not appeal to the ethos of the author’s credibility, thus deteriorating the reader’s trust as the loopholes are not adequately addressed.

In writing this book, the most crucial point the author tries to convey to the audience is providing a detailed insight into the life of enslavement. The phenomenon appeals to the audience’s emotions by making them reflect on the historical past of America, mainly in the 18th century (Morawski 1999). The book’s argument has resulted in applying slavery theories that led to the freedom enjoyed in America. The book has identified its audience as American students with a strong interest in history. Therefore, the book has strengths in helping the audience comprehend the author’s opinions and ideas regarding freedom and enslavement.

I liked the book since I enjoyed reading it as I comprehended the history of America and how far it has transformed. I think the author has comprehensively written the book to show the inequalities and injustices enslaved people experienced, which resulted in their acquisition. As a result, the author appeals to the audience’s emotions by reflecting on how a country’s liberty cannot be achieved. I recommend the book to friends as it shows how the lack of liberty can lead to inequality and injustice in a free world country, including the United States, and affect people, such as Old Elizabeth. I would give the book four stars has it has good content regarding enslavement, which constructs America’s historical context.

References

Chandler, Kimberley. 2022. “White Indentured Servitude and Black Slavery.” Lecturer, Concordia University of Texas, TX.

Foner, Eric. 2019. Give Me Liberty! An American History. 6th ed. New York: W.W. Norton.

Morawski, Lee. 1999.“Memoir of Old Elizabeth, A Coloured Woman.” Philadephia: Collins Printer.

Semmelweis’ Prevention Of Maternal Mortality

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis substantially contributed to the prevention of maternal mortality through the discovery of the connection between antiseptic procedures and puerperal fever. Appointed for practice in the First Obstetrical Clinic that provided educational services for medical services, Semmelweis noticed that there was a considerable difference between the rates of maternal mortality in his facility and another clinic (Ataman et al. 36). Later, when his friend died from an injury made by a student’s scalpel and the same pathology that was presented in women with puerperal fever was discovered during an autopsy, Semmelweis suggested that cadaverous particles that remained on students’ hands after postmortem examinations performed only in that clinic caused women’s complications. Thus, he introduced the practice of hand disinfection with a chlorine solution that allowed a reduction in the clinic’s maternal mortality rates in four months from 18.3% to 1.9% (Ataman et al. 37; Nuland 95). However, his findings were rejected by the medical community of that time as they contrasted with the ideas of dyscrasia and miasmas as the sources of all diseases. In addition, doctors felt offended by the notion that their hands could be unclear.

In the present day, puerperal fever is known as maternal sepsis.

The general characteristics of sepsis include tissue injury as a result of the body’s dysregulated response to infection. If left unrecognized and untreated, sepsis causes multiple organ failures, septic shock, and death (Pittet and Allegranzi 2).

Sepsis remains a global health issue as every year, more than 30 million individuals suffer from it all over the world. In addition, it is one of the main causes of maternal and newborn deaths, with approximately one million cases occurring every year (Pittet and Allegranzi 2). Maternal sepsis is a crucial issue in countries with low and middle income, where it may be regarded as the cause of 95% of maternal deaths.

Antimicrobial resistance is a considerable issue that impacts the efficient control over sepsis. Resistant pathogens determine its rapid evolution and unresponsiveness to treatment increases the risk of patient mortality. In addition, the reduction of neonatal sepsis is substantially limited, as this type develops due to diseases rather than the absence of hygiene practices.

During the time of Semmelweis, Group A Streptococcal (GAS) postpartum infections caused by Group A Streptococcus were the possible cause of puerperal fever.

As a widespread human pathogen, Group A Streptococcus may be present in the FRT’s normal biota or carried by 5–30% of the population in the throat or on the skin (Mason and Aronoff 92). Although its presence may be non-threatening or asymptomatic, Group A Streptococcus is easily transmitted by aerosolization or person-to-person contact and may cause various diseases, including necrotizing soft-tissue infections, pharyngitis, invasive

puerperal infections, rheumatic fever, cellulitis, and scarlet fever (Mason and Aronoff 92). In general, pregnant and postpartum women are more vulnerable to GAS infections in comparison with other population groups. Although they may receive this pathogen from children as it is its frequent carrier or be a contamination source by themselves, women are mostly infected in the clinical settings from asymptomatic healthcare-worker carriers during serious interventions, such as surgery.

