The Peculiarities Of The Social And Economic Life In The Soviet Union During The 1930s Free Writing Sample

The period of the 1930s in the Soviet Union is one of the most controversial historical eras in which consequences and results influenced the further development of the country. This period is associated with the figure of the CPSU leader Iosif Stalin and with the Great Terror and a lot of repressions.

In 1935, Iosif Stalin stated that “life has become more joyous.” Was the life of the Soviet Union’s citizens really ‘joyous’ and happy as Iosif Stalin was inclined to depict it in his speech? What concepts could make the life of these people happier?

The questions are rather controversial because the answers to them depend on the strict opposition between the representation of the social life’s peculiarities in the Soviet Union and the real facts and actual social, economic, and political processes which affected the life of the masses.

Is it possible to speak about the ‘joyous’ life when thousands of people have to spend their days in the camps because of their viewpoints, interactions, or ethnicity?

Although the leaders of the Soviet Union were inclined to present the development of the country as associated with a lot of achievements in different spheres of the economic and social life which could make the welfare of the ordinary people higher, the real situation with the facts of the public’s starvation, the expansion of the practice of repressions and terror, and discrimination was rather opposite to the leaders’ declarations.

The life of the residents in the Soviet Union during the 1930s was based on the development and effects of such processes as collectivization and industrialization, and the main accents were made on the equality of workers and their hard labor, which often could be discussed even as heroic.

Thus, the idea of the extra labor with high effects developed, and the famous declaration about the ‘joyous’ life of the citizens of the country was made at the conference of Stakhanovites. It could seem that workers in the Soviet Union were satisfied with their position in society because the idea of the revolution provided by the Bolsheviks in 1917 was based on the principles of the workers’ equality and solidarity.

The ideals of the revolution made the fundament of the society in the Soviet Union, where ordinary people and the working class formed the basis of the social hierarchy.

In his book Notes of Red Guard, Eduard Dune pays attention to the fact that the ideals of the revolution were close to young workers who wanted to live happier and get the proper payment for their work. Workers were powerful in their feeling of solidarity and following the values of collectivity[1].

From this point, in spite of the fact the processes of collectivization and industrialization, and the starvation of the 1930s brought a lot of victims, workers and ordinary people still believed in their prosperous future.

However, the real numbers connected with the sphere of economy emphasized the fact that all the economic reforms provided in the country were beneficial only from the global perspective of increasing the level of the country’s competitiveness, but the real economic state of the ordinary people could not be discussed as satisfied.

Concentrating on the ideological principles and following the ideals of collectivity and solidarity, the working class of the Soviet Union was persistent in realizing their social obligations.

It is possible to discuss the processes in the Soviet Union during the 1930s from many points. The economic state of workers in the country was comparable only to the situation of the people in villages. That social class, which was declared by the Communist leaders as the main for providing the dictatorship of the proletariat in realizing the ideals of the revolution, held almost the lowest position in society according to the economic resources.

The life of the ordinary people in the Soviet Union did not become better, but it was even worse than earlier. A lot of products were not available for workers, or they cost much, the conditions of the work were hazardous, there were obvious problems with housing, the rural territories suffered from the effects of collectivization and starvation.

The material state of workers was not improved, and the development of the Stakhanov movement could not be discussed as the evidence for the fact of its improvement as it was stated by Iosif Stalin in his speech.

Eduard Dune accentuates that the success of the workers’ labor was always based on their high level of morality, solidarity, and even heroism. These virtues were not caused by the changes in the economic state but were just characteristic for the representatives of the proletariat[2].

When the workers presented the examples of heroic labor, the intelligentsia suffered from repressions. The Great Terror of the 1930s was directed against those persons who could prevent the expansion of the positive image of the Soviet Union and its Communist ideology. The threats to the regime could be found in any word written or spoken and in any action.

That is why the representatives of the intelligentsia could suffer from their origin as well as from expressing their viewpoints about the totalitarian regime openly. During the period when life should become better and ‘joyous,’ a lot of people were oppressed because of their points of view and occupations and were taken to the camps.

Thus, Eugenia Ginzburg spent much time in the Gulag and presented her memories in “Journey into the Whirlwind.” In spite of the fact Ginzburg was devoted to the ideals of the Communist Party, she became the victim of the great movement of suspicion[3].

