The New Deal Program By Franklin Roosevelt Essay Sample For College

The plan to redistribute wealth under the New Deal program was not successful at all. As a matter of fact, about one million dollars were made available from this initiative. It proved to be quite cumbersome to gather wealth through the proposed plan. According to the initiative, the government was supposed to pool resources together and later redistribute them to Americans who were deemed to be poor. As already mentioned, the plan managed to raise an amount that could not suffice the needs of the economically depressed American society.

Worse still, the $5000 amount was not sufficient for each household bearing in mind that the purchasing power had already been weakened by the poor economy. It is interesting to mention that the call for shorter working hours was against the spirit of economic growth and development.1 At a time when the working population was supposed to double the working hours, the initiative proposed a significant reduction in working hours.

To a large extent, minimizing the hours of working was a misplaced priority in the fight against the long period of economic turmoil. In any case, the government was supposed to be more proactive in seeking and formulating ways that could to cut down the cost of living and generate additional income. For example, the shorter working hours would have been replaced by the creation of more job opportunities to the ailing population. Alternatively, the government could have injected surplus income to the industrial sector so that more job opportunities are created.

The vet benefits suggested by the government were mere talk shows because the larger portion of the affected population did not benefit from the proposal. Needless to say, the benefits accrued from the plan were mainly enjoyed by a small segment of the population at the detriment of the wider American public. This was the same case when the government put forward the plan to pay the elderly through pensions. The education payments also failed to meet the threshold of controlling the biting inflation that was rife during the depression years.

The radio shows that targeted a population of ten million Americans was meant to support and market the New Deal plan. The program hardly met its objectives since the targeted population was mainly interested in regaining their economic stabilities and not radio shows with messages of hope.

In yet another move to scuttle the New Deal program, a remarkable number of the business committee was opposed to the plan by arguing that it heavily interrupted the normal daily lifestyle of the American population. It can be recalled that Roosevelt’s administration hardly consulted the local administrators. Most of the adopted initiatives were forced to the people. On the same note, several businesses were interrupted by the New Deal program because the government instituted draconian measures that could not auger well with the natural growth in business.

The pensionable people were supposed to retire and leave vacant positions for new employees. According to the adopted resolutions, individuals under pension could still be found in employment. Therefore, several job seekers could not access employment in government. As much as the government asserted that it aimed to reduce the rate of unemployment, it failed to release people under pension from employment. Besides, the economy could have been spurred by allowing every pensionable individual to spend the availed income as soon as possible.2


Baicker, Katherine Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz.“A Distinctive System: Origins and Impact of U.S. Unemployment Compensation.” NBER Working Paper, 2, no. 5889 (1997): 227-256.

Bordo, Michael and Eugene White. “The defining moment hypothesis: The Editor’s introduction.”Harvard Journal Review 12, no. 2 (2000): 1-21.

Berkin, Carol et al. Making America: A History of the United States, Volume 2: From 1865. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2011.

Cole, Harlod, and Lee Ohanian. “How Government Prolonged the Depression.The Wall Street Journal.

Hamby, Alonzo. For the Survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and the World Crisis of the 1930s. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004.

Lakeshow, Thomas. “President Franklin Roosevelt: The Great Depression, The New Deal, and The War.” Hub Pages Politics and Social Issues, 2010.


1 Alonzo Hamby, For the Survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and the World Crisis of the 1930s. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004), 86.

2 Michael Bordo and White Eugene, “The defining moment hypothesis: The Editor’s introduction.”Harvard Journal Review 12, no. 2 (2000): 6.

Analysis Of Stories: The Gold-bug And Other By Edgar Allan Poe And In Our Time By Ernst Hemingway

The concept of foreign or foreigner in story writing does not merely mean one person living abroad away from home. The idea of alien or foreigner in comprehends the tone of narrators when they tell the story of characters whose surroundings including objects are unfamiliar.

Being foreigner or in foreign means that the character is actually in a state of understanding things and people around who are not familiar.

Another way of understanding the meaning of being overseas is to understand the state of a person when he or she is staying in a place where things become automatically unfamiliar.

Even though a person is living in the same country and the same region, but there comes a time when a person undergoes the feeling of becoming unfamiliar.

This paper aims to discuss how the two famous authors namely Edgar Allan Poe and Ernst Hemingway tries to use the concept of foreign and foreigner in their short stories.

The two stories which had been selected for the analysis are Ligeia by Edgar Allan Poe and Indian Camp by Ernst Hemingway.

The concept of foreign had been the basic tone of most of the narrators when it comes to illustrating a story through words. There had been many authors and story writers who had been using the tone foreign or characters who more acted as foreigners in the course of the stories.

The foreigners had an association with the characters in a way that led to a stronger meaning of the overall story. The two famous authors in this regard are Edgar Allan Poe and Ernst Hemingway.

