The “Palliative” Documentary Film Free Sample


The “Palliative” describes the work of Doctor Nadia Tremonti. The woman’s primary goal is to help parents and other relatives survive the deaths of children who have long struggled to live. The movie traces the female’s role not only as a palliative care physician but also as a psychologist for bereaved relatives (Beder 00:01:00). Thus, the pediatrician assists the children, attempting to save them but also interacts significantly with their parents. Currently, there is a challenge in society’s reluctance to discuss such sensitive matters. Therefore, a critical analysis of the documentary “Palliative” should be performed and indicate whether or not the author of the film has achieved its goal.

The Main Theme of The Film

The film’s primary focus is on the problems that have arisen in society and are associated with the death of children. Hence, the documentary reveals the themes of professional care for terminally ill kids and parental support. At the same time, “Palliative” demonstrates that there are cases when death cannot be avoided; thus, it is essential to prepare parents for it. Another issue is the widespread stigmatization of death in society, which leads to fear of the inevitable event (Beder 00:03:06). The film aims to explain the importance of providing the best care and emotional well-being for the dying child. Accordingly, the film’s thesis is based on the idea that death should not be feared if it cannot be avoided but that it is crucial to have the ability to live with it. This is confirmed by the words, “we decided to go and eat lunch at the grave site” (Beder 00:01:04). It means that people’s adequate perception of this concept translates into a painless memory of the dead.

A Selection of Characters

The documentary includes authentic stories about the death of infants and parents’ perceptions of it. For instance, Giovanni has a natural heartbeat and is able to be born alive even though the child’s death will not be missed (Beder 00:06:30). The mother is admonished not to become bonded to the unborn child in order to protect themselves from the pain of loss. The choice of these characters is due to the fact that this situation arises quite often in medical practice, and it is essential to help explain to the parents the significance of bonding with the child. Through this example, Hope Tremont presents that if kids are born alive, they deserve to feel the attention and love of their parents (Beder 00:08:00). This is significant because parents often choose to distance themselves from such children, making it difficult to relive their deaths afterward. It also contributes to the film’s overall idea because the doctor attempts to discuss these uncomfortable and painful moments with the parents and explain the alternatives and their benefits.

The film also features characters who have been caring for sick young children for a long time. For example, Martin’s parents attempt to provide their son with the best care (Beder 00:12:00). Obviously, this story demonstrates that when parents select to care for a child, they are not only receiving emotions of fear and sadness. At the same time, they feel love and respect for the infant, which is why the mother says “l get to take care of him” (Beder 00:13:52). This example demonstrates that caring for even a terminally ill person can provide parents with a sense of happiness. Thus, one should not distance oneself from kids and consider them dead even when they are still alive.

Language then Vocabulary

The film uses specific term language to reinforce its basic ideas. For example, the doctor tries to explain the meaning of the word “P-A-L-L-I-A-T-I-V-E” in detail, which is why the woman stretches the word into letters in order to emphasize exactly the importance of the word (Beder 00:00:21). This helps to explain that such a specific definition means additional care for patients and their mouths, despite the severity of the stage of the disease. Thus, from the introduction of this word, further stories in the documentary address the problems of parental stress and child care. In addition, positive words are used in the film, even though it is about the death of children or the care of sick homes. For example, “good quality,” “feel joy,” and “hug” allow for the atmosphere of love and comfort that every kid should feel (Beder 00:19:00). Therefore, their language, like the pediatrician’s, is aimed at a positive perception of reality, not at developing depression.

The Final Goal

Notably, the film achieves its purpose and is in accordance with the thesis. This is confirmed by the fact that the final conclusion is that “and this day is about what people show that the life of humanity can not be happy in any other, remove everything from this thought, inappropriate it” (Beder 00:29:00). Thus, with the help of a specialist, parents conclude that if death cannot be avoided for their children, it is essential to provide them with at least a short but happy life. In this way, it enables a change in the general human view that death is a sad phenomenon, but it is impossible to live in expectation of it.


Therefore, the film “Palliative” describes parents’ attitudes toward their terminally ill children and the pediatrician’s role in shaping their worldview. The basic idea is that kids have the right to experience their last moments of life alongside parents who provide warmth and love for them. At the same time, a specialist’s help is essential for the parents to prepare for the child’s death and reduce the risk of stress. Accordingly, the film completely fulfilled its own purpose and demonstrated the stories of people deserving of respect.

Works Cited

Beder, John, director. Palliative. Bed Rock Productions, 2020.

The Possibility Of A United Africa: Impact Of Colonization


Colonialism in Africa was executed mainly by European countries between 17th century and 19th centuries. The main reason towards this was the abundance of raw materials in the continent that they wanted to extract for industries back in Europe (“IvyPanda,” 2020). However, they concealed this by claiming that their mission in Africa was to civilize Africans (“IvyPanda,” 2020). It had both positive and negative effects on the communities living in Africa. Its impact is still being felt in many parts of the continent today. This period shaped African history as it was not only about the actions of Europeans but also what the Africans thought (Parker & Rathbone, 2013). There were mixed feelings from different societies on the continent; for some, it was seen as an opportunity, while for others saw it as a threat to their cultures. During the time, colonizers divided the continent into protectorates, colonies, and free trade areas to eliminate conflicts of interests among themselves (Michalopoulos & Papaioannou, 2016). Currently, most African countries have boundaries that were drawn by the Europeans that have confined them to long-lasting political and economic consequences.

Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis

The research questions will be formulated into the null hypothesis that artificial borders, political strife, poor Intra Africa connectivity, neo-colonialism, and cultural distortion have no effect on United Africa. On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis will be that artificial borders, political strife, poor Intra connectivity Africa connectivity, neo-colonialism, and cultural distortion have impeded a United Africa. In the event that the reviewed reports and document will have substantial evidence agreeing that colonization of Africa had not prevented unity of African states, this report will fail to reject the null hypothesis. However, if the reports reveal enough evidence that Europeans conquest of Africa impacted negatively the urge for a United Africa, the null hypothesis will be rejected and the alternative one will be validated.

Study Premise and Rationale

The review will examine the available information to confirm if indeed the five effects of colonialism have no impact on a United Africa and that other factors could be the reason. In the evidence that this is true, the study will accept the Null hypothesis. Alternatively, if this review will find that indeed the 5 effects of colonization truly have hampered the unification of the continent, then the Null hypothesis will be rejected and the alternative one will be validated.

Statement of the Problem

It is argued that colonial powers brought civilization to Africa. They changed the governance structure from traditional rulers and kingdoms and opened up transport and communication infrastructure. Further, that colonialists brought Western education systems, healthcare, religion, and enhanced human rights (Layne, 2021). However, colonization equally contributed to the social, economic, and political problems African countries face today and several years after getting their independence. Despite many states of self-rule, Africa states still struggle with bad governance, civil wars, and poverty despite having numerous reserves of raw materials and natural resources. To this century Europeans still reap the benefits of colonialism because Africans lack systems to redress the past destabilization of their traditional institutions and economies (Matona, 2019). For example, all former French colonies still pay taxes to France for infrastructure developed in their countries, and many pledge military allegiance to the French government (Matona, 2019). Further, the division of Africa into units created ethnic disunity as members of one community was separated by artificial borders and found themselves in separate countries. (Sandra, 2003). In the process, there were tribal rivalries, conflicts, and wars among different tribes forced to live in a particular country.

Europeans’ control over Africa created artificial states, left African counties poorly connected with each other, and increased domestic and intra countries conflicts. Additionally, independent states were not prepared to determine their own affairs and today most countries are still being controlled by their former colonizers (Caldwell, 2017). Likewise, they created political borders that served their own interests rather than the original historical territorials of the communities (Mueller, 2018). Several years after becoming independent, many African countries are still forced to trade with their colonial masters than neighboring states. Colonialism, therefore, left Africa with a problem through the creation of artificial African states, political strife, poor intra Africa connectivity, neo-colonialism, and cultural distortion that have been stumbling blocks for African unity. This paper will thus discuss how these issues have impeded the possibility of all of Africa uniting under one banner.

Significance of the Review

This review is important in the sense that it will add to the body of literature that is available and try to fill the gap in the information available on why United Africa cannot be realized. It will give new insights into where the problem lies so that in the future African states could have the knowledge of where to start should they initiate a real paradigm towards full integration.

Concepts and Variables

The concepts in this study are summed up in a conceptual framework which is a written or visual representation of an expected relationship between variables. It explains the direction of research and anchors it firmly in theoretical constructs (Adom & Hussein, 2018). Further, the conceptual framework makes the study results meaningful and acceptable and ensures their generalization. In this study, the concepts are demonstrated by one dependent variable called African United Africa (Integration) and the independent variables are the effects of colonization of Africa. These predictors are artificial borders, political strife, poor Intra African connectivity, neo-colonialism, and cultural distortion. In this linear relationship, the 5 effects of colonialism either individually or through interaction impede Africa from uniting into a single state or forming a federation.

Literature Review

The colonization of Africa took a shorter period of about 70 years in many countries. However, its effect and the rate of change it brought to African societies were great (Rodney, 2020). During this period Africans lost power to determine how they could relate within each and every community and between different groups (Rodney, 2020). Africans no longer had the power to defend their interests and to impose their will on issues. It affected the current states in a manner that almost all independent counties are modeled like western cultures in terms of economies and governance structures. Post-independent Africa is characterized by ethnic-based politics, exclusion, and marginalization of mostly minority communities. African resources are still being exploited by their former colonial powers such that African economies are left weak, with poor intra-countries infrastructure impeding interactions and trade among many countries or regions in Africa. The result is a disjoined Africa that on many occasions relies on Europe, Asia, or the United States of America on almost everything including decisions on governance.

Theoretical Framework

Theories provide explanations of ideas and problems that occur or are experienced in a field of study. However, they are always relooked at, refined, or even dismissed in favor of new ones that give an accurate explanation of the issues around an occurrence in the world. The theoretical framework must show the depth of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of study (“Sacred Heart University Library,” 2020). This paper used the theories of modernization, dependency, and neo-colonialism dependency to explain how colonization affected Africa from becoming a unitary state or a federation. Further, it will discuss the theories of Pan Africanism and African Renaissance and how they also failed to help African countries forge unity.

