The Problem Of Organizational Toxicity Essay Sample For College

Organizational toxicity is a combination of dysfunctional behaviours among leaders that causes them to conduct unhealthy organizational practices. Organizational toxicity is driven by disempowering practices, individuals with a mentality of personal entitlement, and resistance to change. Additionally, the increasing challenge of financing care is a significant cause of organizational toxicity in a healthcare system. Influential organizational leaders are tasked with identifying such behaviours and devising strategies that can minimize their effects. In addition, leaders must identify this toxicity early because as it continues, it can slowly but surely lead to a loss of creativity and, ultimately, lower productivity. Porter-O’Grady and Malloch (2017) present ten sources of organizational toxicity that can enable readers to understand the dynamics of the issue and thus formulate strategies to curb it. This essay will review the ten sources and discuss how leaders can handle them to make an organization healthy.

The first toxin found in most organizations is vertical authority structure. An organization’s design, authority, and decision-making can significantly contribute to organizational toxicity. For instance, a vertical organizational structure can reinforce negative behaviours since such structures cause leaders to believe that they are fighting an enemy out there that needs to be controlled. However, depending on an organization’s strategy, size and age, leaders can incorporate healthy behaviours in the organization, such as reducing excessive control over individuals. Nevertheless, leaders can change to other authority structures, such as the horizontal structure that allows employees to be part of decision-making processes. Ultimately, organizations can incorporate both structures since it would benefit their business goals. The second source is inequitable reward and recognition practices. Inequitable pay is a toxin in many organizations, and compensation practices can be termed toxic when unfair and inconsistent reward strategies. To make the organization healthy, leaders can frequently conduct performance reviews to establish a distinction that will ensure fair reward practices for excellently performing employees. Additionally, leaders can standardize their employees’ salaries to ensure equal pay among all employees.

The third source of organizational toxicity is the abuse of power which often occurs at the middle-level management level. According to Porter-O’Grady and Malloch (2017), expert nurses are often selected to lead, whether they have leadership experience. As a result, they end up with title and power in their hands, which they misuse and run into trouble sooner than later. This toxicity primarily occurs when hiring or appointing inexperienced leaders because they are good at their jobs. Chen (2018) outlines that, specifically in medical leadership, organizations must use practical appointment standards that ensure the health institution attracts competent leaders. The fourth source of organizational toxicity is the failure to manage unmotivated employees. It can be overwhelming and draining for leaders to work with unmotivated employees. The big challenge is not to identify the undermotivated employees but to continue working with them despite their minimal work effort. Nevertheless, leaders can take corrective action towards individuals who are not working to their full potential to make an organization healthy. Leow and Leow (2022) suggest that among the most effective strategies is to talk to unmotivated employees to understand the issue from their perspective so that a leader can address their concerns and improve their motivation. This ” talk ” aims to identify the triggers that contribute to an employee’s lack of motivation and connection from work.

The fifth toxin is leaders who are frequently inconsistent and dishonest in word and action. It isn’t delightful when employees are willing to respect and follow, but their leaders do not act per their values and beliefs. Leaders can significantly contribute to unhealthy organizations by passing ambiguous or contradictory messages to their juniors, causing confusion and misunderstandings among employees. Porter-O’Grady and Malloch (2017) outline that leaders often lie when explaining decisions to downsize employees. Nevertheless, leaders can enhance more honest leadership by focusing on the positive outcome of their communication in the workplace. This will effectively create honesty among team members and cultivate a culture of openness in the organization. The sixth source of organizational toxicity is a lack of respect for the workforce. According to Porter-O’Grady and Malloch (2017), leaders of healthcare organizations are known for viewing staff members as the cost of conducting business. Most leaders are known to objectify their employees, failing to consider them well enough. This results in an unhappy, powerless, and dependent workforce, resulting in an unhealthy organization in the long run. Leaders should respect their employees to increase their motivation, maintain individual discipline and cultivate a healthy organizational culture (Elkhwesky et al., 2019). Therefore, leaders can demonstrate that they value employees and prioritize their growth to gain employees’ respect.