Each person from the intelligentsia and even those workers who could say a word against the authority became the victims of repressions. In this case, the main task of the prisoner was to survive. In her memoir, Eugenia Ginzburg states, “I intended to survive. Just to spite them. I was consumed by the desire to survive the tragedy which had befallen our Party”[4].

The majority of those people who became the prisoners of the Gulag believed in the ideals of the Communist Party as they were presented at the earliest stage of its development. However, the results of building Socialism in the Soviet Union were dissatisfied. Thus, terror and repressions were the opposite side of the processes, which should bring positive effects for the people in the Soviet Union.

It is possible to conclude that in spite of Iosif Stalin’s declaration that the life of the workers and ordinary people in the Soviet Union became joyous, there was not the factual evidence for these words.

The heroism of the workers, the Stakhanov movement, and the active industrialization were the results of the people’s devotion to the ideals of the Communist Party, collectivity and solidarity, but not the consequences of the effective policy. The opposite side of the process was the Great Terror and repressions, which broke the lives of thousands of people in the Soviet Union during the 1930s.


[1] Eduard Dune, Notes of a Red Guard (USA: University of Illinois Press, 1993).

[2] Eduard Dune, Notes of a Red Guard.

[3] Eugenia Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind (USA: Mariner Books, 2002).

[4] Eugenia Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, 175.


Dune, Eduard. Notes of a Red Guard. USA: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Ginzburg, Eugenia. Journey into the Whirlwind. USA: Mariner Books, 2002.

Biography Of Charles Augustus Lindbergh

Charles Augustus Lindbergh is an American pilot, has made the first non-single transatlantic flight. He was born on Feb. 4, 1902, in Detroit. He received primary education in the Little Falls (Minnesota pieces), in 1920-1922 he studied at the University of Wisconsin, where the passion for aviation. In 1924 the school became a cadet in the U.S. Air Reserve, Brooks Field, then a pilot and military postal service.

To take part in the struggle for the prize of 25 000 dollars designated for the first successful transatlantic flight, Lindbergh took a loan to build a special monoplane. Designed by J. Hall plane “Spirit of St. Louis” was built at the company “Ryan” in San Diego. On May 10, 1927, Lindbergh flew it from San Diego to New York with an intermediate landing in St. Louis; total flight time was 21 hours 45 minutes – it was a record of a transcontinental flight.

On May 20, Lindbergh Field flight starts with the Roosevelt Field in New York State, and after 33 hours and 30 minutes, landed at Le Bourget airport near Paris. Flight has made the world a stir: “Lindy” became a national hero and made many trips to various countries in the world. In May 1929, Lindbergh married Anne Morrow, daughter of U.S. Ambassador in Mexico.

With his flight, Lindbergh changed the world. It seems that Earth once became smaller. However, the pilot did not suspect that his actions will change their lives. Since that evening, he became the object of veneration and game. He was the first hero of the new era. Why did he have this fate? Lindbergh was handsome; his character was perfect; he suited to the role of hero (Berg, 1999).

Not so long ago with the help of radio, telephone and telegraph made it possible to distribute news for a few seconds. Cinema stood on the threshold of an era of sound. For the first time, the whole world has been in touch with a great event. But Lindberg, whose flight across the Atlantic has established a new degree of freedom of movement, he will never be able to move freely – for him everywhere to follow the crowd.

As a second pilot and navigator, along with her husband, she has mastered many transoceanic air routes. In parallel, Lindberg worked as a technical consultant on two airlines: “Transcontinental end Western Air Transport” and “Pan American.” In March 1932, a terrible tragedy occurred: he was kidnapped and later killed two-year son Lindberg.

The desire to get rid of the obtrusive media attention has forced them to move to Europe. In 1936 at the invitation of Field Marshal Goering, Lindberg visited the German aviation centers. While visiting Germany in 1938, the German government submitted him to the medal.

This fact, as well as public appeals Lindberg to the neutrality of the United States, which he made in 1940 on his return to America, has drawn sharp criticism from President F. Roosevelt. This forced Lindberg to waive the rank of Colonel U.S. Air Force (Berg, 1999).

However, when the U.S. entered the Second World War, he took part in it as a civilian, as a consultant to the Pacific theater of military action on the special recommendation of the American government. After the war, he participated in the technical mission, sent to Germany to study the achievements of the country’s aircraft. In 1954 received the rank of Brigadier General.

