The Mind Of The Chimpanzee Sample Paper

Jane Goodall, the author of the article The Mind of the Chimpanzee, is an ethologist and an advocate for animal rights; at least, this was what she admitted in the said article (Goodall 1990 p 53). The article was an excerpt from a larger work by Goodall, Through a Window, and an argument for humane treatment of chimpanzees. Having experienced for fifteen years firsthand her meaningful encounter with chimps in the wild, and as she observed in some domesticated primates at Gombe, she then became convinced that apes have almost the same capabilities as humans do. It is her firm conviction that chimpanzees could feel and express the same human emotions such as pain, pleasure, fear, and happiness.

They could plan ahead, they could learn human sign languages when taught (a way of communication learned by the deaf), and even have mathematical skills (distinguishing which is less or more). In her extensive research and personal study and prolonged observations of chimpanzees, not only that she came to think of this particular specie as a highly intelligent mammal, she believes that primates (among non-human animals) are the closest of kin to human beings (Goodall 1990 p 56). It frustrates her to see apathetic responses among her colleagues in spite of the fact that there are already numerous researches done about primates, particularly, chimpanzees. Overall, the article is an eye-opener regarding the amazing capabilities of the chimpanzee. It is effective and an excellent argument for the humane treatment of chimpanzees.

 An interesting, as well as enlightening, a portion of the article was that part where the author mentioned the similarities between humans and chimps in terms of physiology and DNA (Goodall 1990 p 52). Imagine that chimpanzees differ only from humans by one percent (1 %) in genetic composition, and thus, like humans, could also be infected with dread communicable diseases such as HIV, AIDS, and Hepatitis B, etc. Actually, this information is emotionally alarming, considering the fact that in experiments and medical testings, chimpanzees are being used as human substitutes.

Having these facts regarding similarities of these primates with humans – like similarities in anatomy, of neurons in the brain and the nervous system, and hence their being prone to the same weaknesses to certain contagious diseases – can make any human being conscientious about the plight of the chimps especially in the hands of those doing experiments for the sake of medical advancements. Actually, this close resemblance to humans is what made these primates in demand among medical laboratories as a model for extensive researches. It truly is heart rending to realize these facts. Goodall was right and keen in her observations.

 Certain questions though need to be raised. First, the author in her advocacy for humane treatment of chimpanzees borders on equating chimps among humans. She is only a step short of elevating these apes to human standing. Is this proper? Although she admitted readily in her mention of Lucy (a well-known chimp raised from its infancy in a human family) that in spite of Lucy’s being cultured and advanced training, the chimp, although not anymore chimp-like in her overall behavior, still, was “eons away” from being human.

In the article, Goodall’s argument was stretched to the point of almost an advocacy for accepting chimps like humans. There has to be an acceptance or differentiations between man and animal. Jane Goodall’s poignant descriptions of her acquired knowledge of chimpanzees in her personal research of the specie were informative and might create “conscience” among medical practitioners (especially those engage in more advance researches) who cold-bloodedly perform their experiments motivated by medical breakthroughs alone. Second, if ever this article by Goodall has led some into thinking that the use of chimpanzees in laboratories (killing them) for the sake of medical advancements and for the greater benefit of humankind is ethically wrong, what should be done to save the lives of these primates, and also save many human lives? The Mind of the Chimpanzee is indeed thought-provoking, but Goodall must clarify these pertinent questions, as the same questions were somehow raised as one reads her article.

To Prevent Mismanagement Of Funds In A Country

To prevent mismanagement of funds in a country, institution or company, the management should set pro’s and con’s that will give a limit as to what percentage of money should be used, spent or a person be paid. The rules formed protect the companies, the government, employees and citizens. The rules also play a big part in eliminating discrimination, abuse of human rights and violence activities that may be indicted on them.

Kuwait is faced with inflation problems as it is among the top oil exporters’ countries in the world and the third richest Arab country in the Asia continent. Oil is a very valuable mineral to a country as it has many uses and is used in almost all sectors of countries activities, thus creates a lot of wealth to a country.