The seventh toxin is tolerance of antisocial behaviours in the workplace. These behaviours include bullying, dishonesty, and sexual harassment. The social context of an organization significantly determines how employees think and feel about specific aspects of their jobs. Managers should take a more flexible approach towards antisocial behaviours and take it upon themselves to discourage antisocial behaviours within the workplace while guiding naturally antisocial individuals. The eighth toxin is toxic mentoring. While mentoring is supposed to guide others, some leaders believe that mentoring is an ill-conceived practice that obstructs the necessary adaptations to changes in the work environment. According to Porter-O’Grady and Malloch, toxic mentoring can come about when aspiring leaders seek to please experienced leaders who are idealized, meaning they do not require to be mentored. The experienced leader can talk the aspiring leader through the advantages and impact of healthy mentoring. On the other hand, mentees should be sure they do not end up in a bad mentoring situation.

The ninth source of organizational toxicity is an imbalance between work and personal life. With the advent of the internet, the balance between work and personal life has collapsed for many since technology has opened new opportunities and experiences. Although technology has tremendous positive impacts, overindulging is causing people to lack time for their personal life which is dangerous in reporting high fatigue levels. Organizations that have computerized working systems can regulate the amount of time an employee can spend on their electronic devices to strike a balance between work and personal life. The final toxin is reactive advocacy gone awry. According to Porter-O’Grady and Malloch (2017), advocacy leadership in health care is proactive, and its purpose is to have barriers in the workplace. On the other hand, reactive advocacy consists of ambiguous values and leaders cannot take action to alleviate unhealthy situations. According to Pryor (2020), advocacy leadership is essential in helping leaders compel individuals towards action by bringing them together. Hence, to have a healthy organization, leaders should strive to achieve advocacy by demonstrating its impact through their leadership. In summary, these ten sources of organizational toxicity help leaders discover the line of weaknesses in their leadership, so they may know where to improve.


Chen, T. Y. (2018). Medical leadership: An important and required competency for medical students. Tzu-chi medical journal30(2), 66.

Elkhwesky, Z., Salem, I. E., & Barakat, M. (2019). Diversity management in hotels: The moderating role of empowerment and capability development. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights.

Leow, K., & Leow, S. (2022). The Role of Social Support in Dealing With the Different Types of Stressors: Social Support in the Workplace. In Handbook of Research on the Complexities and Strategies of Occupational Stress (pp. 92-107). IGI Global.

Pryor, J. T. (2020). QUEER ADVOCACY LEADERSHIP: A Queer Leadership Model for Higher Education. Journal of Leadership Education19(1).

Outdoor Recreation Economy Sample Assignment

Introduction and Background Context of Bend City, Oregon

Bend is a city found in Deschutes County, Oregon deduced from the word “Farewell Bend”. Later, it was decided that the term Farewell Bend was too long and shortened to Bend. It was incorporated as a city in 1905 (Hanson, 2018). The city has the largest population in Central Oregon. It’s positioned on the eastern boundary of the Cascade Range along the river Deschutes. The city is mostly known for sunshine and great outdoor recreation, granting locals an easier way of life. It is one of the three cities in the continent of the United States of America to have an extinct volcano that serves as a tourist attraction. Outdoor recreation is a significant part of Oregon’s identity, and it is the people’s way of life.

Regarding the economic context, Bend began as a logging town. Still, it is now described as a getaway for outdoor sports, which include rock climbing, foothill biking, camping, hiking, skiing, golf, water rafting, fishing, and many others. It was after the 1980s that tourism became the main industry for Bend and the neighboring areas. It is hard to find a better city for outdoor enthusiasts than Bend, Oregon. It is a beautiful city with expansive mountain views, and Scenic rivers run through the center of the town with people surfing on it, and it’s just beautiful. It is considered to be a great place to raise a family. The city also has gorgeous weather since it is a four-season town with an average of 162 days of sunshine per year.

Analysis of the Outdoor Recreation Economy (ORE)

ORE deals with the supply of and demand for natural resources for recreational purposes. Outdoor recreational activities include hiking, fishing, skiing, and many other activities. Studies have shown that as of 2019, the city had used 15.6 billion in expenses. In addition, revealed that the program had created 224,000 permanent and temporary job opportunities in the state. Many outdoor recreation economy sectors in Bend, Oregon include tourism and outdoor recreation activities such as hiking, fishing, and mountain biking. These outdoor recreation economy sectors have become dominant in Bend, Oregon, since they are contributing greatly towards the state’s economy, and it means a lot to the people of Oregon.

