The Political Opportunity Theory Of Social Movements Homework Essay Sample

In contrary to collective behavior, a social movement is organized, and a conscious group of people aimed to resist or advocate the social change within a more extended period. There are various types of social movements, such as revolutionary, resistance, religious, reform, and alternative movements (Della Porta & Diani, 2020). During the twentieth century, together with social movement intensification, sociologists and scholars developed various theories to unravel the origins and conditions for social movement’s occurrence.

This list includes resource mobilization, deprivation, structural strain, new social movement, and political process theories (Kendall, 2018). The political process theory, as one of the most practical views, will be further described. Despite being firstly presented in the 1980s, the political process theory still remains the essential theory of social movements, which explains how people mobilize.

The student, anti-war, Civil Rights movement of the 1960s encouraged sociologists to respond with political opportunity theory in the 1980s. Douglas McAdam is believed to be the first sociologist to mention and explain this theory within his study regarding the Black Civil Rights movement. Before its introduction, some scholars believed social movements consist of irrational and deviant members, while others emphasized the importance of resources available for the movement’s success (Kendall, 2018).

According to political opportunity theory, the social struggles occur not just because a part of society has its own complaints and acquires the needed material and human resources to mobilize (Della Porta & Diani, 2020). Instead, they take place because there usually are political opportunities at a given point of time, which can be used by potential movement leaders and protesters to enter.

Political opportunity theory insists that political activities that take place inside mainstream institutions highly interwoven with outside social protests. In this context, “opportunity” means options for collective actions that bring its different risks and chances. According to the theory, people tend to choose options perceived by them to bring about the most favorable consequences and those which promptly available for collective action. According to Kendall (2018), the extensive protests and riots are more likely to take place in communities where oppressed people do not have proper access to conventional means designed to address their issues to local governments.

For instance, the aftermath of WW II encouraged the US internal changes in migration, demography, and political economy what created an opportunity for African Americans to organize the collective civil rights movement. Its leaders believed that it was the right time because the government was more ready to hear their claims than before.

Despite being very popular among scholars, the political opportunity theory has its limitations. One is based on the assumption that sometimes social movement organizations are not external enough to the current political system. The Tea Party movement in the US can be a great example as its campaigners belonged both to the political mainstream and were outside it. According to the revised theory, social activists can be seen as political entrepreneurs who often try to create opportunities by themselves instead of waiting for them (Kendall, 2018). It means that they act similarly to government officials whom they struggle to persuade on the side of their social issue.

To conclude, political opportunity theory is still essential for the study of social movements because it sheds light on the importance of political system openness to people who design tactics and goals of social movements. The theory insists that grievances and resources are not enough for successful external movement because the internal opportunity within the politics should be in place. The absence of traditional means to demand social change is believed to increase the possibility of riots within the community.


Della Porta, D., & Diani, M. (2020). Social movements: An introduction. John Wiley & Sons.

Kendall, D. (2018). Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials (11th ed.). Cengage.

Legal Aspects Of Health Care Administration: HIPAA Act


HIPAA or Health Insurance Portability Act cushions the US citizens against any discriminatory insurance activities. Also this Act establishes how diverse medical experts share any form of information concerning their clients (patients). It is broadly known that the groups that are expected to adhere to HIPAA mandates covers doctors as well as other medical professionals, specialists in addition to medical data experts and organizers. Equally, this Act puts a number of restrictions on insurance firms that deny insurance coverage on the ground of preexisting medical circumstances. Also HIPAA stops employers from showing favoritism by denying medical insurance.

Therefore, concerning Dr.William case it would be paramount to understand that insurance firms as well as other medical experts are not allowed to release or disclose client’s medical records. This illustrates the medical experts or insurance firms can only do so if it is extremely imperative and be in the innate interest of the client’s health or treatment. The only people perhaps with rightful consent to access the medical records are family members and this is well defined by HIPAA. Equally law enforcement agencies are in some instances allowed to access client medical information. Therefore, in such a situation, I am of the opinion that Dr.William did not act in accordance with the stipulations conferred under HIPAA. The underlying facts show that he disclosed Joan’s medical information to a third party.

Though, Joan had suffered injuries as a consequence of Dr. William’s error, as a doctor he was entitled to protect and provide the best medical care to his client. Therefore, the apparent issues here can be correlated to medical negligence and violation of client’s privacy. These two features are not allowed by the HIPAA Act. Concerning the scope of medical malpractice Joan can sue Dr.William and establish that the doctor owed him a duty of care, which the doctor failed to conform to the apposite standard of care, the violation caused bodily injuries, and she incurred damages.


