Women take part in filming and production as actresses, producers, directors, among other roles. Despite their involvement, women are not fairly represented in all these positions. When we talk about filming and movies, Hollywood is usually the main focus of its famous production in movies. However, other countries are also involved in filming where women are still under-represented. Apart from being underrepresented, women are not well paid in the industry, whether as actresses or film support.
Important roles in filming, for example, cinematography and directing, are mostly given to men, contributing to women very minimal. Statistics show that the most important role women are given in the industry is that of film producers at 26%, while the minor role is for film cinematography at 4% (Lauzen). Though the statistics are recent, they have been collected for more than twenty years, each recording giving an insignificant increase in percentage. According to research on female dominance on the screens, only 35% of the films had women’s dominance on the screen than male dominance at 82% (Lauzen). This paper focuses on the presence of women in the film industry, the Bechdel test, and a review of the three latest movies with women’s dominance and how they rate in the Bechdel test.
The Bechdel Test
The Bechdel test is used to measure the ratio of active women in the media, especially in filming and screen representation. The test demonstrates female representation by considering the most gender dominating the screen. The test is conducted by examining the following aspects; firstly, the interaction of women on screen, whether they communicate or not. Secondly, the minimum number of women who can be recognized on screen by name, the minimum number being two. Thirdly, what the women dialogue about apart from the subject of men. By examining these features, the Bechdel test compares both males and female screen interaction in dialogues to demonstrate which gender is given more priority in terms of screen time and the number of words.
Apart from screen representation, the Bechdel test also measures women’s representation based on the amount of screen time they are given. For example, the number of scenes that women appear in and the duration of their dialogues, the minimum being one minute (Lauzen). The test is also used to show women’s representation by race and color. In this paper, a review of two female-dominated movies is discussed and based on the Bechdel test, and the movies are examined to see if they pass the test. Additionally, the paper discusses the statistics of female employment in roles that happen behind the scenes.
Frozen II is a musical, fantasy-animation movie filmed and produced in November 2019. The movie was produced and released by Walt Disney Animation Studios as a sequel to Frozen 1, released in 2013. The main characters in this animated movie are females, Elsa and Anna, represented by Idina Menzel and Kristen Bell. The movie follows queen Elsa and princess Anna’s journey to a mystical land to find answers to Elsa’s voices the mystical land.
They travel along with their friends, who act as support for the journey to the unknown. A mysterious imbalance of nature threatens to ruin queen Elsa’s kingdom, which develops the storyline of the movie further to show the heroic acts of Elsa in saving her kingdom together with her sister Anna. Frozen II passes the Bechdel test tremendously, considering its storyline of heroic acts accomplished by the two female characters. In the movie, Elsa and Anna are viewed as heroines who save their kingdom’s ruin.
Apart from being heroes, they face all challenges with great courage and come out stronger than meeting a bad ending. In terms of screen time, almost all scenes are dominated by either Elsa, Anna, or both, which covers more than the recommended time of one minute. Elsa and Anna communicate a lot throughout the movie on various topics like magic, parties, and matters concerning the kingdom. It can be said that there is no mention of men in any of the conversations of the entire movie hence a complete feminist movie.
Maleficent: Mistress of Evil
Just like Frozen II, Maleficent is a fantasy movie produced and released by Walt Disney Studios in2019. The main character in the movie is a female, Angelina Jolie, cast as the evil queen Maleficent. In this movie, the themes focus on family ties, love, hatred, and dark powers. It narrates the story of Maleficent, her goddaughter, Elle Fanning, cast as Aurora, and Aurora’s mother-in-law, Michelle Pfeiffer, cast as Queen Ingrid. Maleficent is opposing Aurora’s marriage to her fiancée, claiming the mother, Queen Ingrid, is evil. The story develops with both Queens fighting for Aurora against and her marriage.
Other than the maternal fight for Aurora, the two kingdoms are faced with dark times that render them on opposing sides where they become enemies. It is up to the women to fight for love and the return of peace to these kingdoms. The film takes the audience on a journey with different emotions of love, anger, hate, pain, and revenge. All in all, a heroine emerges through all the challenges and gives the movie a somehow happy ending.
In this movie, we can say all the main characters are women, each with a major role that it is hard to point to one main character. The movies cast three female characters, with one being a protagonist and two antagonists. Most conversations in the movie are between women, even the fighting scenes. The women might have talked about men, but there was no mention of the topic in most conversations. Therefore, it can be concluded that the movie passes the Bechdel test, although some critics beg to differ regarding the presence of people of color in the movie.