Theory of Modernization

This theory explains the steps that nations go through while trying to change from a traditional society into a modern country. There is an array of studies that shows that many African states relied on this theory after their independence to scale up their industrialization and economic growth (Nyathi, 2019). In the long run, ended up abandoning their traditional societies and adopting the European styles of living. For example, countries such as Nigeria, Kenya, and Uganda, are using the capitalist version of modernization that a nation grows in terms of economic and social developments it will realize democracy automatically (Nyathi, 2019). It focuses on pushing the societies to transition from traditional ways of life to modern societies through privatization (Nyathi, 2019). Almost all countries that followed these European styles copy and follow everything that their former colonizers did or still doing.

Theory of Dependency

It is sometimes referred to as the foreign dependency by African states. This has been a big let-down in Africa because many countries cannot stand on their feet. They rely heavily on financial aid from their former colonial masters. After independence, these countries did not have the capacity to manage the very few industries and infrastructure that the European masters left behind (Nyathi, 2019). A number of countries are stuck and unable to develop economically despite investments made by the colonizers during the colonial period and even after their independence. The focal point of this theory is that colonization created inequality between the European nations and their former colonies as far as the distribution of power and resources is concerned (Nyathi, 2019). This theory informed Pan Africanism movements among African leaders. The rallying call was to eliminate Africa’s dependence on foreign aid which undermines their authorities.

Neo-colonialism in dependency theory

Neo-colonialism is the inclination of the former colonial powers towards remotely controlling African countries with the view to continue benefiting from their resources. It is the overall dominance of the more advanced European countries over the less developed former colonies (Nyathi, 2019). They still put more economic pressure on African countries and even try to determine the political regimes in many African states. Neo-colonialism has suppressed development in many countries through capitalism and finances (Nyathi, 2019). This has confined many African countries to remain indebted to their colonizers because they cannot pay their debts and be independent financially (Nyathi, 2019). Eventually, according to them, the opportunities to continue robing the former African colonies of their valuable natural resources and minerals.

Pan Africanism

A few years after many African countries got their independence, several leaders were for the integration of the continent into either a unitary state or a federation. The theory is a situation whereby all countries would come together against what they called barbaric acts of colonialism and imperialism (Mazrui, 2010). As put forward by Asare-Nuamah (2017), they defined the idea as “an international phenomena that sought to contest the articulation and projection of Euro- American power and interest at the expense of black people.” It was meant to fight for all Africans and Black people globally. Pan Africanism aimed to empower the black race by liberating them from what was perceived as their manipulation and exploitation by foreign powers (Asare-Nuamah, 2017). However, it failed to prevent domination of the African countries by the European powers and the United States of America.

Further, it was weak such that is could not stop counties from overdependence on aid from Europe and America as currently witnessed in many African states. The biggest challenge to this theory of African unity is that fact that many countries are inclined towards protecting their bounders that were the creation of their colonizers (Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2013). Several states and their leaders are holding on to artificially created sovereignties and have gone ahead to forge nationalism ideologies within their borders. No country is willing to let go of its boundaries as were formulated by the colonial powers in favor of unity. Political leaders in various countries have become more conscious of the need to protect what Europeans left behind at independence at the expense of African unity (Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2013). Meaning colonialism created individualistic, nationalistic, and state sovereignty in the minds of African Leaders. This fact is demonstrated by the resemblance of all African integration efforts following the European Union economic model (Asare-Nuamah, 2017). In the past and currently, there have never been any attempts to talk about Africa’s political unity.

African Renaissance

This theory was anchored on the need for Africans to determine their own future by generating solutions to their problems internally. It was informed by the realization that foreign aid could not help African countries to address their problems (Moyo, 2009). African Renaissance stipulated that European and all foreign aid had failed many states in Africa, so it envisioned that Africans would look for solutions from within (Oginni & Moitui, 2016). African Renaissance incorporated economic growth, trade, peace and security, education, science and technological advancement, and African values. It also included political values such as democracy, human rights, rule of law, and free and fair regular elections. Through it, Africans wanted to take charge of their own fate by domesticating solutions to their challenges. There was evidence that prior to foreign aid some African countries, for example, Ivory Coast had performed better economically (Moyo, 2009). In the recent past, there have been attempts to use this concept in trying to remap Africa globally in this era of globalization and Information Technology (Mbeki, 1097). In essence, the theory was meant to make the continent great and be able to compete and challenge the competitive advantage Europe, America, and Asia have over other African economically.

Despite the fact that the African Renaissance was supposed to champion the economic, political, and social development of Africa on the global stage it failed. Throughout a number of countries there have been continuous political instability and conflicts (cross the border, ethnic, inter and intrastate) (Gilley, 2010). Mistrust amongst states has confined this idea only to the African Union headquarters with no efforts to streamline it down to countries. Further, the nationalism cultures Africans inherited from their colonizers have hindered the effective integration of the African Renaissance in policies of different countries (Gilley, 2010). African Union member states have not bothered to align it with their policies.

How Colonialism Negated African Unity

Scholars have documented many long-term negative effects of colonialism in Africa that made it impossible for their unity or federation. Firstly, Europeans determined the number of African states and their sizes by partitioning the continent and ending up complicating their strengths on the global stage (Robinson, 2019). Secondly, colonization influenced and interfered with the traditional ethnic boundaries and political structures that existed before through the use of the indirect rule and language policy. In addition, it shaped the postcolonial relationship between states and the societies which endured mistrust towards the state by civil society groups (Robinson, 2019). When colonialists left, many countries adopted and preserved those colonial institutions thereby eradicating Africanism in many states. There was also a great differential in colonial investments across communities and regions that have persisted in the continent up to now (Robinson, 2019). All of these created barriers that made it possible for a solitary African state to happen post-colonialism.