Lindberg is the author of several books: “We,” 1927, “Of Flight and Life,” 1948, “The Spirit of St. Louis”, 1953 – autobiography, for which he received the Pulitzer Prize), military blogs (Wartime Journals, 1970). He was awarded the Medal of the Congress and the Cross of Merit. In 1970 he became an active advocate for the environment. Lindbergh died in Kipahulu on Hawaii on the 26th of August 1974 (Linden, 2004).

A quarter-century after the famous flight, Lindbergh wrote the book “The Spirit of St. Louis”. Referring again to the beginning of his career, as if the author requests the reader silently erase from memory, the image of the pre-Nazi agitators. The book symbolizes the rise of American literary author receives the Pulitzer Prize in the nomination “biography.”

The seventh ten Lindberg begins a new round of public life: his concern to preserve the global ecosystem, it is – the defender of rare animals, Arabian camel, and blue whales. In late life, he published the book “War diaries of Charles Lindberg.”

Sharing life on the “before” and “after” the pre-events (the theme of “before” – in the previous book, “after” – in the new) and talking about his participation in the war with Japan, the author again crosses shameful band of his life (Kramer, 2002).

It should be noted that Lindbergh traveled to Germany in 1936 on behalf of the U.S. government to draw up a report on the status of the German war industry. He met with the Minister of Aviation Reich Goering. In Berlin, Lindbergh attended the opening of the Olympic Games, standing next to Hitler.

Germany made a strong impression on him, and even Anna, his wife, was deeply impressed with the Fuhrer. In a letter to his mother, she called Hitler “a great man” and “prophet.” During the third visit to Berlin, Lindberg was awarded the German Order. The couple is considering and that to live for some time in Germany. Only in November 1938 when, after “Kristallnacht” pogroms of Jews reached its peak, they left this idea.

In fact, part of his mission was pure of intelligence nature. In his report, he wrote that the Germans had created an excellent aircraft. And he advised a reasonably immediate focus on the reinforcement of American aircraft. “Because – he wrote – very soon in Europe, a war will start. But we must keep away from this war. Because no one can beat Germany.”

The more he learned of the Nazis, the less they liked him. But first, he, being very rational, endorsing the economic achievements of the Nazi government. For example, low unemployment, industrialization. And that is built on blood, but he did not know. Lindberg believed that if the war in Europe will flare up, it will be between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.

And he hoped that if America does not intervene in the war, the two dragons – Germany and the Soviet Union – started a brawl, after which they weaken each other so that the totalitarianism of the world will come to an end. Of course, it was a terrible political naivety. He was a rationalist, and spoke, not taking into account the psychological factors.

In September 1939, at the age of 37, Lindberg made a speech in the State of Iowa at a meeting of supporters of isolationism policy. “The leaders of two nations, the British and the Jews – he said – for reasons that are quite understandable and justified, want to drag us into war, devastating for us. The danger of the Jewish group is that Jews in America make up the majority of the owners or influential staff at all the press and cinema, as well as among members of the government. ” (Linden, 2004)

If the anti-Semite is a person who hates Jews, Charles Lindbergh was not anti-Semitic. In his letters, there is a rapt review about Jews as a nation. He has helped several Jewish families to escape from Nazi Germany. But Lindberg considered Jews by others, not worse, just different.

He believed that Jews are a special group in the state, which has some great plans for this group, and political ideas. All this together has destroyed the reputation of Lindbergh. And in the opinion of the society, he was guilty not only of anti-Semitism but in almost anti-Americanism. Because one of the main principles of the United States is the equality of all ethnic and religious groups. We are all equal in the melting pot of America.

Since the beginning of the war, he was in favor of neutrality – despite the sentiment of many Americans. The popularity of Lindbergh falls – especially after the delivery of the German Order and the publication of a report on the status of the Air Force in Germany. Newspapers put him as a fool who conducted the Nazis (Berg, 1999).

After the war, he stated that he considered the Soviet Union the greatest evil and called for a “western wall” against the Mongols, the Persians, and the Moors. “In disputes about the neutrality of it – a sharp opponent of President Roosevelt, who called for the U.S. entry into the war.

But after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Lindbergh polemic with the President ended. America is in danger, and Lindberg is vomiting on the front. But power is not forgiven by his opponent, Defense Minister made it clear enough to the famous American pilot; the Government does not believe him.

As a civilian, Lindbergh at his own risk led the war for their country and, more importantly, for his reputation. He went to the front in the form that he bought in a store, without emblems and stars. If Lindbergh was in captivity, flying over enemy territory, according to international laws, he would be considered partisan.