Therefore, in this case Dr.William if found guilty under HIPAA Act could face penalties which could entail: criminal, civil, financial or imprisonment. Also under wrongful disclosure of personal exclusive health information, section 1177 asserts that an individual who willingly and knowingly:

  • utilizes or causes to be used as an exceptional health identifier;
  • obtains individually particular fitness information relating to an person;
  • discloses independently restricted health information to someone,

The reason such charges can be sustained is due to the fact that Dr.William failed to comply with the established legal and ethical tenets of HIPAA act. Therefore, the manner the doctor handles the whole issue it is imperative to argue there was a violation of HIPAA. It should be realized that Joan has constitutional rights to seek redress. Basically, violation of client’s privacy is disastrous. The doctor was in no obligation compelled to disclose the information to a third party. Though, the general publics as well as the health care personnel are confusion in regard to penalties, individual rights as well as investigations pertaining to HIPAA violations. The act offers federal protection of individual medical information and this offers the concerned patients to have diverse rights in regard to their health information. Therefore, the privacy rule is basically not limiting but it allows in some instances the disclosure of client’s information where necessary. Examining the scope of Dr. William he willingly violated these provisions and more so it was as a consequence of medical malpractice which falls under the scope of negligence. Under HIPAA the doctor has a case to answer. This can be correlated to the fact that he had injured one of her client and caused bodily harm and more so he went ahead to breach the trust the client had on him by discussing her previous medical records. Though it is not established whether the third party was an insurance firm, a relative or a fellow medical practitioner, the act itself is not therefore justified. Typically, the friend’s advice could sustain his defense but considering that he had violated the privacy concept, Joan could therefore challenge doctor’s decisions successfully.

Criminal prosecution

Basically, under HIPAA act the federal government endows the individual rights in regard to their personal information. This includes who can receive or access individual information. Therefore, under the scope of privacy rule this concerns personal information which is protected, whether written, electronic or oral. The security rule, which is a federal edict that safeguards this data in electronic nature, necessitates entities cushioned by HIPAA to guarantee that this information is secure.

HIPAA doesn’t create or permit individuals to bring any legal engagement against a cushioned entity. However, if an individual feels that his or her right to privacy including privacy to health information under HIPAA has been contravened, they have an obligation to file a complaint with the US Human Services Office for Civil Rights. This is the organ that enforces privacy as well as security rules. Therefore, Dr. William can be said to have gone against the fundamental aspects of his provision. Personal information is comprehensively safeguarded by the government and it is the duty of the concerned entity to adhere to the established tenets of privacy and confidentiality (Black, 1990; Walker, 1980).

Therefore, in regard to the aspects of privacy as stipulated within the HIPAA it is imperative to realize that Dr. William’s behaviors are contrary to the law. This is well established by the ethical and professional provisions under HIPAA act. Thus, as is evident the behaviors carry criminal prosecution which can result in jail or monetary penalties. This can be correlated to the fact that the act has well established and articulated procedures which all professionals must observe and adhere to (Papachristou, 1999).

The reason why Joan’s case could lead to the prosecution of Dr.William rests in the fact that organizations, agencies and individual that are seen to meet the concepts covered and defined under HIPAA ought to comply with the acts aspects as to guard the privacy as well as security of individual medical information. However, if an individual is not covered, one is exempted from the aspects of complying with both features of privacy rule as well as security rule. However, Dr.William as a health care provider is covered as is with such entities as health plan experts, as well as healthcare information analysts. Therefore, being linked to HIPAA the doctor was expected in his capacity to protect the privacy of his client. It should be noted that he shared the information with a third party without the consent of his client.


The violation of Health Insurance Portability Act is a serious crime under the federal law. It is therefore essential to understand that Dr William in this regard is subject to a criminal prosecution which goes concurrently with imprisonment penalty. Though, there are instances where the culprits are only penalized financially. It is ethically wrong to expose a client’s information without any due consent (Pozgar, 2007). The reason behind this rationale is to protect the client from any form of discrimination or defamation in the greater society. In order to reinforce the HIPAA act and ascertain the concerned organizations safeguard the information entrusted with them, that is why financial or penal penalties are justified.

Thus looking at the entire procedure and requirements of HIPAA Dr. William violated the privacy rule and this is translated as a breach of trust and confidentiality. Under the federal law he is responsible for any mistake be professional or ethical. Therefore, in this regard he can be accused of professional negligence as well as the breach of client’s privacy right by exposing the clients information to a third party. According to the department of health and human services, in such a scenario he is liable to pay a fine of more than $50,000 for a single violation. However, this coupled with medical negligence can result in criminal prosecution leading to imprisonment. The reason the doctor could therefore be prosecuted lies in that he failed to request the consent of the patient when disclosing his medical information (Glenn, 2000). Therefore, such a scenario can only be avoided where the apposite procedures are followed and more so to avoid future harm to his clients it is advisable for the doctor to be more responsible while executing his professional obligations.


Black, H. (1990). Black’s dictionary. St. Paul: West Publishing

Glenn, H. Patrick (2000). Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Papachristou, T.K. (1999).The Sociological Approach of Law. Athens: A.N. Sakkoulas.

Pozgar, G. (2007). Legal aspects of health care administration. Sudbury: Jones.

Walker, D. (1980). Oxford companion to law. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Mathematics And Logic. A Troublesome Inheritance


As we know, humanity has been interested in issues of nature and society from the very moment the first cultures appeared. To answer these essential topics, the best minds of civilizations have created science and many categories within it, some of which are mathematics and logic. Despite their technical nature, these disciplines can also be considered within the framework of the humanitarian paradigm, which can lead to the emergence of new meanings, discoveries, and reasoning. According to Elrod, quantitative reasoning is “the habit of mind to consider the power and limitations of quantitative evidence in the evaluation, construction, and communication of arguments in public, professional, and personal life” (para. 4). The purpose of this paper is to show how A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History inspired and changed my quantitative thinking about mathematics and logic.