Artificial Boundaries and States

Colonization created so many countries as every European country aimed to share parts of the continent that they deem could serve their interests. When they left, most African leaders who in some instances were collaborators adopted these boundaries as their territories (IvyPanda, 2020). The colonial boundaries did not recognize ethnic diversity that was a way of life in Africa before colonizers came and it isolated diverse elements of African ethnicities. Arbitrary creation of countries’ borders ensured ethnically fragmented countries and the separation of people who share a common culture from neighboring countries (“University of Zurich,” 2016). It created mistrust among communities living in many countries which several African states are still dealing with today. On the other hand, the African rulers in most countries did not want to let go of the artificial states for the unity of the continent because they enjoyed what they inherited.

Political Strife

African colonizers established states that served their interests and Africans were not allowed to participate in decision making. This forced many ethnic to work together. In addition, some groups witnessed their traditional territories being divided into different political borders between two colonial countries (Sandra, 2003). It fractured ties between families, clans, and communities that share the same cultures. Thus, colonialism created ethnically fragmented countries that are still fighting among themselves internally and externally post-independence and even today (Sandra, 2003). This could sound to have been intentional so that at no time Africans could be able to speak in one voice because many African leaders inherited countries dominated by civil wars. Some countries have not been able to find internal solutions to this problem that colonizers left behind. The notion of ethnicity created by colonial masters has over the years posed negative effects on the political systems of African countries (Kidane, 2015). The fragmentation of several ethnic groups into many different states and unequal economic development among several ethnic identities is still an obstacle for African countries to forge unity and manage their diversity.

Poor Intra Africa Connectivity

Despite taking over half a century in Africa, the European colonizers did not improve the connectivity of the many states they created on the continent. Their infrastructure development focused on roads, railway lines, and telephone communications that were concentrated on areas where they extracted raw materials and on the routes they used to ship them back home (Caldwell, 2017). After independence, African leaders have done very little to improve their Intra African infrastructure and connectivity. This is the cause of poor Intra African trade, and the movement of people, goods, and services. Africa cannot even trade with itself, for example, there is a road or railway network connecting North Africa to South Africa or East Africa to West Africa (Dovi, 2018). The poor state of affairs on Africa’s connectivity cannot be compared to what European countries have in their continent, essentially meaning they never had the will to connect despite ripping benefits out of Africa.


Several years after African countries became independent, the effects of colonialism are still felt in the continent. Africa’s position on the global stage is weak and seemingly many states were unprepared for self-rule, and governance, and are currently still not able to function in the modern world system (Campbell et al., 2010). Neo-colonialism is considered a major reason why the continent is vulnerable to foreign influence and pressure. European countries are today still involved in the domestic affairs of their former colonies.

It suggests or portrays a picture that the impact of colonization is very much present but in a different way. For example, in some countries, neo-colonialism is booted by free-trade agreements and development plans that guarantee the Company’s right to investment over the rights of citizens from the host nation (Abbott, 2016). African countries look down on their indigenous populations whenever they are dealing with investors from developed countries, and they are normally dispossessed and evicted to make way for foreign capital quests. This means that the citizens in Africa feel abused due to outside influence disguised as foreign policies (Caldwell, 2017). For, example Democratic Republic of Congo’s domestic and international functions and operations are influenced by its former colonizers.

Cultural Distortion

Colonization left Africa disunity among indigenous tribes who were forced to live together when they partitioned the continent into smaller artificial states. Members of a particular tribe were forced to separate from their relatives and live with other ethnic groups in a country. Further, it divided Africa into either French-speaking or English-speaking nations, and today, the continent has no formal language that is common to all the over 50 countries in Africa (Caldwell, 2017). Another effect of colonialism is cultural imperialism; when Europeans came to Africa, they disregarded African culture and changed everything that they felt was not good for them. African states and governments including their citizens copied these western cultures as the best and relegated the indigenous traditions (Caldwell, 2017). Currently, in almost all independent African states, the official languages, religion, education systems, dressing code, music, sports, etc., were adopted from colonial masters.

Colonization destroyed African traditional beliefs and social values by pushing western civilization as the best way of life. Many communities, therefore, renounced their traditional beliefs like African religion and converted to Christianity for them to get favor such as employment in the military and public service (Caldwell, 2017). Further, colonialism disrupted the way of living of communities and their development plans when they were relocated to give room for large-scale farming (Caldwell, 2017). They were never consulted and were resettled in areas that were less productive. This cultural distortion was inherited by African governments after independence and has impeded the efforts to unify Africa because there is no African identity.

Research Methodology

This study adopted secondary data collection methods to gather the information that formed part of the results. The technique allows the researcher to use data that has been collected and is readily available from other sources (“Management Study Guide,” n.d.). Additionally, it is cheaper and quicker to obtain secondary data than primary data. In this case, it involved the reuse of data making it secondary data for this study.

Data Collection

Data collection was conducted using two techniques content and analysis and document analysis. Firstly, patterns in the readily available data were identified systematically from journal articles, websites, and online books (Luo, 2019). Data were then categorized and coded into themes and concepts within the texts and then analyzed. The analysis involved understanding the meaning and semantic relationship of concepts to find the correlations and patterns in how concepts were communicated (Luo, 2019). This followed a systematic procedure that is accurate and has high reliability.