The oil mining activities in Kuwait lead to a surplus of money in the economy leading to rise in the prices of goods and services. The Kuwait government had set rules not to renew the Visa of non-residents who had stayed in the country for a period of three years to reduce the number of menial workers in the state as a way of trying to curb the inflation and protect the residents from rise in prices of goods and services (Tuner et al. v. 19, no. 16).

Kuwait recruitment organizations employ non-residents to work in the oil mining sector where they do all the menial work; cleaning services or work as security officers. Most of the non-resident workers are from Bangladesh constituting approximately 100,000 of the Kuwait population.

Up to July 2008, the non-residents working in Kuwait faced very harsh working conditions as they were poorly paid, mistreated and sexually abused. Some of the employers even took a further step to deduct housing, education, transport and health care allowance and insurance cover from the wages of the non-residents paying them about KD8 per month instead of the regular amount which ranged between KD20 and KD25. While the Kuwait residents secured white collar jobs and enjoyed housing, education, transport and health care allowances and insurance cover.

The lowest paid Kuwait resident whose profession was either skilled or unskilled earned KD200-KD300 and those working in the top management positions earned about KD2500 to KD3000. The big difference in the payment system of the Kuwait residents and non-residents had cropped up because the Kuwait government did not recognize the payment system of minimum wages and only had contracts that protected the rights of salaried employees.

Non-residents worked in harsh conditions that were not protected by the Kuwait government as the foreign workers were sponsored by the employers hiring them and therefore were under their mercy. Most non-residents were deployed to work in Kuwait through recruitment agencies and visa traders who competed with each other to bring cheap workforce into the country and were highly rewarded for those services by the employers after delivery (Salehi-Isfahani 207-396).

Due to this discrepancy in the payment system the Asian workers staged a three day demonstration demanding an increase in the minimum wage that they were paid. They also demanded a review and improvement of the working conditions for the menial workers, as there was discrimination and abuse to their rights. This demonstration called for the attention of the Kuwait government after it turned violent and lead to the destruction of vehicles and vandalism of properties.

The government promised to tackle the issue and urged the Asian workers to call off the strike. Under the influence of the strike and demands from Bangladesh government representatives, for example the Bangladesh Minister of Social Affairs and Labor Abdul Matin Chowdhury, the Kuwait government agreed to review the amount of money to be paid as minimum wage, the rights of non-residents and the working conditions of menial workers (Ulf Laessing, Kuwait Sets Minimum Wage: Prepares New Labor Law, par. 2-3).

The Kuwait formed new legislations on the labor law that existed in the Kuwait constitution for a period of 45 years. They incorporated contracts to protect the minimum wage mainly paid to the non-residents that worked in Kuwait and increased the amount from KD20 to KD50 for those working as cleaners and KD70 for the security staff. According to the new regulation the non-residents of Kuwait had a right to free education, housing, transport, health care amenities and insurance cover.

Stern warning was given to employers who would violate this law and not provide the above needs to the non-residents. Those caught would suffer grave consequences stipulated by the Minister of Social Affairs and Labor Bader Al-Duwaila and later face court prosecuted leading to their operating contracts being revoked. The menial workers were also entitled to payment on time, annual leaves and holidays (Rabi’al-Awwal, Kuwait Sets Minimum Wage for some Firms, par. 2).

The human rights committee represented by MP Dr Nasser Al-Sane drafted a bill that called for actions to improve the working conditions and protection of the non-residents and those working in low paying sectors. The bill called for a stop to human trafficking which had became a normal vice though not legal in Kuwait and abolished all the organization and recruitment firms whose function was to buy and sell visa to employers who were seeking cheap labor. This advocated for a fair and even payment scheme to those who received the minimum wage.

The bill also urged the employers to pay the menial workers their dues on time to stop inconveniencing them. The rule for not renewing the visas of the non-residents who had worked in Kuwait for a period of three years was abolished and they were allowed to participate or work in places that the residents of Kuwait worked so long as they were qualified and competent. This called for fair judgment of the menial jobs by the Kuwait residents, who looked down on those jobs and refused to be associated with them.