Facts And Figures On Women Employment Behind The Scenes
Although women are greatly outnumbered in the film industry employment, a study shows that more women can be seen working behind the scenes as the years advance. Martha Lauzen is the director of the San Diego University Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film. According to her, the percentage of females working behind the scenes rose from 16% in 2018 to 20% in 2019, based on research of the top one hundred films produced domestically (Lauzen). The women were employed in writing, directing, cinematography, editing, producing, among others. In the 20%, female directors make up 12% which is an improvement from 4% in 2019 (Lauzen).
In 2019, research on the percentage of women working behind the scenes shows 21% were directors, 31% art directors, 6% engaged in visual effects, 19% writers, 40% in musical effects, and 23% designers (Lauzen). Despite the significant improvement in percentages, Lauren still believes women are outnumbered and should continue striving for recognition in the film industry.
Lauzen, Martha. “New study finds behind-the-scenes employment of women in film industry increases“. Newscenter.Sdsu.Edu, 2020. Web.
Massachusetts General Hospital’s Growth In Boston
In the United States, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston is one of the renowned and old healthcare facilities that have offered different services to patients for over a century. The organization is well known following its extensive involvement in medical research activities aimed at improving the quality of healthcare and management of chronic diseases such as cancer. It is also actively participating in social welfare of the surrounding communities by providing different services. MGH provides diagnostic and therapeutic in various areas of both surgery and medicine. The institution offers its services at national, local, and worldwide levels.
The general growth and advancement of MGH in the country were greatly impacted by the social events that made its functions significant to the people. The hospital developed several programs that focused on ensuring the individuals achieved adequate knowledge on managing the health status from the diets and healthy living habits. MGH also has diverse professionals and engineering that help in offering the best medication service to the patients. The creation of youth programs impacted the growth of MGH, which made it an important institution in averting health risks amongst the people.
Impact of Youth Program on the Growth of MGH
In the past years, MGH has engaged in a social event that target youths by partnering with institutions such as Revere High School, Edward M. Kennedy Academy for Health Careers, and Chelsea High School. The main aim is to inspire the young generation to have understanding and proper insight on the health issues that can easily impact them and the surrounding community as a whole. Furthermore, the program allows the students to secure job opportunities in its different departments with the organization. Furthermore, the youth program enables MGH to work closely with the community, thus bringing the available resources and the individuals together to tackle most of the challenging health issues in society. The platform was intended to increase the overall health status of people by improving their living standards and healthy eating (Walensky et al., 2018). In addition, through the process, MGH managed to prevent the abuse of drugs amongst the youths, especially in Chelsea Community, that could affect their wellbeing. Therefore, the initiation youth program social event influenced the overall growth of the organization by making its implication known to the people.
Patient Gateway Service
MGH provides arrays of healthcare services to the patients to ensure they receive high-quality treatment that is easily accessible and affordable. Patient Gateway is a program that allows sick individuals to have easy access to their health information through an online platform. The hospital uses the service to enable patients to communicate with the respective physician on matters pertaining to the illness. Generally, it is difficult to connect with doctors to enquire about critical issues or to book an appointment for check pus following a large number of people who are seeking the same services.
Patient gateway service has made it simple for the patients in the MGH to check and receive information from the health providers. It also allows the customers to pay the hospital bills at ease wherever they are located. The platform has reduced the waiting time or congestion in the facility, thus making the service delivery to be faster. Furthermore, clients are capable of connecting with nurses, thus making them manage health complications that require urgent intervention. The system has made it possible for most patients to receive the necessary information concerning their health status, enhancing their safety. MGH is also in a position to handle and manage a large number of queries from different patients at various locations, thus making the service to the community effective.
The increasing need to enhance the quality of health care services and improve the safety of patients in the hospitals has prompted MGH to invest and adopt current technology in its facility. MGH is using video conferencing to offer TeleHealth services to its clients. The virtual treatment mechanism allows the institution to deliver quality healthcare to patients who are not within its unit. The approach enhances easy access to the services in a more convenient way. The method enables the organization to extend its services to people outside the US and individuals who might have difficulty accessing the facility due to financial constraints.