Document analysis involved the use of systematic steps to analyze documentary evidence and answer specific study questions was also employed. The primary data available were reviewed, examined, and interpreted in understand the meaning and empirical knowledge of the variables that were being studied (“Indeed Editorial Team,” 2021). This was done as a component complimenting content analysis by triangulating findings gathered from both data sources. Triangulation created room for evidence from all the sources to be corroborated, elucidated, expound for clarity, and to guard against biased results. It helped in enhancing the credibility of study findings and assuring the quality, and accuracy of the results (“Indeed Editorial Team,” 2021). Further, document analysis ensured that the study settled on the appropriate pieces of information from all the resources by suggesting situations the research needed to observe and giving additional valuable insights.

Steps & Procedures

Al the documents were listed and information was organized by defining the units of meaning, that is the elements the study was looking for in the secondary data. Once this was achieved, the data were coded into themes for easy analysis (“Indeed Editorial Team,” 2021). This was followed by making copies of all the sources to allow for annotation of the information without damaging the original content. Sources were then authenticated for credibility, dependability, conformability, and transferability (“Indeed Editorial Team,” 2021). The next step involved checking the biases in the data to eliminate skewed information and to make the information accurate. Lastly, the evidence gathered was evaluated by identifying patterns in the data, extracting useful information, deciding how it applied to the research question, and then the results were interpreted to build the study.


The results are presented according to the research questions that this study sought to answer. A presentation follows the variables that were discussed under the literature review that resulted from the colonization of Africa which negatively affected the unification or federation of the continent into one state. It will discuss how artificial boundaries, political strife, poor Intra Africa connectivity, Neo-colonialism, and cultural distortion have blocked the realization of Africa under one banner.

Impact of Artificial Borders on Africa’s Civil Wars

Africa has been and is still suffering from violence and never-ending civil wars several years after independence. When Europeans created them, they failed to recognize Africa’s political, geographical, ethnic, and cultural diversities (Dimkpa, 2015). The borders only ended up creating political violence, rebel groups opposed to governments, militias, and violence against civilians in many countries after independence. For example, Nigeria-Cameroon had a Bakassi Peninsula border conflict that arose from the biased design by colonialists.

The same case was witnessed between Ethiopia and Eritrea with the former regarding the latter as part of its territorial boundary and as the fourteenth province of its nation (Dimkpa, 2015). Further, the Afar (Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti) and Esa (Ethiopia and Somalia) groups in the horn of Africa have had the highest number of civil wars between 1970 and 2005 (Dimkpa, 2015). Ethiopians still believe that Eritrea has a lot of traditions with them in terms of history, culture and religion, thus, must naturally be part of its national boundary. They claimed Europeans made mistakes and were negligent of their ethnic bond during border design. This has over the years caused mistrust, conflicts, and wars between the two states.

Colonization created Dependency culture in Africa

Western powers left the continent but did not let go of their tricks to continue dominating and controlling the Africans politically and economically. The international systems that Africa is expected to interact with do not favor them politically and economically. They used and still use the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and Forex to affect the dependency theory on African governments (Dimkpa, 2015). This has only limited many African countries to quasi-states which they still control (neo-colonialism). Clearly, indicates that European powers still have strong say and hold on their former colonies. Therefore, Africans cannot think or decide for themselves on many issues including federation or the creation of one unitary state of Africa simply because their economies and politics depend on the west (Dimkpa, 2015). Over the years, dependency has undermined the sovereignty of many states in the continent to make independent decisions on how to move together with each other.

Colonization Aided Political Strife that retarded African Development

In terms of political institutions, there were examples of African indigenous governments which showed some signs of political organizations and developments. The evidence suggests that states such as the Tswana in Botswana and the Asante of Ghana and the Rwanda state were growing into more centralized and consolidated units with a clear center of power command (Heldring & Robinson, 2013). However, nothing was there to indicate whether these indigenous states were experiencing some sort of economic development. Nonetheless, political centralization is a prerequisite for creating order in society, and Africans to a large extent had that prior to colonization (Heldring & Robinson, 2013). This led to an assumption that if Europeans did not interfere, this trend would have continued to intensify in the 19th century through a strategy that was African and which reflected its diversity. Taking into account these trends, scholars made assumptions that previous patterns of political development would continue and it is argued that these countries would be more developed today.

Further indirect rule mostly used by the British is seen to have made rulers of the countries it colonized less accountable to their citizens after independence. Most African states lacked coherence and suffered from colonial legacies of racism, stereotypes, and misconceptions that Africans may not have had like in the case of Burundi and Rwanda (Heldring & Robinson, 2013). In addition, in colonies of white settlement, there were tendencies of land grabbing and dislocation of people from their ancestral lands (Heldring & Robinson, 2013). This was copied and maintained by many African rulers post-independence and it caused inequality and ethnic conflicts passed on from European powers to African rulers. The result of this is that many states have been left with the problem of trying to solve their own internal political conflicts that no time created to focus on African unity.