Many other famous authors and story writers could also be listed but for more evident examples of usage of the concept of foreign and foreigner.

Ernst Hemingway is a famous writer who had employed the tone of foreigner more often in his characters. Several stories such as Indian Camp, End of Something and Cross-country Snow, etc. are some of the stories in which we can find the concept of foreign and foreigner more evidently.

The author had used the concept of foreign in different dimensions. For instance, the projection of the character of Nick in the story The Indian Camp illustrates objects around him to be new to him. The author had shown Nick unfamiliar with the way life is.

The story illustrates the event of child birth which Nick experienced along with his father who did the delivery of the baby. The character had been shown to come across with facts about life in the course of the story.

Nick was unfamiliar with the fact that a woman undergoes such a pain when she gives birth to a child. Development of Nick’s understanding of the concept of childbirth helps us in understanding the tone of being foreign.

“I’m sorry I brought you along; Nickie,” said his father, all his post-operative exhilaration gone. “It was an awful mess to put you through. Do ladies always have such a hard time having babies?” Nick asked (Hemingway, 1977, p. 18).

The narration of the story had been done in a way that the character Nick becomes aware of the fact that humans need to understand their roles and should be aware of the ways that could be taken to go through challenges.

A person will be defeated at the moment when he avoids understanding the reality of life. The author had made use of the tone of being foreign in the course of the story when he comes across the operation procedure of the pregnant woman as well as when father suicides in a new country.

The author had set the scene in India that automatically takes the reader to a trance where things are far more different from what one would expect in western societies. The author had indirectly elaborated the differences of societies with the usage of being a foreigner to another country.

By introducing the instants of being in foreign locations, the author tries to compare and contrast between different places and people.

With the usage of a foreign country in the story, the author elaborates that the people in the foreign country did not have significant information regarding childbirth. Such a claim presents the foreigners and foreign locations to be inferior.

Such an inclusion by the author gives a new dimension to the story. The usage of ’foreign’ and ‘foreigner’ automatically gives a transition in the story.

Similar usage of foreigner tone had been observed in the stories by Edgar Allan Poe. The book The Gold Bug and Other Tales includes short stories by Edgar Allan Poe.

If we pick out different characters from each of the stories by Alan Edgar Poe, then we can come across many examples and stylistics of tone of foreign.

The author has a habit of projecting his characters in situations where they often meet persons and situations that are not actually what they wanted to be with. A similar example could be taken from the short story Ligeia.

The story narrator tells the story of the woman Ligeia with a tone of being foreign. The narrator tries to elaborate on the ways through which he got to know about Ligeia.

The instant in the story that indicates the usage of foreign tone is when the narrator finds the way to tries to tell the readers about the woman Ligeia.

The narrator had been projecting to narrate the personality of Ligeia, but he is unsure and unfamiliar with the past of Ligeia.

That’s the very instant in the story that expounds us about the uncertainty of a person. Such an example from the story helps us in understanding the tone of being foreign about something.

The author had further used the tone of being foreign with the fact that the narrator tries to move to another place which is far away from his actual position. The transition to another place works as a constituent to make the effects of narration stronger and enhanced.

Edgar Alan Poe is famous for the usage of narrators in his stories. Thus most of the stylistics of the story writing would be visible with by an avid analysis of the narrator. Therefore understanding foreign and foreigner can be easy by focusing the narrator.

The narrator had been projected to move to Abbey in England where nothing remains the same for him. Everything in his environment changes that work as a source of new happenings in his life.

After moving to Abbey, the narrator gets married to another woman who is a foreigner to the narrator. He does not understand why he was with a new person. The narrator shows us a person who tries to run away from the reality and memories of Ligeia he loved the most.

“The riddle, so far, was now unriddled…..Of my country and my family, I have little to say. Ill usage and length of years have…..” (Poe, 1991, p. 4)

Thus from the story analysis of Ligeia, we come across the fact that there is two way through which the author Edgar Allan Poe tries to expound the concept of foreign and foreigner.

Moreover, the concept of foreign and foreigner comes in understanding with compare and contrast of the two women in the stories.

The new lady is Anglo-Saxon while Ligeia was a dark haired woman from the Rhine. Thus two different regions had been presented with a distinction in the course of the story.

Similar encounters had been noted in other stories by Edgar Allan Poe such as in the stories the black Cat, Hop-Frog, The Oval Portrait, etc.

Similar usage of foreign and foreigner had been done by other authors such as Herman Melville in his famous novel Moby dick. The usage of foreign and foreigner had helped the author to provide a distinction between religions as it is one of the most used themes of the novel.

Another example of usage of the concept of foreign and foreigner is evident in the poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost.

The poet had shown the main subject of the poem to be unfamiliar with the woods; he reaches one snowy evening. The unfamiliarity with such a place compels him to ask certain questions in the course of the poem.