There are other microbial species that may cause postpartum sepsis, and they include Group B Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, staphylococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium sordellii, and polymicrobial vaginosis-associated bacteria.

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis discovered the connection between hand hygiene and the prevention of life-threatening diseases. Observing the cases of patients’ infections after healthcare providers’ contact with autopsy materials and living people’s necrotic discharges, he understood the ways of pathogens’ transmission. The experience of Semmelweis is highly important in the present day as well as it allows us to examine the ways of transmission of other bacteria and viruses for efficient prevention. Thus, in the case of COVID-19, it was discovered that hand hygiene is extremely important for the prevention of this respiratory virus’s spread as it is transmitted via not only close contact with infected individuals but contaminated surfaces and objects. Thus, washing hands regularly, especially when in contact with common surfaces, helps avoid infection.

It goes without saying that people hear about the significance of handwashing since childhood from parents in schools, hospitals, and public places, and I am not an exception. For a health care provider, it is extremely important to wash hands in a correct way as hand hygiene determines not only the quality of health care delivery but the safety of people’s lives. Various campaigns in support of hang hygiene are organized across the globe. At the same time, knowing the rules of handwashing and hearing about its significance in theory may be less efficient due to its abstractiveness. However, the story of Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis helps us understand the contribution of this person to medicine and the importance of sanitation. In addition, research dedicated to this doctor indicates that sepsis remains a crucial issue- thus, it makes the necessity to keep washing hands more urgent, improving my professionalism in the future.

Works Cited

Ataman, Ahmet Doğan, et al. “Medicine in Stamps-Ignaz Semmelweis and Puerperal Fever.” Journal of the Turkish-German Gynecological Association, vol. 14, 2013, pp. 35-39.

Mason, Katie L., and David M. Aronoff. “Postpartum Group A Streptococcus Sepsis and Material Immunology.” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 67, no. 2, 2012, pp. 91-100.

Nuland, Sherwin B. Germs, Childbed Fever, and the Strange Story of Ignac Semmelweis: The Doctor’s Plague. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2003.

Pittet, Didier, and Benedetta Allegranzi. “Preventing Sepsis in Healthcare – 200 Years After the Birth of Ignaz Semmelweis.” Euro Surveillance, vol. 23, no. 18, 2018, pp. 1-5.

The Operation Anaconda Analysis

Introduction

Operation Anaconda is one of the most critical aspects of military operations in Afghanistan. Conducted in early March 2002, it brought a tremendous dimension to the global fight against terrorism. It is a consequence of the terrorist attack on America in 2001. It is essential to understand that Operation Anankonda has been highly successful and has brought tremendous progress in the fight against terrorism. Many historians still praise its thoughtfulness and strategy because the threat of terrorist attacks was minimized after it. This paper will present an analysis of the events that led to this operation, its participants and course of action, and the aftermath of Afghanistan and the world.

Operation Background

According to the participants of the events, the temperature was about 15-20 degrees Fahrenheit (Hastert, 2018). It is necessary to consider the fact that the fighting was taking place in mountainous terrain, where the tactics of combat were quite different from the usual American military of the time. The snowy weather and elements of the landscape had a significant impact on the tactics and planning of battles that took place in small villages. The enemy forces mainly consisted of al-Qaeda and Taliban, as well as a small number of Arabs and Chechens. An essential aspect was that the enemy knew the terrain and could use it skillfully. This happened when the terrorist organizations occupied the hidden tunnel networks and asked the villagers to leave the area. The terrorists used bribery and intimidation to make the public feel friendly.

Intelligence received by U.S. intelligence showed considerable congestion. Although the recommendations called for an immediate strike against the armed forces, U.S. forces decided to wait to allow the enemy to bring as much equipment and manpower as possible to the operation site. Although the enemy knew the terrain well, U.S. forces had the support of local village leaders, who were able to inform them of the area’s details and aid in the form of soldiers and equipment.