Many African leaders also called petty-bourgeois after independence maintained strong associations with their former colonial masters and have been working under their control. They see themselves as masters of the poor citizens who should submit to their will and this has created class conflict in Africa (Ocheni & Nwankwo 2012). The rampant and several political instabilities and socio-economic problems being experienced in most African states today are rooted in the character of classes introduced in Africa by colonialism. The state of affairs in some African countries currently is where resources are shared between the petty bourgeoisie and their European/colonial counterparts. The oppression of the masses in a number of states has links with colonialism. Rulers of these countries are, therefore, hesitant to work out a common unitary African state for fear that it will neutralize their sovereignty influence and power domination over their citizens.

Poor Intra Africa Connectivity

The colonialists laid the foundation for poor transport infrastructure impeding movements in African today. Whereas in their mother countries they strived to create both rail, air, road, and water linkages, in Africa this was not the case. They distorted and disarticulated the development of a comprehensive transport system (Ocheni & Nwankwo, 2012). The transport networks that were created was not to link different states they had partitioned but for purposes of evacuating raw materials from Africa to their home countries.

They did not make any attempts to develop good road and railway lines to connect various African countries. Besides, they created so many lands locked countries in Africa by dividing the continent into smaller territories (Ocheni & Nwankwo, 2012). This is the current state of Affairs of a continent that finds it difficult to connect between itself than with Europe and the rest of the world. Further, the distorted, disjointed, and disarticulated transport system developed by the colonialists did not allow for effective agricultural and economic integration within the different parts of the continent. This has been the problem from independence to date as Africa lack economic integration and cooperation among its states.

Colonialism also disarticulated African markets and trades; the traditional African marketing centers were discarded by the colonizers. African societies formed routes based on their indigenous needs, however, colonialists changed this and so marketing centers which served Africans before were eliminated, decayed or died and this destroyed communities’ patterns of development and urbanization (Ocheni & Nwankwo, 2012). They made Africa trade mainly with Europe as opposed to states forming the continent trading amongst themselves thereby integrating Africa to trade permanently with global markets. This exposed Africa to premature international trade at independence before it was ready (Ocheni & Nwankwo, 2012). Leaving the continent at the mercy of advanced economies that have hijacked its economy because Africa has no comparative effect on almost all sectors of world economy. Currently, this is the case where there are no organic linkages between Agricultural and industrial sectors in the continent. Consequently, the continent seems land locked as its states cannot integrate, movements amongst its people are difficult, and it export and import most it products to the outside world than within its borders.

Cultural distortion in Africa impedes its Unity

Western civilization and traditions crippled African socio-cultural atmosphere immediately after Europeans entered the African space, and was consolidated by the inevitable wave of globalization soon after independence of most African states. Firstly, colonization distorted and retarded the pace and tempo of African cultural integration, and civilization. It created cultural gap between the states that benefited from colonization and those that were the victims of colonial abuses (Arowolo, 2010). European invasion of Africa led to decline or stagnation of traditional cultures in their colonies. Africa was vanquished and the western way of life outgrew indigenous cultural heritage. Currently western way of life is regarded as the best civilization in many countries across the continent with African traditions seen as primitive, archaic and in some cases rejected in public places. Indigenous communities lost their powers and sense of cultural continuity and can no longer strive for cultural progress on their own terms (Mikiko, 2010). The social glue was destroyed and a new tradition of violence was implanted, African way of conflict resolutions were neglected and no alternatives were put in place.

Further, westernization left Africa with language imperialism in which most states adopted foreign dialect and made them official. Before and after independence, countries have been witnessing decline in language proficiency as the governments and rulers forced their nationals to embrace European dialects (Arowolo, 2010). This has led to alienation of people who cannot speak English in countries that followed French civilization and vice versa. Thus, creating a language barrier between Anglophone and Francophone countries for example which has impeded African integration.


Colonization of Africa by European countries affected the continent in so many ways and its impact is still being felt in almost all nations. It gave rise to political strife, neo-colonialism, cultural distortion, creation of artificial states, and poor Intra African connectivity that have impeded United Africa. Therefore, null hypothesis that, artificial borders, political strife, poor Intra Africa connectivity, neo-colonialism, and cultural distortion have no effect on United Africa. The alternative hypothesis will be that artificial borders, political strife, poor Intra connectivity Africa connectivity, neo-colonialism, and cultural distortion have impeded a United Africa.


Abbott, J. (2016). The neo-colonization of Central America. New Politics, 41–48.

Adom, D. and Hussein, E. K. (2018). Theoretical and Conceptual Framework: Mandatory Ingredients of a quality research. International Journal of Scientific Research, 7(1).

Asare-Nuamah, P. (2017). Understanding African integration from African theoretical perspective. Research Gate.

Arowolo, D. (2010). The Effects of western civilization and culture on Africa. Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1).

Campbell, P. J., MacKinnon, A., and Stevens, C. R. (2010). An introduction to global studies.

Caldwell, M. (2017). The Effects of colonization: How it happened and how it still Continues.

Dimkpa, P. (2015). Colonialism, independence and underdevelopment in Africa. Dalarna University Centre for African Studies. Web.

Dovi; E. A. (2018). Infrastructure key to intra-African trade. Africa Renewal.

Gilley, B. (2010). The end of the African Renaissance. The Washington Quarterly, 33(4), 87-101.

Heldring, L. and Robinson, J. (2013). Colonialism and development in Africa. VOX EU.

Indeed Editorial Team. (2022). What is document analysis? (With definition and steps). Indeed.

IvyPanda. (2020). Negative Effects of Colonialism in Africa.

