The Project Management Trends That Lead To Its Success Writing Sample


Remote working is one of the recent widely adopted project management trends. It enables employees to perform duties remotely without necessarily having to be present at a central office. The management assigns duties to employees, conducts meetings, monitors feedback and manages operations virtually via the Internet. This trend is becoming increasingly popular going into the future since it presents an endless list of operational benefits for both the employee and the employer. The COVID-19 pandemic revamped attention to remote working since it necessitated drastic changes in the operational strategies of businesses. For the first time, organisations were forced to accept remote working or go out of business because the lockdown ruled out the traditional face-to-face work environment. After the end of the pandemic, most companies did not look back but instead continued to embrace remote working by enabling teams to collaborate on projects virtually. Remote working is becoming a clear trend to help organisations optimise output in project management and therefore become competitive in the agile world.


Most organisations learned a thing or two from the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic changed how people live and work hence the need for adjustments through digital technologies. Organisations created digital sustainability, which involves trans-disciplinary approaches that enable employees to perform tasks remotely during the pandemic (Pan & Zhang, 2020, p4 (7)). Many organisations that failed to create digital sustainability suffered devastating impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, it is essential to pick lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic and accumulate the necessary knowledge and techniques to tackle economic and operational challenges if they recur in future. Investing more in digital infrastructure and competencies improves sustainability in organisations hence helpful in the long run.

Digital transformation remains the most precarious factor affecting business in the modern corporate world. The fast-changing digital innovations are disrupting already established business models and strategies. Digital innovation and transformation come in the form of improvisation, emergence, and affordance of newer digital products at operations and managerial levels of project management (Baiyere, Salmela & Topanainen, 2020, p241 (5)). Digital transformation enables organisations to create and deliver digital value propositions by leveraging technological innovations to make operational processes more efficient and seamless. In this regard, there is a need for more preparation to equip the organisation with the necessary infrastructure and know-how to cope with digital transformation.

Digital transformation is critical to effective project implementation and monitoring since it simplifies intersectoral interaction and stakeholder collaboration. Through a well manages remote collaboration, it becomes relatively less strenuous for teams on the ground to implement the theoretical aspects of the project. The success in the implementation of projects is anchored on the existing degree of automation regarding monitoring (Tsurkan, Mironova, & Pilipchuk, 2019, p80 (5)). Every step is vital towards attaining project goals hence the need to monitor each process execution, task duration and quality control. With digital transformation, it becomes easier to monitor and supervise the project implementation process remotely. Therefore, reengineering project implementation processes using digital tools crucially improves conditions enabling better productivity of teams.

Organisations must adjust their strategies, models and practices to seize the full potential gains from remote working. Having realised what is to become of organisations that are sluggish to adopt digital transformation, it is prudent for organisations to phase out old models and practices and embrace new ones. The ability to work remotely depends on digital infrastructure and specialised equipment suiting the task (Lund et al., 2020, p8 (3)). Some jobs require more specialised equipment; hence harder to complete tasks remotely, while others require less specialised equipment. Organisations must invest more in digital infrastructure and specialised equipment to ensure effective remote working and advanced economies.

Organisations looking to leverage remote working to increase competitive advantage by increasing worker mobility and flexibility must embrace remote working. Remote working is also the best strategy for reducing costs since it enables organisations to hire workers from cheaper geographies and eliminates employee travel expenses. Workers become better trained to utilise their time and organise their day better with remote working, enabling them to accomplish work goals and personal affairs (Ferreira et al., 2021, p19 (2)). Giving the employee a chance to organise their work life and personal life goes a long way in increasing worker motivation hence optimisation of productivity. Any organisation aiming to increase its competitive advantage in the agile world may promote cost reduction through the adoption of remote working.

Remote working presents an immense potential that organisations can tap into in managing individual teams or departments. It is because remote working brings the valuable capacity to enhance collaboration between multiple parties. Remote collaboration among team members in project management is becoming more common. Remote working is already augmenting the quality of many collaborative projects (Hunter, 2015, p3 (5)). Creating the capacity of more people to work remotely on projects broadens the pool of those employees who are better qualified to deliver results by eliminating the factor of their geographical position. By becoming more valuable in creating and sustaining team collaborations in projects, remote learning optimises productivity and maximises the organisations’ potential.