Similarly, the implementation of the TeleBurn program to provide medical services to patients with burnt bodies makes it more convenient for them to receive healthcare from professionals. The technology reduces unnecessary movement and allows the sick individual to interact with the doctor so easily. The system enhances quality patient care within the community, therefore, increasing the safety of the clients (Madrigal, 2020). In addition, the program makes it easier for the doctors to conduct routine check-ups on the victims.
MGH integrated its healthcare system through digital transformation to facilitate synchronized patient care. Having a collaborative platform is effective in ensuring the professionals within the facility can easily coordinate to provide the best and most appropriate services to the clients (Latifi, 2019). The method impacted the organization’s performance since customers records are placed in a single system where physicians can easily access to verify any information concerning the sick individual during operation. The approach enables nurses to offer the necessary treatment based on the individual data in the hospital system.
The application of emerging technology in the health care system has provided relief to MGH in a number of ways. First, the institution uses the data captured into its system from the patients to analyze the trend and types of diseases that are most common amongst the patients. Having the information allows the organization to budget based on the prevalence of sicknesses to ensure they have adequate facilities to manage the illnesses.
Furthermore, contemporary technology provides an easier way to store and retrieve data, thus making the healthcare unit save the cost for managing the massive amount of information. This enables the hospital to have enough funds to redirect to other programs to boost the patient care services. Similarly, the savings are directed to the research programs being conducted by the institution to improve the quality of services.
Engaging in social events made MGH become a renowned community healthcare institution, therefore, locals embraced its services. The organization initiated different programs that targeted improving the overall wellbeing of the people in the society. They focused on enhancing healthy eating habits and reducing substance abuse among youths. MGH also engaged in the usage of the trending technology in the field of healthcare to facilitate better service delivery to the patients. Integrating and developing a digital system resulted in coordinated healthcare provision by the providers, which led to an improvement in the quality of health. Similarly, the adoption of TeleHealth and TeleBurn program enabled the patients to receive treatment while at home, therefore, lowering the cost associated with transport to the facility. The current technological system has enabled the hospital to save on its expenditure, thus having enough funds to invest in other projects intended to boost the performance of the institution.
Latifi, R. (Ed.). (2019). The modern hospital: Patients centered, disease based, research oriented, technology driven. Springer.
Madrigal, E. (2020). Going remote: Maintaining normalcy in our pathology laboratories during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Cancer Cytopathology, 128(5), 321-322. Web.
Walensky, R. P., Kim, Y., Chang, Y., Porneala, B. C., Bristol, M. N., Armstrong, K., & Campbell, E. G. (2018). The impact of active mentorship: results from a survey of faculty in the Department of Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. BMC medical education, 18(1), 1-8. Web.
Analysis Of Hamlet’s Second Soliloquy
Soliloquies are widely used in the play, as Hamlet cannot freely express his emotions and share the thoughts that are rooted in his inner drama. Therefore, soliloquies have become unique masterpieces, as the great playwright designed them to represent the painful evolution of all the struggles that took place in Hamlet’s soul throughout the play. Despite the wide use of exquisite vocabulary and literary devices, it is still not hard for modern readers to realize the scope of the drama.
The ability to read between the lines is beneficial for those who are determined to fully enjoy all the themes and meanings that Shakespeare covers in one of his most famous plays. According to Wilson (2021), the prominent playwright advances Aristotle’s idea of tragic necessity – a causal relationship between a character’s hamartia (fault or error) and the catastrophe at the end of the play. In the second soliloquy, Hamlet is determined to motivate himself to finally start revenge. The prince chooses self-condemnation as a means to convince himself that he should overcome fears and that the murder of his uncle is predetermined.
Nevertheless, despite all the attempts to make the passions drive his actions, Hamlet finally decides not to surrender to what may actually be “the devil”. Having admitted that his current state, characterized by “weakness and melancholy”, may influence his decision, the protagonist chooses to “catch the conscience of the king” by staging a play. Therefore, despite all the drama and challenging environment, Hamlet manages to think rationally and gives up his original attempts to work himself into a frenzy.
It is hard to realize all the factors behind Hamlet’s actions. Nevertheless, his thoughts provide a substantial body of evidence that it was not simply long-desired revenge. At times, numerous processes that could even contradict each other finally made Hamlet act reckless. Shakespeare’s abundant use of soliloquies provides a unique opportunity to realize the plethora of emotions and social bonds that collectively had an enormous impact on the young man’s fate.
Wilson, J. (2021). The meaning of death in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes and Reviews, 34(4), 282–286. Web.