Employers or organization caught practicing human trafficking were to be subjected to a court sentence of a jail term for a period of five to ten years depending on the extent of harm caused. For instance those caught indicting harm, pain and forceful laws to non-residents were to be subjected to a jail term of seven to fifteen years and their working contracted striped away from them. This was important to the Kuwait country as it had created a bad reputation in the eyes of the world, who wanted immediate action to be done to correct the woes of the non-residents and eradicate the predicament they were facing. Human activists even visited the country to speed up the process and present a fair community to all those inhibiting Kuwait whether local or foreign residents.

The dignity, rights and fair treatment that called an end to the discrimination of the non-residents was also spoken for in the bill. The residents and employers of Kuwait were warned against discriminating, mistreating and sexually abusing the non-residents. Employers were also warned against collection of illegal profits at the expense of the non-residents and preservation of the dignity of the non-residents was highly recommended (Salehi-Isfahani 207-396).

The government formed a special committee to address the predicament that had been aired by the Asians during their strike. The committee was to either deport back the affected non-residents if they suspected they had a better opportunity of getting employment in their country than in Kuwait or to keep them in Kuwait and find better job opportunities for them. All the issues of citizenship and issuance of passports were to be handled by the Ministry of Interior only. Any other person caught under taking these tasks would be subjected to jail sentencing. By implementing the above laws the government of Kuwait prevented military disagreement which could have lead to instability of the Kuwait government (Tuner et al. v. 19, no. 16).

By endorsement of regulation protecting the minimum wage in Kuwait, the government carried out interventions that helped to increase the economic growth of the country. Thus improving the living conditions of all residents in Kuwait both locals and foreigners, raised the economic status of the country. Investors who had lost hope and faith in the Kuwait country and had gone to the extent of withdrawing the capital they had invested in the country, started reinvesting again contributing to the growth of the economy of Kuwait. This also helped to increase their exportation rate of oil, as those who traded with them resumed their trade fair and more countries that had the will and power to import oil from Kuwait indulged in to the trade too.

Works Cited

  1. Rabi’al-Awwal. Kuwait Sets Minimum Wage for some Firms. 9 Aug. 2008. The Gulf. 19 March 2009 <http://www.gulfnews.com/news/gulf/kuwait/10234362.html>.
  2.  Salehi-Isfahani. Labor and human capital in the Middle East: Studies of Markets and Household Behavior. Cairo: Ithaca Press in association with the Economic Research Forum, 2001.
  3. Tuner Jennifer, Helton Arthur, McMurrer, R. Jennifer and Varia Nisha. Exported and Exposed: Abuses Against Sri Lankan Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates. University of Michigan: Human Rights Watch, 2008.
  4. Ulf Laessing. Kuwait Sets Minimum Wage, Prepares New Labor Law. 4 Aug. 2008. Arabian Business. 19 March 2009 <http://www.arabianbusiness.com/526698-kuwait-sets-new-minimum-wage>.

The Minutemen And Their World

Introduction

     Behind almost every major event in history are the efforts of many ordinary people whose collective efforts bore extraordinary fruit.  Such is the case of the Minutemen, who played a key role in the victory of the American Revolution.  With this in mind, The Minutemen and their World, a pivotal work on the topic will be examined in this research.

Who Were the Minutemen?

      Considering who the Minutemen were, their achievements become even more extraordinary.  Perhaps one of the best descriptions of them is the most simply stated: “winter soldiers and springtime farmers” (Gross, 2001, p.3).  In other words, these men were not the highly trained soldiers that their opponents in the British army were, nor were they the deadly mercenaries that the British contracted to assist them in regaining control over the American colonies.  Rather, these were men who, in addition to farmers, were tradesmen of all types, teachers, lawyers and doctors, on and on, but they surely were not professional or even highly skilled soldiers.  What they were in fact, however, were volunteer warriors that were so dedicated to the cause of fighting for freedom that they literally could be counted on to be ready to fight, be it day or night, in a minute’s time- hence, their nickname of Minutemen.  What these men lacked in expensive equipment, deadly precision and massive numbers, they more than made up for in determination, bravery, and heart.

