The foster care system does not love them. The foster care system Is a last resort for many children coming from bad situations looking for love, and the system rarely helps to fulfill their need for love or security. The foster care system has been around for a long time and has seen many small changes, but the idea began with a movement called the Orphan Train Movement (The Children’s Aid Society). Charles Lording came up with the idea to send city orphans into the country to work on farms and be taken care of by the ranchers’ implies.
Kids were rescued from the streets, alleys, and shelters throughout the cities and sent to ranches. Over 120,000 children were moved and many of their lives improved. This movement led to reforms including new child labor laws, adoption, and foster care services. Charles Lording was highly influential in dealing with child welfare and in 1 853 founded the Children’s Aid Society. In the early sass, The Children’s Aid Society introduced a new approach which became the basis for the Federal Adoption and Safe Families’ Act of 1997.
It was based on the same idea of taking kids out of bad situations and sending them to families that were better suited to take care of them. This was the basis for our current foster system and through the years the foster system has remained true to these core traits. The foster care system has kept the same core ideas since the beginning and not all of them are bad. The foster care system is used as a last resort for many kids and it removes them from bad situations: 18. 8% of foster kids are rescued from physical abuse, 7. 9% are rescued from emotional abuse, 6. From sexual abuse, and 3. 2% from neglect (Foster Care Statistics). 40- 80% of foster kids are removed from families In which a parent or parents abused a substance such as alcohol or drugs (Allen). Also, foster kids can be discharged from the system because of reunification, adoption, or the finding of a legal guardian. Clearly, the foster system serves many by Improving their circumstances, but not everyone has such a positive outcome. As with every Idea, there Is always a flip side and unfortunately for the foster system It Is a very dark flip side.
There are over 400,000 kids In the foster care system and with this many people In foster care It Is easy for Individuals to get lost. Josh, a former foster kid, once said, “A typical birthday was one of the saddest times In foster care, at times someone would say ‘Happy Birthday, Josh,’ but usually the day was silent. I would feel worthless, like no one valued my life” (Time for a Reform). Many foster kids don’t feel appreciated or valued because people don’t even care about them enough to find out the most basic things about them like their birthdays.
Saving kids from bad situations room their past experiences. Many foster kids get rescued from bad circumstances like abuse only to be placed with foster parents who are also abusive. The system bounces foster kids around from house to house until they “age out”, and unfortunately the system has a poor success rate for them. Less than half of them go on to live happy lives. On average, 56% of foster kids end up unemployed once they age out, 27% of emancipated foster boys end up in prison, and 30% of emancipated foster girls end up with early pregnancy (The Twenty Five Project).
A foster kid’s time n the system affects them for the rest of their lives. A child’s character and personality truly develops in their childhood and teen years; so, if your childhood and teen years are terrible, it will affect you for the rest of your life. Kids are forever changed by the system and it is very unlikely for them to ever reach their full potential. As a last resort, the foster system has many flaws and does not always fulfill children’s basic needs like love or security. Many children go into the foster system scared and alone but, they come out hardened and hurt.
Are we born with a certain attachment and does It reflect In our romance relationships? A psychologist, Phillip Shaver, uses models of attachment that he studied from childhood and applied to the differences of attachment in adult relationships (Freidman & Shattuck, 2012). He discusses the 3 styles of attachment, which are secure, avoiding, and anxious-ambivalent lovers. Although, Shaver founded these attachment styles, they are very similar to Karen Hornets basic anxiety theory. He describes the secure lovers to be extremely close In relationships.
Avoiding lovers feel uncomfortable when they become close to one another and have issues with trust. Lastly Anxious-ambivalent lovers are close to one another but scare away their partners due to Insecurity with the relationship. Researchers collected data across a 15-year span and concluded child-parent relationship and adult romantic relationship function correlate. They believe that your attachment style as a child will associate with your attachment style in relationships as an adult.
They also found that people with poor relationships with their parents also had poor relationships with each other (conger, shaver, Weidman, & Larsen-Ref, 2011) Growing up, my parents supported my sisters and I the best way they could. They were Involved In our lives and made It point to equally give attention to all three of us. Even though our environment was the same. We each had different attachment styles growing up. My older sister apparently was in the middle of reserved and outgoing; it depended on the situation.
In comfortable situations, she was extremely friendly and talkative. However with strangers, she was reserved and did not associate herself with others she did not know. When I was a child, I was the very outgoing and had the urge to speak to everyone in my path. Other than socially, I was also the most misbehaved out of my sisters. My little sister probably didn’t speak a word growing up unless It was with my close family. Everywhere we went she was always attached to my mom and completely scared to speak to anyone, even my relatives.
Now guess you can say we all are different people when it comes to our relationships. My older sister found her boyfriend in high school and now they have been together for eight years. When the relationship started my sister was very cared to tell her boyfriend how she felt; she felt that she would be Judged and not accepted and he was the same way. Maturing together. I believe that they both have grown to have secure attachments toward each other. They are honest with each other and are closer than ever.