As of 2021, reports stated that it accounted for 1.8 percent of the United States Gross Domestic Product, with 689 billion dollars in gross output and 4.3 million jobs (DiNatale et al., 2021). The tourism sector through the program’s recreational activities has dominated over other local economic drivers as studies have shown the program is crucial to the state’s economic development and growth. The current size of ORE is significant to the people of Bend, Oregon. This means more growth and improved living standards for the people due to economic growth. Besides, it has provided jobs opportunities for residents and the nation, attributing to improved living conditions. Also, it has provided people with recreational activities that serve as getaways, and this has helped to strengthen family bonds and help people enjoy their lives.

President Theodore Roosevelt foresaw the development of the outdoor recreation economy a hundred years ago (Holleman, 2018). He stated that protecting the nation’s natural wonders was important. He was also more concerned about the value these natural wonders would play for people in terms of recreation. The outdoor recreation economy has developed greatly over time. In 2006, the first economic study on outdoor recreation was conducted in the United States (Bolger & Doyon, 2019). A large number of unemployed people in the United States during the great recession contributed to massive spending cuts. However, most Americans prioritized outdoor recreation, which was the beginning of the growth of the outdoor recreation economy. People have embraced outdoor recreation more than before, contributing to immense growth in the outdoor recreation economy.

The state’s scenic beauty is a paramount drive ensuring tourists and residents can enjoy the activities at their disposal. It is home to scenic wonders and abundant natural resources. Bend city is a little mountain town with beautiful scenery, such as its many rivers, mountains, lakes, and clear high desert climate, attracting people to visit the city and engage in outdoor recreation activities. Additionally, the city’s people love outdoor activities, which contributed to the development of Outdoor recreation as they made it part of their lifestyle, which greatly impacted the economy. The development of ORE was purely organic since people were having fun and enjoying themselves until a potential was spotted. The development since there has been a combination of planned and organic development. This can be explained through the construction of luxurious resorts to host tourists and the establishment of tourist guide companies developed to have the best experience during outdoor recreation.

There is a variety of individuals who have contributed to the growth and development of the outdoor recreation economy. For instance, Congress has played a major role in shaping outdoor recreation in the country through legislation and oversight, which has contributed to ORE’s vast development (Holleman, 2018). Consequently, congress has emphasized on developing policies and programs to help constructively manage the outdoor recreation economy. The Outdoor industry association also contributed a great deal to the growth and development of ORE when the industry held its first economic study on outdoor recreation in the United States in 2006 (Holleman, 2018). Efforts made by organizations and groups of people have contributed to the vast growth and development of the outdoor recreation economy.


According to the analysis its prevalent that outdoor recreation has a huge role in the American economy. The city has abundant natural resources, which has contributed to it being a city with many outdoor recreational activities and why people prefer to visit or live there. These outdoor recreation events have consequently impacted the economy of the city and the nation’s economy as people have embraced outdoor recreation. Some of the outdoor activities present in the city include; skiing, hiking, fishing, and many other activities. Hence, natural resources availability in the city have been impactful to achieving the economic benefits available in the city as well as we cannot forget the congress and other stakeholders support. Natural resource availability has been impactful in promoting outdoor recreation in the city, and the joint efforts from congress and organizations have also helped. The ORE has provided many citizens of the United States with employment which has positively changed their lives. The development of the outdoor recreation economy was organic at first and then advanced to plans being incorporated where some organizations were involved.


Bolger, K., & Doyon, A. (2019). Circular cities: exploring local government strategies to facilitate a circular economy. European planning studies, 27(11), 2184-2205.

DiNatale, S., Lewis, R., & Parker, R. (2021). Short-term rentals in small cities in Oregon: Impacts and regulations. Land use policy, 79, 407-423.

Hanson, T. (2018). Sunriver. Arcadia Publishing.


Overall Wellness Improvement Plan For Police Officers Essay Sample For College


A whole officer model is a holistic approach to wellness that recognizes that many factors contribute to health and wellness. It acknowledges that physical, mental, emotional, social, spiritual, and occupational well-being are interdependent. This model helps police officers understand how different aspects of their lives influence each other. The whole officer model provides an overarching framework for addressing each wellness domain. For example, physical activity is one way to improve your wellness by improving your physical health. However, when you consider how physical activity affects other domains, such as mental health or social interactions with family and friends, it becomes clear that it impacts more than just one area of your life. In addition, looking at the whole officer model, it becomes clear that small changes in one place (such as eating healthier) can significantly impact another area (such as improved sleep). Examples of these domains include the cognitive, moral, and physical realms. This paper discusses Maslow’s Theory, ways to help officers with stress variables, physical and mental domains, and overall considerations.