Logic as a Political Justification

The book that influenced my understanding of the discipline of logic is A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History by Nicholas Wade. The author attempts to investigate various causes of the differences between human races and societies from the biological point of view that is currently being condemned (Wade, p. 4). The bottom line is that the author suggests taking the paradigm of biological substantiation as the main and objective through logical theses. This statement makes me remind that logic is both a broad, accessible, and egalitarian discipline and deeply involved structured science of the mind, which is quite paradoxical and fascinating. It is worth noting that it seems to me that this argumentative nature partly brings together the science of logic and jurisprudence. The book also shows and narrates how various numeric and quantitative measuring tools and scales may be applied to qualitative phenomena.

The History of Humankind through the Prism of Math and Logic

Nicholas Wade offers a look at the biological and historical evolution of humankind through the prism of mathematic and logic. It is fascinating to observe throughout the book how morphological features, human thinking, the context of the time, and the environment mutually influenced each other (Wade, p. 8). Studying the history of societies also provides insights into how new and unique concepts, for example, algebra, appear in the human mindset. These concepts appear due to the collision of biological and social spheres; then, they are popularized and become a cultural norm, paving the way for new algebraic discoveries. Since the book is mostly written from a stigmatized and non-popular perspective, this work offers a unique vision.

Explanation of Key Factors of Civilizational Development through Math and Logic

Despite its biological focus, A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race, and Human History will be exciting and useful to both amateurs and specialists of other scientific disciplines, including mathematic and logic. Focusing more on continental territories, the author also does not miss a study of the nuances of communities in insular parts of the world (Wade, p. 12). The author not only logically describes various external and internal sources of influence on the diverse human societies, but also compares social processes and their consequences between human races. Such a detailed anthropological analysis, for example, through quantitative IQ testing, of social causation and correlations has opened for me new facets of the logical approach in aspects of historical and civilizational issues. Now I understand how logic within the framework of history can explain the emergence of various cultural phenomena, the influence of precedents, various social prohibitions, and restrictions.

It is also worth noting that my historical interest has always prevailed in the areas of the ancient world and antiquity. It was fascinating to read about how and why different communities independently developed in different ways. While reading, it also becomes clear the influence of biological and social features and patterns on the formation of such institutions as economies, hierarchies, countries, governments, and political systems (Wade, p. 12). As a result, logical argumentation and quantitative data analysis show a whole and consistent historical chain of qualitative phenomena. The mathematical and logical interpretation of social events of a humanitarian and biological nature may open up new perspectives in the fields of biology, sociology, and psychology.

Logic as a Possible Theory of Everything

It is clear that, in his work, A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History, Nicholas Wade explores our world more globally from the perspectives of multiple disciplines. The author begins his research with the unrecorded ancient time point and ends with assumptions about the future (Wade, p. 6). It can be stated with confidence that this work is of enormous scientific scope. Most of all, I was influenced by the structure, systematization, presentation, and interpretation of facts; in other words, the logical argumentation of the researcher. This book serves as an excellent example of the application of the discipline of logic in critical technical, scientific categories. Perhaps in the future, it is logic that will become the forerunner of that ever-sought-after theory of everything that scientists are eager to discover.

The Importance of the Impartiality of Scientific Disciplines

In addition to new knowledge in the fields of biology, genetics, anthropology, and sociology, reading this book gave me one more valuable understanding of both mathematics and logic. However, this new knowledge is not internal but of the Meta nature. Technical and humanitarian disciplines, in particular, and the scientific approach as a whole, should be perceived outside the framework of political paradigms and worldviews. It is evident that the modern Western and even the global community is highly polarized in matters of politics, society, and economics. It is important to note that, according to De-Wit et al., “Since 1994, the number of Americans who see the opposing political party as a threat to “the nation’s well-being” has doubled.” (para. 1). It is such an independent and neutral path that will allow us to fully continue the development of the overall global progress of the human community.


This work is a personal reflection of the material read and its impact on personal technical mathematical and logical knowledge, as well as quantitative thinking. I have read the work titled A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History of the authorship of Nicholas Wade. His book opens new horizons in the technical disciplines of mathematics and logic, providing not only new knowledge but also a Meta understanding of the issue. The work both manages narrowly focused aspects and addresses global topics. The author examines in detail controversial and acutely social questions, gives competent arguments, and, therefore, has significant scientific weight for both specialists and amateurs. It is this book that should inspire new generations of specialists in the fields of mathematical and logical research.

Works Cited

De-Wit, Lee, et al. “Are Social Media Driving Political Polarization?” Greater Good Magazine, 2019. Web.

Elrod, Susan. “Quantitative Reasoning: The Next “Across the Curriculum” Movement.” Peer Review, vol. 16, no. 3, 2014. Web.

Wade, Nicholas. A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History. Penguin, 2015.

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