Lindberg has committed about 50 missions for the war, though none wanted him to take part in this war, especially the U.S. president. This was a private war of Lindbergh. It is not an American hero and not his father, who felt compassion for the whole world. On the contrary, many treat it with prejudice – Lindberg saw the National Socialists, as he several times visited by Nazi Germany, and when criticized it, very cautiously (Giblin, 1997).

Lindbergh continued to be the adviser of the Air Force, where he was awarded the rank of Brigadier General. For a book of memoirs, he received the prestigious award. Subsequent years old airman held in the separation between the three houses owned by him – in America, Switzerland, and Hawaii.

The older Lindberg became, the more skeptical he commented on the aircraft. Once, he hoped that the flights would join the world. Now people are using the aircraft intruded into the most remote corners of the earth, in places where, according to Lindberg, they are not needed. “People – he once said – need wildlife.

He made generous donations to the World Wildlife Fund, traveled to East Africa and the Philippines. During the Vietnam War, he was almost in the first place is concerned that many wild animals, especially elephants, savagely destroying the American bombs. “Birds are more important than aircraft,” – he wrote in 1964.

Lindbergh survived the triumphs, suffering, and delusion. But the main thing – he was the first who sensed by the limitless power of the media. Lindbergh, a person of the century, became the predecessor of Lady Diana and Michael Jackson. First, among those who are in the light press and desperately fight for his privacy.


Berg A. Scott , Lindbergh, Berkley Trade, 1999

Every Dale Van , Charles Lindbergh – His Life, Van Every Press, 2007

Giblin James Cross , Charles A. Lindbergh: A Human Hero, Clarion Books, 1997

Linden F. Robert Van Der , Pisano Dominick A. , Lindbergh Reeve , Charles Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis, Harry N. Abrams, 2002

Kramer S. A., Night Flight: Charles Lindbergh’s Incredible Adventure (All Aboard Reading), Grosset & Dunlap, 2002

Zionism And Anti-Semitism In Nazi Germany


Before and during the Nazi regime in Germany headed by Adolf Hitler, there was a systematic- state-sponsored persecution that led to the murder of many Jews. This occurred at the beginning of the year 1933 when the Nazi regime came to power and progressively propagated the belief among the German citizenry that Germans were a superior race compared to other ethnic communities that lived in Germany (Berenbaum, 1997).

This persecution of the Jews and other communities like the Poles, Russians, and Roma continued until around the year 1945. The Nazi regime particularly believed that the Jewish community was inferior and was a threat to the integrity of the German racial community. During this time, Hitler himself wrote a book titled Mein Kampf (which translates as ‘’My Struggle”) in which he advocated for the removal of Jews from Germany.

The total figures of the Jews and other communities that suffered during this persecution is not accurately known to date.It is, however, estimated that close to five or six million people were killed.

An American writer named Goldhagen in his book titled Hitler’s willing executioners claims that German citizens were aware and supported the killings during the Holocaust due to a prevalent mentality that was based on biased religious attitudes and which became secularized before and during the Nazi regime.

Goldhagen refers to this mentality as eliminationist anti-Semitism. This form of anti-Semitism was very virulent and is thought to have been established during the era of the french revolution (Nicosia, 2008, p.19).This paper explores arguments that this mentality contributed to the murder of close to one and a half million Jews.

Towards the end, the paper pays particular focus on how the activities of the Einsatzgruppen and police battalions in Poland and the Soviet Union tend to reinforce the belief that due to the widespread eliminationist anti-Semitism, ordinary Germans played a role in abetting the persecution of Jews…

Explanation on eliminationist anti-Semitism

A description by Newman and Erber (2002, p.46) explains that the term eliminationist anti-Semitism is often used to describe the activities geared towards the elimination of the entire Jewish community and other smaller communities, which were regarded by the Nazi regime as inferior by any means necessary.

A good description of how eliminationist anti-Semitism among ordinary Germans could have promoted the Holocaust can be got by looking at the reactions of ordinary Germans during the three phases under which the Holocaust took place; during the first phase, laws and regulations targeted at the elimination of Jews were introduced, these legislative measures include the Law for the protection of German blood and German Honor and the Reich Citizenship Law.

The second phase involved the creation of concentration camps in which most of the Jews worked as slaves and died due to starvation, maltreatment, and disease. In the final phase, commonly known as the “final solution,” Hitler ordered the murder of all Jews across Europe.