Maslow’s Theory

Maslow’s theory of motivation is a theory in psychology that attempts to explain why people are motivated and how they can be motivated. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Maslow proposed that once humans meet their basic needs for physiological requirements and safety, they pursue social needs, such as love, belongingness, and relationships. When these needs are satisfied, individuals tend to focus on esteem needs, such as achievement and self-respect. Finally, when these needs are met, individuals will focus on self-actualization, which includes personal growth and finding purpose (Acquadro Maran et al., 2018). We can survive for weeks without food but only days without water, so this need comes first in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Without food, we grow weak until we die from starvation or malnutrition; without water, we will die within days of dehydration if not treated early enough.

The plan will be developed by discussing with the officers and their families the benefits of improving their overall wellness. The plan will discuss the importance of a healthy diet, sleep schedule, and exercise. The officer’s supervisor will play an essential role in helping the officer understand how these factors can improve their work performance and overall health and well-being. The plan will include meeting with each officer to discuss their goals and how they can achieve them. For example, if an officer wants to lose weight, he or she could be referred to a nutritionist who can help them or her develop a meal plan that meets their needs. Another option would be for the officer to set up regular sessions with a personal trainer who could help him or she develop an exercise routine that works for them.

Maslow’s theory helps people understand what motivates them, the different levels of needs they have, and how these needs can be met. The first level is physiological needs, which include food and water. These needs must be met before you can move on in the hierarchy. If these are not met, the body will not function properly. The next level is safety needs, which include shelter and protection from harm. These safety needs include physical and emotional safety – feeling secure in a relationship or job. Once these physiological and safety needs are met, belongingness or love needs can be considered– feeling connected with others through intimate relationships, friendships, or social groups. People need to feel accepted by others for their self-esteem to rise along with other esteem issues like accomplishment or recognition.

Ways to help officers with each stress variable

The first step in creating a SMART Goal is to define it precisely. State precisely what you want to accomplish, such as “I will lose 20 pounds by July 15.” If your goal is too general or vague, it will be challenging for you to achieve it. Instead of writing down “lose weight,” think about what specific behaviors will help you achieve your goal (eating healthy foods and exercising daily).

Next, decide how you will measure whether or not you have met your goal. For example, decide how much weight loss constitutes success if your goal is to lose weight. Then track your progress along the way: weigh yourself regularly; measure your waistline; keep track of calories consumed and burned with an online tool like my fitness pal or any other tools that help you track progress over time.

There are multiple ways that this goal can be met. The second step is if an officer wants to lose weight, they should write down all of the things they can do to lose weight, such as eating healthier food and exercising more often. The plan is to go to the gym thrice a week, for 30 minutes each time. I will also drink more water, cut out soda, and eat more fruits and vegetables. This plan meets the goal because it helps me lose weight safely by exercising, which is good for my health and well-being (Onyishi et al., 2020). The officer will document their participation in the program. This can be done by using a fitness tracker or other devices. The officer will also have access to the fitness center at work so they can use those tools. Time-bound refers to a specific date for when the goal should be completed, for example, by July 15.

Physical Domain (Health, Athleticism, Fitness)

The physical domain is the first component of the Whole Soldier Model. This component is critical to the success of all other domains. It encompasses a soldier’s physical fitness, athletic ability, and overall health. Several things need to be implemented for officers to be healthy, fit, and athletic. The first thing is to make sure facilities are available for officers to use during their off time. Most departments have gyms or fitness facilities, but they are often open only during business hours or on weekends when officers have time off work. They close during holidays and weekends when many officers are working overtime shifts at other jobs so they can afford Christmas presents for their kids. Secondly, making more opportunities for physical and mental fitness testing (thinking under stress). This would allow us to identify who needs help staying in shape and who needs more education before they qualify for certain positions in law enforcement.

Officers should be able to perform the position’s job functions without limitations caused by health problems or injuries. The PT test will be used as a tool to measure their current level of physical fitness. Physical ability tests will also be given to determine if they can perform all officers’ duties during critical incidents. An 8-second sit-up test will measure officers’ abdominal strength and endurance. The basic requirements include doing push-ups until failure (never giving up) and sit-ups until failure (never giving up). These tests must be passed annually, meaning you must meet these standards at least once every 12 months.