What Was Their World Like?

  The town of Concord seems to have been destined for a battle of great importance; strategically, Concord represents a key access point to the major port city of Boston, making it a prime target for enemy attack. Also, the British Crown wished to keep Concord under control, as its bustling commerce helped to fatten the tax revenues collected by England from these colonists who only wished to be free.   For the people of Concord, Massachusetts in the 1770s, the world was one of change, revolution and ingenuity.  To be more precise, this community seems to be farther ahead of the curve in terms of the quest of the fulfillment of liberty and justice for all- even at this early point, slavery did not exist in Concord as a shining example (Gross, 2001).  Largely a community of tradesmen, this community became a hub of war production when the call came to fight for independence- implements of war, from weapons to ammunition to uniforms were produced by the people of the town, for the use of their own citizens to dislodge the English from the colonies once and for all.  Like other colonial citizens of the time, these were people of a strong religious faith.  One prominent Concordant was quoted at the time as saying: “behold, God Himself is with us as our captain” (Gross, 2001, p.77).   Once again, the author of the book sums up the tremendous resolve of the Minutemen in a single, succinct passage: “the muster was almost a family reunion” (Gross, 2001, p.76).

Why Did the Minutemen Become Revolutionaries?

     At the heart of the conversion of Minutemen into revolutionaries is likewise the driving force behind the American Revolution overall: the sad realization was that “English government had fallen away from virtue, austerity and liberty” (Gross, 2001, p.33). In other words, everything that the British had promised to the colonists turned out to fundamentally be untrue.  The people of Concord, as was discussed before, were industrious people who generated a great deal of goods and prosperity.  For these people, the right of self government would be the perfect match for their abilities.  This was threatened, however, by the imposition of excessive taxation by the British, overly constricting rule, and the refusal to hear the protests and concerns of the c0olonists.

     Additionally, the Minutemen realized that if they did not embrace the Revolution, they certainly would be destroyed by it, for without a unified response to the armed aggression of the British, loss of freedom at best and loss of life at worst would be the result.

How Was Their World Changed by the American Revolution?

     Obviously, the struggles and deprivations brought about by the American Revolution had at least initially a devastating effect on the community, as there was a sacrifice in terms of bloodshed, financial costs, human misery and the conflicted emotions that come with the consideration of the very real possibility that not only would total freedom not be realized, but also that life may become even more oppressive than it was in the times before the Revolution. Thankfully, for the Minutemen of Concord, the sacrifice made in the course of the American Revolution was not without its rewards.  In the decades following the Revolution, it was reported that “money passed over the counters (of merchants) so fast that …even a mediocre merchant’s sales would surely be made”(Gross, 2001, p. 199).  Merchants, in fact, were now able, as a result of their newly gained freedom, to quite literally conduct trade with the nations of the world, adding to the prosperity of the area.  The proximity of Concord to Boston’s ports, a liability at the time of the Revolution, had become a majorly lucrative asset. By the 1790s, President George Washington could look to Concord as a perfect example of what the Revolution was all about- free trade, free people, and a free future.

How Did the Revolution and its Aftermath Reflect the Fact that the Minutemen had Become Americans?

     The Revolution changed the way that the Minutemen thought; initially, it has been said that the fight was “not to promote change, but to stop it” (Gross, 2001, p. 196).  Concordants simply wanted to be left alone.  When this was not possible, the mindset eventually changed to the realization that a fight for freedom was necessary.  At that point, the Minutemen had become Americans.

Conclusion

     In Gross’ book, we see a well constructed account of one of the great struggles for freedom in the history of modern people.  In the story of the Minutemen themselves, we see a tremendously selfless sacrifice, ultimately translating into a better life for them, and indeed an entire nation to this very day.

References

Gross, R.A. (2001). The Minutemen and their World. New York: Hill and Wang

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