The change towards what can be regarded as complete eliminationist anti-Semitism began with the establishment of various laws that would systematically eliminate Jews from the German community life. Jarausch (1997, p.70), for example, cites the Nuremberg laws introduced in 1935, which technically denied the right to German citizenship to people who had Jewish ancestry.

Jarausch explains that under these laws, any German who had at least one Jewish grad parent was formally denied German citizenship. In addition, these laws also forbade intermarriages and extramarital sexual relations between people who were racially different, particularly where one of the partners was a German citizen.

At this point in time, some of the German citizens were actively involved in the circulation of papers like the Der Sturmer to propagate this information and other anti-Semitic ideas as well. It is important to note that at this point that there were no serious protests when these laws were enacted, and this possibly indicates that most of the Germans supported the Nazis had in mind.

Some protests were staged later in 1943 when the Nazi Government was continuing with the deportation of spouses who were of non-German descent. The exercise of deportation of Jews with a German heritage had begun two years earlier; it actually had started in the year 1941.

When the Nazi regime was defeated in 1945, the Nuremberg laws were lifted, and this also enabled the marriage to backdate to make it easy for couples to legitimatize their marriages and their children so that it would be easy to handle issues related to the inheritance of property.

In regard to the effects of the Nuremberg laws on the Jewish and other minority communities. Stackelberg and Winkle (2002, p.186) say that Jewish emancipation was effectively deterred, and as a result, the Jewish people ended up as aliens in their own country.

What followed after this phase was the concentration of Jews in various camps that were spread out in different parts of the country. Scheindlin (2000,p.203) explains that Dachau was the first camp built in the year 1993 and was intended for Jews like writers, lawyers, and journalists who were considered as dangerous.

As the years went by, more camps were constructed in Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen; these camps were put under the control of special police unit s known as the Gestapo, who were given the authority to detain anyone. In the year 1937, Jews were being detained in these camps for the sole reason of being Jews,.it was expected that there would be a mass exodus of Jews from Germany, but it did not happen as only a few Jews left.

As this was happening, Scheindlin explains that fellow Germans acted indifferently and turned a blind eye to the plight their Jewish neighbors were experiencing due to the antithesis policies imposed by the government. The Jews had expected that their fellow Germans would do away with the Nazi regime after witnessing what was happening, but instead, the people went ahead to vote the Nazi regime to power.

Similarly, the Germans had the means and opportunity to force the Nazi regime to change, but they did not. Most of them refused to openly oppose the government policies, with some actually supporting the government’s anti-Jewish policies despite the long ties of friendship and association they shared with Jews (Scheindlin, 2000, p.203).

The final phase of Jewish persecution came with the implementation of the “final solution” in 1941. It was thought by the Nazi regime that when the plan was fully executed, there would be no more Jews in the European community life.

During this period, Mann (2005, p.248) explains that the government policy against the Jews in Germany shifted from emigration to murder. This was the beginning of widespread, systematic, and indiscriminate torture against the Jews.

The Einsatzgruppen and police battalions

A recollection of the events that led to the invasion of Jews in the Soviet Union by Browning and Matthäus ( 2004, p.214) informs that the Germans invaded in the month of June in 1941.

The authors proceed to explain that the planning and execution of attacks on the Jews involved various groups like the military, civil administrators, ministerial bureaucrats, economic planners, various police formations, and local collaborators.

Specialized units for the execution of the operations were created and named Einsatzgruppen. The units were granted the responsibility to execute their operations in the manner they deemed as appropriate though the units would be subordinate to the military these units would receive their supplies from the military. This is to say that all army commanders were well informed of the activities of the Einsatzgruppen.

It is believed that the Einsatzgruppen were issued with orders to kill the entire soviet Jews by two ranking officials, namely Streckenbach and Reinhard Heydrich.

Despite acting as mobile death squads in the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen units were also used in the same way in other regions like Australia, Czechoslovakia,Poland, and Sudetenland, the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen identified, selected and shot people regarded as political and racial enemies of the Nazi regime. Those particularly targeted included the Jews, nobles, popes, clergy, and the social elites. It is estimated that close to one and a half million Jews were killed (Cook, 2006, p.162).