A good fitness plan should be specific to each individual and their goals. A good fitness plan is a road map for success, but it is only as good as the person who follows it. A great fitness plan addresses all aspects of health and wellness, including nutrition, sleep, stress management, and physical activity. A good fitness plan will help you set measurable, attainable, and realistic goals. It will also provide you with strategies to achieve those goals sustainably over time.

A good fitness plan should address these areas: Cardiovascular Endurance – This is the ability of your heart and lungs to pump blood throughout your body. The more efficient you are at this process, the more oxygen you can transport to your muscles and other organs. This will help you perform better during any activity you do. Cardiovascular Strength – Your heart muscle should be strong enough to pump blood efficiently through your body. However, it must also be strong enough to withstand challenging situations like extreme physical exertion or stress. If you have poor cardiovascular strength, you may quickly feel fatigued and prone to injury during workouts or competitions. Muscular Endurance – Muscles need to contract repeatedly without fatigue to continue working at a high level of intensity for long periods without stopping or slowing down noticeably. If your muscles cannot maintain this type of endurance for extended periods, then they will fatigue quickly and become useless for performance purposes during workouts or competitions. Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert force against resistance. Muscular strength can be improved by increasing lean muscle mass, decreasing body fat, improving flexibility, and practicing resistance training exercises with free weights, machines, or elastic bands.

Better food choices include avoiding eating junk food or fast food. Trying to stay away from those things is not suitable for a person’s health, and they do nothing for their body. If you are trying your best not to drink soda because it has too many calories and does not do anything good for a person’s body, that is another reason why a person should avoid drinking soda often, if ever at all. Yes, taking food to work is an excellent choice because if you do not have time during a lunch break, you can continually heat some leftovers from the night before or make something quick, so you do not have to worry about missing out on lunch or dinner.

A good health plan would include regular visits to the doctor for check-ups, a visit to the dentist every six months or so, and a yearly physical. To increase illness resistance, you should eat healthy foods; avoid fast and junk food. You should also get plenty of exercises daily. Being overweight can affect job performance because you might not be able to do specific tasks as quickly or at all if you are overweight. Training in defensive tactics with firearms can help improve your reflexes and reaction time. You could also take up Jiu-Jitsu classes a few days a week to improve your overall fitness level and fighting skillset. We all make excuses sometimes, but it is essential that we stop making excuses and instead start working towards being better at whatever it is we want to be better at!

The cognitive domain includes knowledge, judgment, and application. Knowledge consists of an officer learning facts, principles, and procedures. Judgment refers to an officer’s ability to think logically and make decisions based on available information. Application refers to an officer’s ability to apply knowledge and judgment in real-world situations. Cognitive skills are crucial for officers because they allow them to make sound decisions in various situations. Cognitive skills are necessary because they help officers learn from past experiences and apply this knowledge to future events. Cognitive skills are also necessary because they allow officers to adapt their behavior based on new situations that may arise during their shift or even during a call for service. There are several ways that cognitive skills can be increased and improved: Practice – The more time officers spend practicing their cognitive skills, the better they will become at utilizing them during stressful situations. For example, suppose an officer practice is reading people’s body language when interacting with the public. In that case, he or she will become better at noticing nonverbal cues that could indicate someone is lying or hiding something from him or her.

Knowledge is related to the amount of information an officer has about different situations. This can include things like laws, policies, and procedures. Good judgment is the ability to make appropriate decisions in difficult situations. It is the ability to think and act rationally based on the current situation and past experiences. Good judgment can be developed through the use of your instincts. When you have an instinct about something, trust it! Please do not ignore your gut feelings, but do not let them control you. Use them as a guide when making decisions, but do not let them dictate what you do next. Practice makes perfect! The more experience you get doing something, the better you will become at it. This applies to good judgment as well as everything else in life! If you are having problems making good decisions on the job, ask yourself if there is anything else that might help you make better choices in the future.

The excellent knowledge development plan is a process to develop knowledge in the cognitive domain. This plan aims to identify the current state of knowledge and develop strategies to improve it. In order to improve your level of knowledge, you need to know what you have now and what needs to be improved. The first class that should be attended is Mindfulness for Health, a one-day workshop designed to introduce the participant to mindfulness. The second class that should be attended is a four-week introduction to mindfulness course. This class will teach participants various methods to integrate mindfulness into their lives. It will also allow participants to practice the concepts they learned in the first class with support from their fellow participants and instructors.