The Beginning of the Operation

The plan called for a synchronized attack on enemy forces from different directions, east, and southeast. A force of Afghan collaborators under the supervision of U.S. specialists was to take the four main points with the help of professional soldiers and repulse the enemy attack by capturing defensive positions. The American forces included Americans themselves and troops from European countries such as Germany, Denmark, and France and others, such as Canada, and New Zealand (Hastert, 2018). This team greatly outnumbered the enemy in quantity and quality. Still, al-Qaida’s combat tactics were dangerous, as they included vast numbers of casualties among their soldiers to achieve the goal.

Once they were in the position to attack strategic points, the waiting for the day of the attack began. The initial plan was to begin Operation Anaconda on February 27, but weather conditions prevented the order from effect. Thus, after two days of waiting, U.S. forces and the allies began attacking enemy positions from the directions indicated above.

Immediately after the operation began, General Zik’s men came under fire and were forced to retreat deeper into their positions. This greatly affected the start of the operation but did not affect the actual course of events. As the Allied forces were pushed back, it became necessary to compensate for the advancing troops. Thus, those troops who were supposed to be patrolling the terrain for enemy undercurrents and attempts to flee the battlefield were put in place of the Allied forces. This did not significantly affect the fighting itself, but at the time, there was a risk that the enemy might resort to requests for help from neighboring villages where al-Qaida forces were present. Despite this problem, the campaign was still gaining momentum, and despite solid enemy resistance, U.S. troops and their allies needed to get to the planned territory.

Despite all the problems that plagued the troops at the beginning of the operation, the military teams were prepared for such a development. First of all, the excellent work of the sniper squads, who excelled in killing enemies and providing intelligence. Thus, with the help of the intelligence received, it became known that the enemy was entrenched among the mountains, in the canyons area (Naylor, 2017). The downside was that not only did the terrorists occupy the main points, but they were also able to organize their defense by putting up two defensive points. An assault was impossible because there would have been too many casualties in this situation. The American command in this situation was clever, organizing a landing near the occupied positions.

Strategic Points Conquering

Two planes landed the soldiers about 400 meters apart. This allowed them to communicate with one another in a more coordinated manner. Immediately after the landing, the continuous fire began, and the terrorist troops were forced to retreat from their positions. Despite this reasonably significant progress, there was still the possibility of mortar fire. Immediately after the retreat, shells began flying at the positions, causing significant casualties to the U.S. military. This was because the terrorist forces knew the area well and could fortify their nearby positions with guns, which allowed them to cover the enemy combat force reasonably quickly (Grau, 2017). After some time of shelling the positions, it became known that the enemy forces were not planning to take back their fortifications, but were only increasingly shelling their former positions. Despite the losses, this part of the military campaign was successful, as it enabled enemy forces to push back a considerable distance.

In the course of the action of the battles, after a couple of days, it became evident that the enemy equipment was running out, just as well as human resources. The weaponry seen by the U.S. Army scouts was described as outdated, unable to inflict significant damage, and even to reach fortified enemy positions. Regarding human resources, it was noted that people from local settlements were being recruited to the side of the terrorists, who had not been appropriately trained for the operation. This gave a positive attitude toward a quick end to the particular operation and victory in the next few days.

Conclusion

Despite numerous mortar attacks on positions and strong resistance from al-Qaida soldiers, the operation was a success. The battle went down in history as one of the biggest battles involving U.S. forces. It is estimated that the American side lost eight people, while the terrorists suffered more casualties, as many as 1,000. Although considered a success, the campaign has been criticized for its improper handling of the air battle. The biggest drawback was the underestimation of enemy forces and the involvement of small aircraft amount. It should have provided both defensive and offensive air support and correct maneuvering during the actual combat. On the whole, Operation Anaconda is considered one of the most successful United States combat strength displays. In many ways, it was a combat operation that helped cement the success of America’s military campaign in the Middle East.

References

Grau, L. W. (2017). Operation Anaconda: America’s first major battle in Afghanistan. Choice Reviews Online, 49(10), 49–592849–5928.

Hastert, P. (2018). Operation Anaconda: Perception meets reality in the Hills of Afghanistan. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 28(1), 11–20.

Naylor, S. (2017). Not a good day to die :Tthe untold story of Operation Anaconda. Penguin.

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