Whose woods these are I think I know.

His house is in the village though;

He will not see me stopping here

To watch his woods fill up with snow (Frost, 2002, p. 167).

Through the analysis of the above two stories, it comes to our understanding that the concept of foreign and foreigner works as an imperative transition in the stories.

The foreign locations such as India in Indian camp and England in Ligeia had provided transitions in the story as the inclusion of such foreign county had been done to make the message of the story stronger.

The usage of the concept of foreign helps the characters of the stories to either understand their surroundings through which they are often unfamiliar.


Frost, R. (2002). Robert Frost’s Poems. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Hemingway, E. (1977). In Our Time. Columbia: Bruccoli Clark Books.

Poe, E. (1991). The Gold-bug and other Tales. New York: Courier Dover Publications.

The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster

Facts in the case with respect to each of the following

Engineering design

The space shuttle is known to be one of the most ambitious projects of the modern age. The idea to create a space ship that would be able to fly into the outer space and return back seemed fantastic and even ridiculous. That is why its embodiment was a very complicated process that had its own peculiarities connected with the technicality of this project. With this in mind, it was obvious that every launch was risky, and in case of failure, a great number of specialists analyzed aspects of the accident.

First of all, it should be said that the space shuttle was made as a reusable launch vehicle (Fleddermann 7), and that is why it was a complicated mechanism. In order to launch this spaceship, solid rocket boosters are used. They can guarantee a great augmentation of power.

However, they are very dangerous as it is impossible to stop them once the fuel is lit. Accidents with space shuttles showed how dangerous this type of engine could be. Some problems were found in the work of solid rocket booster and field-joint design before the launch of the Challenger. They did not work in a proper way. Unfortunately, a good solution to this problem was not found before the Challenger launch.

However, the engineering design of this shuttle had a great impact on society. It was a source of pride for the community as a complicated ship with a unique design was created in their country. That is why this project was a real affair of honor for the whole nation.

Atmospheric (weather) conditions from the night before launch until the time of the disaster

Problems revealed while analyzing the project made specialists sure that in order to mitigate risks, it was better to assure of ideal weather conditions on the date of launch. This fact became obvious after investigations, which showed that cold weather influenced the work of the whole system greatly and increased the possibility of failure.

That is why the first launch was postponed because of a cold front, which was said to come. The decision to wait for another day was accepted. However, the night before the launch, the weather did not become better. The overnight temperature was even colder than it was expected. There was a significant accumulation of ice on launchpad from safety showers and fire hoses (Fleddermann 11). However, this time, the launch was not postponed.

Professional responsibilities neglected

Crash of the space shuttle was a very stressing accident, which of cause attracted much attention. That is why a great number of different specialists tried to analyze the aftermath of the launch to determine the main reasons which led to these results in order to avoid them in the future. It was rather an easy thing to do as every launch of the shuttle was filmed by hundreds of cameras, and all showings had been recorded.

Having analyzed all data and evidence which were at their disposal, specialists came to the conclusion that neglection of professional responsibilities might have been a reason for this disaster. The first obvious reason was the disdain of the officials towards weather conditions. Richard Feynmann, one of the members of the special commission, managed to prove the idea that on cold temperatures, the space shuttle becomes more vulnerable, and the probability of disaster rises significantly (Fleddermann 12).

Under these conditions, it becomes obvious that people responsible for the launch should have postponed it in order to wait for better conditions and guarantee its success. One of the fundamental canons of NSPE code for engineering, which states that deceptive acts should be avoided (“NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers” para. 7), was ignored. Moreover, another accident with the space shuttle showed a threatening tendency that a great number of safety measures were ignored while preparing the ship for its launch.

Having analyzed reasons for the crash of the space shuttle Colombia, the special commission came to the conclusion that it happened because of the detachment of the foam. Specialists who were responsible for this launch knew about this problem; however, they did not pay much attention to it.

That is why the report made after analyzing the data was called “broken safety culture.” Taking into consideration these facts, it is possible to come to the conclusion that it was possible to avoid this tragedy if all people responsible for certain aspects of this project were attentive and acted according to instruction.

Engineers assuming administrative/managerial positions during their careers

There is a tendency that many engineers assume administrative positions during their careers. It is possible to say that this fact has a pernicious influence on the whole sphere of engineering in the world. Accomplishing a managerial job, an engineer loses his practical skills, which are of great significance in the work of any good specialist.

That is why it is even possible to say that this tendency can be one of the factors which led to disastrous results. Being not skilled, engineers can forget about some tiny detail, which is very important in this complicated sphere. That is why it is important to combine managerial work with good practice in order to be in good shape.

Works Cited

Fleddermann, Charles. Engineering Ethics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2011. Print.

NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. Web.

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