Overall wellness considerations

There are many areas of emotional intelligence that need improvement. The following is a list of some of them. Self-awareness: The ability to understand and accept your own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses will help you manage your behavior and improve your relationships with others. Self-management: The ability to control impulsive behaviors, manage time, prioritize tasks, and set goals for yourself. This will help you achieve your life goals and success at work or school. Social awareness: The ability to understand how other people think and feel so that you can interact better with them socially without hurting their feelings or making them uncomfortable around you.

Resilience is the ability to bounce back from a difficult situation. It may be defined as the capacity to recover from adversity, adjust to change, or maintain positive mental health in the face of adversity. The following ways resilience can be improved: Physical exercise: Exercise helps reduce stress by releasing natural feel-good chemicals called endorphins into the bloodstream. Physical activity also helps you sleep better and boosts your energy levels so that you can handle any challenges that come your way during the day(Van Thielen et al., 2018). The key is to find an exercise regimen that works for you – running, swimming, or playing tennis – and stick with it! Staying connected: Connecting with others gives us the support we need when times get tough. It feels good to know we are not alone in this world. For example, one study found that people who participated in group activities had lower levels of depression than those who did not engage socially. Another study found that having strong social support led to better physical health outcomes among cancer survivors compared to those without friends and family around them during their illness.

The most effective way of reducing stress and improving overall wellness is to commit to getting help if stress, trauma, PTSD, loss, or grief happens. This means that you will not be able to handle all of your stressors alone and will need to reach out to someone such as a friend, family member, or your unit’s mental health provider when you feel overwhelmed by your situation. This can be done by asking for support and assistance in stressful situations. The most important thing is to ensure you do not isolate yourself from others because this will only worsen things in the long run.

The first step to improving your financial status is understanding where you are. You can look at your spending habits, budget, and debt. If you do not know where to start, try downloading an app like Mint or Quicken. These programs will track your spending and help you plan for future payments. Once you have an idea of where you stand financially, take a look at what your current spending patterns are like. If you want to save more money, start by cutting unnecessary expenses such as eating out or buying new clothes when what you already have works just fine. Suppose your budget still is not enough to cover all of your expenses. In that case, it might be time for lifestyle changes, such as driving less or using public transportation instead of driving all the time (which will also help decrease your carbon footprint). Also, think about ways that you can earn more money, such as working overtime or asking for a raise from work if possible.


Conclusively, the importance of wellness to officers is undeniable. Officers have a high risk of injury and illness due to the nature of their job. The public often does not understand this and may be less sympathetic when an officer cannot work because of a health problem.

For police officers, wellness is an essential part of their job. It helps them improve their performance and makes them more effective on the job. This leads to better decision-making and makes them more accurate in high-stress situations. It also improves officer safety and reduces injuries, which means they can be more productive on the job and have fewer absences due to injury. It is essential for police officers to focus on their overall wellness because it directly affects their ability to perform their jobs well, directly impacting their departments’ ability to do their job well. If an officer is not able to perform at a high level or if he is injured often, there are consequences for his department as well as for himself as an employee of that department who may no longer be able to work as effectively or efficiently as before due to his injury or illness.

The benefits of having fit and well officers are numerous. The most obvious benefit is that it reduces injuries and illness costs for the department regarding worker’s compensation claims. Another benefit is that a fit officer is more likely to be mentally sharp and alert, which can help prevent tragic accidents or crimes. A third benefit is that a fit officer is more likely to have a positive outlook on life and work in general, which can reduce stress on the officer and his/her family and improve workplace morale.


Acquadro Maran, D., Zedda, M., & Varetto, A. (2018). Physical Practice and Wellness Courses Reduce Distress and Improve Wellbeing in Police Officers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health15(4), 578.

Onyishi, C. N., Ede, M. O., Ossai, O. V., & Ugwuanyi, C. S. (2020). Rational Emotive Occupational Health Coaching in the Management of Police Subjective Well-Being and Work Ability: a Case of Repeated Measures. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology36(1), 96–111.

Van Thielen, T., Bauwens, R., Audenaert, M., Van Waeyenberg, T., & Decramer, A. (2018). How to foster the well-being of police officers: The role of the employee performance management system. Evaluation and Program Planning70, 90–98.