Kidane, M. (2011). Critical factors in the horn of Africa’s raging conflicts- discussion papers. Uppsala.

Layne, J. (2021). 21 Important pros and cons of colonialism. Ablison Energy.

Luo, A. (2019). Content analysis: A Step-by-step guide with examples. Scribbr.

Matona, T. (2019). Africa’s colonial history explains present challenges. News Decoder.

Management Study Guide. (n.d.). Secondary data.

Mazrui, A.A. (2010). Preface: Black Berlin and the curse of fragmentation: From Bismarck to Barack. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

Michalopoulos, S. and Papaioannou, E. (2016). Scramble for Africa and its Legacy. Springer Link.

Mimiko, N.O. (2010). Would Falola frustrations suffice? Tradition, Governance Challenges and the Prospects of Change in Africa. Carolina Academic Press.

Moyo, D. (2009). Dead aid: Why aid is not working and how there is a better way for Africa.

Mueller, J. (2018). Positive & negative effects of colonialism.

Mbeki, T. (1997). The African Renaissance: An Address to the South Africa institute of international relations. 

Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2013). The entrapment of Africa within the global colonial matrices of power: Eurocentrism, coloniality, and demineralization in the twenty-first Century. Journal of Developing Societies, 29 (4), 331-353.

Nyathi, T. R. (2019). The main theories that have been used to explain developmental experiences in Africa: Theory that informs policy. Research Gate.

Ocheni, S. and Nwankwo, B. C. (2012). Analysis of Colonialism and its impact in Africa. Cross-Cultural Communication, 8 (3), 46-54.

Oginni, S.O. and Moitui, J. N. (2016). African Renaissance and Pan Africanism, a shared value and identity among African nationals. Africology: The Journal of Pan African, Studies, 9(1), 39-58.

Parker, J. and Richard Rathbone, R. (2013). Colonialism in Africa. Oxford University Press.

Robinson, A. L. (2019). Colonial rule and its political legacies in Africa. Oxford Research Encyclopedias. Web.

Rodney, W. (2020). Colonialism as a System for Underdeveloping Africa. VERSO.

Sacred Heart University Library. (2020). Organizing academic research papers: Theoretical framework.

Sandra, M. (2003). Effects of colonization beyond intractability. University of Colorado.

University of Zurich. (2016). The Social Impact of Colonialism.


List of Documents and Reports used

  1. The neo-colonization of Central America by Abbott J. 2016
  2. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework: Mandatory ingredients of a quality research by Adom, D. and Hussein, E. K. 2018
  3. Understanding African integration from African theoretical perspective by Asare-Nuamah P. 2017
  4. The Effects of western civilization and culture on Africa by Arowolo D. 2010
  5. An introduction to global studies by Campbell P. J., MacKinnon A., and Stevens C. R. 2010
  6. The Effects of colonization: How it happened and how it still continues by Caldwell M. 2017
  7. Colonialism, independence and underdevelopment in Africa by Dimkpa P. 2015
  8. Infrastructure key to intra-African trade by Dovi E. A. 2018
  9. The end of the African Renaissance by Gilley B. 2010
  10. Colonialism and development in Africa by Heldring L. and Robinson J. 2013
  11. What is document analysis? (With definition and steps) by Indeed Editorial Team 2022
  12. Negative Effects of Colonialism in Africa by IvyPanda 2020
  13. Critical factors in the horn of Africa’s raging conflicts- discussion papers by Kidane M. 2011
  14. 21 Important pros and cons of colonialism by Layne J. 2021
  15. Content analysis: A Step-by-step guide with examples by Luo A. 2019
  16. Africa’s colonial history explains present challenges by Matona T. 2019
  17. Secondary data by Management Study Guide.n.d.
  18. Preface: Black Berlin and the curse of fragmentation: From Bismarck to Barack by Mazrui A.A. 2010
  19. Scramble for Africa and its Legacy by Michalopoulos S. and Papaioannou E. 2016
  20. Would Falola frustrations suffice? Tradition, Governance Challenges and the Prospects of Change in Africa by Mimiko N.O. 2010
  21. Dead aid: Why aid is not working and how there is a better way for Africa by Moyo D. 2009
  22. Positive & negative effects of colonialism by Mueller J. 2018
  23. The African Renaissance: An Address to the South Africa institute of international relations by Mbeki T. 1997
  24. The entrapment of Africa within the global colonial matrices of power: Eurocentrism, coloniality, and demineralization in the twenty-first Century by Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. 2013
  25. The main theories that have been used to explain developmental experiences in Africa: Theory that informs policy by Nyathi T. R. 2019
  26. Analysis of Colonialism and its impact in Africa by Ocheni S. and Nwankwo B. C. 2012
  27. African Renaissance and Pan Africanism, a shared value and identity among African nationals. Africology by Oginni S.O. and Moitui J. N. 2016
  28. Colonialism in Africa by Parker J. and Richard Rathbone R. 2013
  29. Colonial rule and its political legacies in Africa by Robinson A. L. 2019
  30. Colonialism as a System for Underdeveloping Africa by Rodney W. 2020
  31. Organizing academic research papers: Theoretical framework by Sacred Heart University Library 2020
  32. Effects of colonization beyond intractability by Sandra M. 2003
  33. The Social Impact of Colonialism by University of Zurich 2016

Environmental Impact Assessment: Japan

A thorough assessment of environmental impact is crucial to determine the country’s or organization’s efforts toward sustainability. The IPAT equation implies the calculation of population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T) factors to estimate the approximate damage to the environment. In other words, the number of people, their wealth, and the advancement of technology are essential parameters of the IPAT model. The current paper investigates the environmental impact of Japan using the IPAT equation and supporting evidence.