They both had the same attachment styles growing up and now they have the same romantic attachment style. Although I was extremely outgoing as a child. I tend to be more reserved when it comes to my romantic attachment; but I do not believe this to be because of my relationship with my parents. I was bullied a lot in middle school and was cheated on y my high school boyfriend and believe those experiences played a huge part In my romantic attachment today.
With my next relationship, I dated a guy who had a secure attachment style and I was not used to it. I kept pushing away from him and he kept trying to get me to open up. It took me a while, but I learned to trust him a tofu and not be afraid to say what is on my mind and to get closer to those around me. Because of my past, I was always afraid to be myself and accept who I am, but this experience with this secure attachment helped me become more secure myself. Recently, I was dating a guy who happened to be extremely avoiding with our relationship.
I have known him for over four years and he has always been avoiding with any kind of relationship he makes family, friends, and even romantic. Already knowing what his attachment style was from our friendship, I decided to give us a try and see how it would work. He happened to bring back more of my avoiding side and I started to bring his secure side. We both learned to compromise with each other; however, it didn’t last too long. I started to become more secure as our relationship grew, and he started to push away, avoiding me.
In the end, we realized that we weren’t really meant for each other. Learning about these attachments allows me to be more observant of all of my relationships with not Just romantic ones, but friends and family as well. My sisters and I all have different attachment styles but we somehow made it work when were all together. Shaver’s theory is extremely fascinating and almost accurate with the majority of the population. I do completely agree with that your romantic attachment is solely based on your attachment as a child with your parents but I do agree that it plays a big role.
There is little or no regard given to their ability to work well with others or function in a state of empowerment. (Van Cleave) Aberdeen has a nontraditional creative approach to the management of ability. Individuals were selected based on their interpersonal skills and abilities rather than technical skills. Aberdeen philosophy is that the former is more difficult to train individuals on than the latter. (Claws, James G. , 2007) Organizational Commitment An employee’s psychological attachment to the organization for which they work is known as organizational commitment. Organizational commitment – Wisped, the free encyclopedia, 2009) The required text for this course states that there are two distinct types of organizational commitment. There are actually three perspectives that characterize an employee’s commitment to their employing organization. An employee has an Affective Commitment when they demonstrate a positive attachment to an organization, believes in and feels good about the organization and what it stands for, and desires to act in the best interest of the organization.
Continuance Commitment exists when an employee perceives an economic or social cost associated with leaving an organization and therefore remain because they feel they have to do so. Normative Commitment exists when an employee remains with an organization out of a sense of obligation. The employee feels that it is the right thing to do. This could be due to the organization’s invested resources or colonization processes. (Organizational commitment – Wisped, the free encyclopedia, 2009) The employees at Green River remained with the organization because of a continuance commitment.
Simplified 00 ascriptions Walt minimal advancement opportunities Ana an emphases on compensation were solidified by union contracts. (Van Cleave) Aberdeen employees have an affective commitment to the organization. The employee selection process ensured the right individuals were chosen to promote an affective commitment. The team management concept where employees are treated fairly empowered employees and promoted a highly productive disciplined environment. (Claws, James G. , 2007) Job Satisfaction When an employee has a “sense of inner fulfillment and pride achieved when performing a particular Job,” Job satisfaction exists.
Generally, an employee’s sense of accomplishment is linked directly to their level of productivity. Job satisfaction exists when an employee enjoys doing their Job well and feels they are adequately rewarded for their efforts. (Answers Corporation, 2009) Job satisfaction for Green River employees is strictly extrinsic. Their satisfaction is consequential exclusively from their compensation package and not their sense of fulfillment. (Van Cleave) Aberdeen structure, design and culture empowered employees, which promoted a highly productive and disciplined environment.
Continual training, freely shared information, rewards and advancement opportunities resulted in minimal employee turnover and maximum employee morale. Consequently, Job satisfaction at Aberdeen is intrinsic. Organizational Ethics Organizations establish organizational ethics to determine acceptable behavior by its members. This includes moral values, beliefs and rules governing its members’ behavior both internally and externally. (George & Jones, 2008) Since Green River and Aberdeen are both subsidiaries of FMC Corporation, they are both “ethically grounded in the parent corporation. Van Cleave) The FMC commitment to ethics expects the highest ethical standards from all directors and/or employees regardless of position or location. (FMC Corporation, 2008) At Green River, management makes facility specific organizational ethical decisions. At Aberdeen, all employees are included in the decision making process. (Van Cleave) Job Design and Goal-setting Identifying what “techniques, equipment and procedures” to employ to perform specific tasks associated with a particular Job is known as Job design. George & Jones, 2008) An employee’s motivation, Job attestation, performance, absenteeism, productivity and commitment to an organization can all be influenced by Job design. (Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Therefore, proper Job design is essential to effective and efficient performance and production. Scientific Management One of the earliest forms of Job design is scientific management. Scientific management employed time and motion studies to identify the most efficient method to perform specific tasks and how much time each task required to perform and plan accordingly.