According to Rubenstein and Roth, 2003, p.148, the executions against the Jews were not carried out by the Einsatzgruppen alone; special police battalions were organized with the aim of ensuring order in areas which had been conquered by the military. When the Germans occupied Poland in 1939, the Police battalions terrorized Jews by killing unframed civilians, burning the synagogues and properties.

These perpetrations occurred under the leadership of a man called Lieutenant General Udo von Woyrsh. In addition to the above, Woyrsh’s troops openly intimidated Jewish leaders, destroyed businesses owned by Jews, killed Jewish boys, and forced Jewish men to dig mass graves into which they were buried after being shot.

There are several reasons why some people like Goldhagen think that an eliminationist anti-Semitism attitude among the officers serving in the police battalions and the ordinary Germans led to the massive killings of Jews in Poland and the Soviet Union. Firstly, the officers in the battalions had a choice not to follow the orders issued to them to kill the Jews.

On the part of the ordinary citizens, Plakans (2007, p.91) explains that some accepted to be recruited into the auxiliary police groups despite having a clear knowledge of what was happening to the Jews.It is important to point out that there were also instances of forced recruitment in areas where the Germans faced a serious shortage of personnel like Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

Plaka continues to explain that some locals volunteered to help the troops in their missions. This happened in Latvia, which was under German control in 1941. The volunteers were assigned guarding duties for a period of six months, after which their mandate was extended.

In a nutshell, the operations of the police battalions, especially battalion 101 and the Einsatzgruppen, contributed greatly to the de-emancipation of the Jewish community and other minorities as well. The efficiency with which the mobile units executed the killings brought the Nazi regime closer to attaining its aim of eliminating the Jews.


The issue of “bystanders” in relation to Holocaust research has been changing as more and more people begin to change their perspective on the influence of bystanders in Holocaust, in the past, bystanders were seen as mere witnesses to the events that took place during the holocaust, today it has increasingly become common for people to regard the bystander as being responsible to some extent for the killings that took place (Rubenstein,& Roth,2003 p. 27).

The main argument advanced to support this perspective is that the people who lived in areas where the police battalions and the Einsatzgruppen operated saw what was happening, they could also hear the Jews were shot and their cries but remained neutral for most of the time, neither helping the persecutors (Nazis) nor offering solace to the jews.

The neutrality and indifference of the German people helped the persecutors (Nazis) to accomplish their plans while the Jews and the other minority communities suffered the disadvantages.

The indifference portrayed by the German citizens can be linked to the socialization that they underwent during the Nazi regime and which could have led to the development of extreme racism. The existence of this radical racism can be cited as the main reason why there were no open oppositions to anti-Jewish policies and actions by the Nazi regime (Hiden& Housden, 2008, p.96).

On the other hand, there are documented accounts of ordinary Germans who went out of their way and took risks to assist their Jewish neighbors. It would, therefore, be wrong to assume that all Germans had the same levels of radical anti-Semitism that could have led them to abet the persecution of the Jews.

This paper concludes that to a certain degree, the eliminationist anti-Semitism mentality was present especially among the members who formed the execution units, but there is need to put into consideration the prevailing political and socioeconomic factors that could have influenced the decisions made by ordinary Germans especially those who were actively involved in helping their neighbors.

References List

Berenbaum, M., 1997.Witness to the Holocaust. New York: HarperCollins.

Browning, C.R., & Matthäus, J., 2004. The origins of the Final Solution: the evolution of Nazi Jewish policy, September 1939-March 1942.Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Cook, B.A., 2006. Women and war: a historical encyclopedia from antiquity to the present. California: ABC-CLIO.

Hiden, J.,& Housden, M.,2008. Neighbours or enemies?: Germans, the Baltic and beyond. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Jarasusch, K.H., 1997. After unity: reconfiguring German identities. USA: Berghahn Books.

Mann, M.2005., The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Newman, L.S., & Erber, R., 2002. Understanding genocide: the social psychology of the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press US.

Nicosia, F.R., 2008. Zionism and anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Plakans, A., 2007. Experiencing Totalitarianism: The Invasion and Occupation of Latvia by the USSR and Nazi Germany 1939-1991.Bloomington: Author House.

Rubenstein, R.L.,& Roth, J.K., 2003. Approaches to Auschwitz: the Holocaust and its legacy. 2nd edition. Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.

Scheindlin, R.P., 2000. A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. New York: Oxford University Press US.

Stackelberg, R., & Winkle, S.A., 2002. The Nazi Germany sourcebook: an anthology of texts. London: Routledge.

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