The population is the first characteristic that affects the environmental impact of the country. In 2021, Japan’s overall population constituted 125,681,593 people, and the growth rate was negative of -0.5% (“Japan,” 2022a). Although lower numbers are generally beneficial for the environment, there are several significant problems with this development (Holdren, 2018). Namely, the negative growth leads to an aging population, which will inevitably affect the economic condition of the country. Assuming the relatively low number of migrants and high population density due to a small geographic territory, Japan might face a population crisis, which will negatively affect the overall environmental impact (Parker, 2022). In other words, although the immediate decline in population is beneficial for the environment, Japan might start using non-sustainable methods in the future to compensate for a lack of labor power. Ultimately, the current factor (P) is not critical since Japan is not overpopulated, but the negative growth rate development might contribute to environmental problems in the future.


The second crucial parameter is affluence which generally refers to the abundance of wealth among citizens and the overall economic state of the country. Japan is the third largest economy globally, with a national GDP of $4.94 trillion and a GDP per capita of $39,285 (“Japan,” 2022a). In addition, a low unemployment rate, negative inflation, and high political stability indicate a sound economy, which is a critical advantage in the IPAT model (Holdren, 2018). The wealth among people is distributed more equally compared to other developed countries in G-20, with fewer extremely rich (billionaires) and poor people (homeless) (“Japan,” 2022b). It implies that the average person in Japan can purchase necessities but cannot have an abundance of products. Moreover, the trend of “consumerism” is less noticeable in Japan than in other G-20 countries, and people generally buy new goods in moderation (“Japan,” 2022a). These factors are positive signs of the environmental impact, and, arguably, affluence (A) is the least critical factor in the current assessment of Japan.


Lastly, Japan is famous for innovative technologies and academic breakthroughs in the fields of robotics and machinery. However, although the data support the high technological advancement of the country, there are several problems concerning the environmental impact assessment. For instance, the report by Morita et al. (2020) argues that Japan does not utilize its technology advantage for sustainable efforts. They reveal that outdated governance systems obstruct the process of technology implementation that could potentially significantly improve the environmental situation (Morita et al., 2020). In other words, Japan is lacking in the technology (T) factor of the environmental impact not because of the absence of innovative devices but due to policy regulations.

Another reason for this development is the general reluctance of East Asian countries to prioritize environmental safety compared to other sustainability characteristics, such as economics and social stability. Fontana et al. (2022) investigated the perspectives on sustainability of prominent firms in Japan and South Korea, finding that “societal-commercial” and “traditional-modern” tensions prevent the companies from focusing on the environment (p. 875). Moreover, it concerns the implementation of innovative technologies since corporations have other priorities (Fontana et al., 2022). As a result, Japan has the opportunity to use technology to its advantage in sustainability efforts, but national political and social systems obstruct this development.


Having analyzed the three factors of the IPAT equation, it is safe to assume that technology (T) is the most critical factor that affects the environmental situation in Japan. Both population (P) and affluence (A) are relatively insignificant aspects since Japan currently has a negative population growth and a stable economy. Hypothetically, population (P) will become a relevant problem for Japan in the future, but technology (T) is a more critical factor at present.

Moreover, it is crucial to note that Japan performs relatively well in preserving the environment on the global scale. For instance, EPI 2022 assigns Japan the 25th rank in environmental performance (“Japan,” 2022b). In addition, the organization supports the conclusion of the current paper that technology (T) is the critical factor, showing that Japan performs poorly in government effectiveness and “rule of law” (“Japan,” 2022b). It implies that even though Japan has the technologies to prevent environmental damage, its complicated bureaucracy and outdated traditions prevent positive development.


The IPAT equation is a practical instrument to determine the negative impact of a country on the environment. According to this model, Japan performs relatively well since the factors of the population (P) and affluence (A) are insignificant. This thesis supports the general statistics that show that Japan has a high environmental performance index, particularly compared to other developed economies of the world. Nevertheless, technology (T) remains a significant factor that hinders Japan’s sustainability efforts. The analysis has shown that ineffective governance and outdated social systems prevent companies from implementing innovative machinery and approaches to mitigate environmental damage. Ultimately, technology is the most critical factor in the IPAT assessment of Japan.


Fontana, E., Shin, H., Oka, C., & Gamble, J. (2022). Tensions in the strategic integration of corporate sustainability through global standards: Evidence from Japan and South Korea. Business Strategy and the Environment, 31(3), 875-891.

Holdren, J. P. (2018). A brief history of “IPAT.” The Journal of Population and Stability, 2(2), 66-74.

Japan. (2022a). The World Bank: Data. Web.

Japan. (2022b). Environmental Performance Index. Web.

Morita, K., Okitasari, M., & Masuda, H. (2020). Analysis of national and local governance systems to achieve the sustainable development goals: Case studies of Japan and Indonesia. Sustainability Science, 15(1), 179-202. Web.

Parker, C. (2022). Japan records its largest natural population decline as births fall. The Washington Post. Web.

error: Content is protected !!