Employees were given training and specific instructions and paid to perform the tasks according to specifications. (Section 1 : Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Specialization An advancement of scientific management was Job specialization. Job specialization divided each Job into simplified tasks. Each task is to be performed in a repetitive manner thereby recycling ten level AT SKI requirements, tile spent on training as well as ten cost AT staffing. However, Job specialization does not motivate employees and results in high absenteeism and employee turnover.
Job specialization also does not provide flexibility to adapt to rapidly changing external and internal environments. (Section 1 : Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Rotation An alternative to the monotony of Job specialization is Job rotation that allows employees to rotate to and from various Jobs at regular intervals. Aside from reducing boredom, Job rotation provides cross-training of employees and allows managers the flexibility to assign employees to different areas of the organization. Job rotation also provides the opportunity for the interdepartmental transfer of knowledge. Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Enlargement Expanding the number of tasks employees perform while maintaining the level of difficulty is Job enlargement. (George & Jones, 2008) Similar to Job rotation, Job enlargement prevents boredom by allowing employees to obtain training in several different skills and increases the flexibility of the utilization of human resources. Job enlargement, also known as horizontal Job loading, also increases employee satisfaction because employees feel their role in the organization has increased.
Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Enrichment Redesigning Jobs to provide employees with more responsibility and control over how their Jobs are performed is known as Job enrichment. Also known as vertical Job loading, Job enrichment promotes employee growth by assigning tasks to employees that were previously designated for their supervisors. (George & Jones, 2008) Some ways managers can promote Job enrichment include: 0 Allowing employees to plan their own work schedules; (George & Jones, 2008) Allowing employees to determine how their work should be performed; (George &
Jones, 2008) Allowing employees to check their own work; (George & Jones, 2008) Allowing employees to learn new skills. (George & Jones, 2008) By giving employees more responsibility and control over their work behavior leads to increased Job satisfaction and productivity. Job Characteristics Model The Job Characteristics Model (“OCW) built upon the concepts of Job enlargement and Job enrichment, and was designed to identify which characteristics contribute to intrinsically motivating Jobs and the consequences of those characteristics.
The JACM seeks to design Jobs that increase motivation, performance and Job satisfaction along tit other vital facets of organizational behavior. (George & Jones, 2008) The JACM focuses on five core dimensions that affect intrinsic motivation. 1 . Skill Variety is the extent to wanly a person Is required to use Deterrent Skills, telltales or talents on a particular Job. The higher the skill level, the more intrinsically motivated the employee is by the Job. (George & Jones, 2008) 2. Task Identity is the extent a person is responsible for and involved in an identifiable task from inception to completion. Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Tasks tit higher levels of task identity are more intrinsically motivating. (George & Jones, 2008) 3. Task significance is the extent a person feels their Job is significantly impacts other people’s lives, work, health or well-being. When people feel their Jobs make a positive impact on the community, they have a tendency to experience an increased sense of self-worth. (Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) 4.
Autonomy is the level of freedom a person has to schedule their tasks and determine how they will be performed. Higher autonomy generally results in Geiger levels of intrinsic motivation. (George & Jones, 2008) 5. Feedback is the extent a person receives concise information regarding their effectiveness. Constructive feedback results in high intrinsic motivation. (George & Jones, 2008) Using the five core dimensions of the JACM, the Motivating Potential Score (“MSP”) can be determined to “measure the overall potential of a Job to foster intrinsic motivation. (George & Jones, 2008) Empowerment Removing certain barriers and giving employees the freedom to make important decisions and perform their Jobs effectively is known as empowerment. Empowerment, a form of self-management, is an extension of the concept of autonomy and a contemporary approach to motivating employees. (Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) A goal is an individual’s desired result of their behavior and/or actions. Goal setting is designed not only to motivate employees, but also to ensure they achieve acceptable job performance levels.
Goal-setting theory identifies and explains the most effective types of goals to produce the highest level of motivation and performance. Goal- setting theory also explains why goals have these effects. George & Jones, 2008) Studies show that a combination of specific and difficult goals generally achieves the highest level of motivation and performance. (Locke & Lethal, 1990) Specific goals tend to be quantitative and motivate employees to reach a certain goal. Difficult goals motivate employees to reach goals that are not easily attainable by most people.
A high level of self-efficacy is essential to successful the goal setting process. Self- efficacy is “a person’s belief in their abilities to perform at a designated level to achieve desired results. ” (George & Jones, 2008) Allowing the employee to participate n the goal setting process is also essential because it increases the employee’s acceptance of and commitment to the goals being set for them. Providing feedback to the employee also increases the effectiveness of the goal setting process. Green River employed the scientific management approach to Job design.