Any organisation should maintain agility to leverage opportunities and mitigate threats in its operational space. The digital transformation that facilitates remote working allows companies to maximise competitive advantage. Firms should maintain agility by promoting agility, notwithstanding the cost of purchasing digital tools and infrastructure (Tallon et al.’; 2019, p21 (3)). Although the cost of maintaining agility is high, the price of failing to embrace digital innovation is exceedingly high and punitive. The management should apply prudence in balancing the stability and dynamism of the firm since there is a price to pay for both. Proposing excellent digital opportunities such as remote working will give the firm the competitive advantage of quickly and easily adapting to changes in the operational environment.

Performance management is a critical aspect of remote working due to the close ties between the firm’s strategic goals and employee performance. Firms need to equip themselves with the necessary digital tools to monitor the performances of individuals and workgroups remotely. Both financial and non-financial compensation contributed significantly to the sustenance and improvement of employee performance during the COVID-19 pandemic (Hamouche, 2021, p6 (3)). However, regular communication of relevant information strengthens the performance management process. With practical digital tools in remote working, HRM can effectively monitor employee performance if the managers understand how and what is required to monitor remote teams.

Digital transformation strategies are business-centric and tailored to meet the needs of different organisational stakeholders. Remote working should be structured to make employees and management better suitable for their tasks. Digital transformation strategies have wide-ranging implications for the organisation compared to traditional information system strategies (Chanias et al., 2019, p14 (9)). Remote working, as an example of a digital transformation strategy, applies both bottom-up and top-down approaches. The employees are responsible for informing the management of project progress, while the management is responsible for any significant decision that needs to be made concerning the project.

Remote working is the source of organisational and economic resilience during crises such as pandemics. Building and maintaining social connections in the workplace is the panacea to collaboration and coordination problems in firms. Project management trends such as remote working are typically approached from the perception of how technologies can assist in breaking existing technical barriers (Hafermalz & Riemer, 2021, p90 (2)). Remote working is instrumental to a firm’s ability to leverage social connections to optimise workforce productivity. Through remote working, HRM can effectively manage personnel while allowing them to work in flexible environments to meet organisational strategic goals.


Overall, there is sufficient evidence supporting the point that remote working has a positive impact on project management through work-life balance. Work-life balance and flexibility with remote working improve job satisfaction and motivate employees to be more productive. More research in information systems, such as remote learning, is set to prepare organisations well in advance to tackle future grand challenges. Although remote working provides teams with flexible environments, the HRM must do extra to monitor and evaluate employee performance. With the right tools, training and infrastructure, remote learning can be effective for collaborations and joint execution of duties by teams in projects.


Baiyere, A., Salmela, H. and Tapanainen, T., 2020. Digital transformation and the new logic of business process management. European Journal of Information Systems29(3), pp.238-259.

Chanias, S., Myers, M.D. and Hess, T., 2019. Digital transformation strategy making in pre-digital organisations: The case of a financial services provider. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems28(1), pp.17-33.

Ferreira, R., Pereira, R., Bianchi, I.S. and da Silva, M.M., 2021. Decision factors for remote work adoption: advantages, disadvantages, driving forces and challenges. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity7(1), p.70.

Hafermalz, E. and Riemer, K., 2021. Productive and connected while working from home: what client-facing remote workers can learn from telenurses about ‘belonging through technology’. European Journal of Information Systems30(1), pp.89-99..

Hamouche, S., 2021. Human resource management and the COVID-19 crisis: Implications, challenges, opportunities, and future organisational directions. Journal of Management & Organization, pp.1-16.

Hunter, P., 2019. Remote working in research: An increasing usage of flexible work arrangements can improve productivity and creativity. EMBO reports20(1), p.e47435.

Lund, S., Madgavkar, A., Manyika, J. and Smit, S., 2020. What’s next for remote work: An analysis of 2,000 tasks, 800 jobs, and nine countries. McKinsey Global Institute, pp.1-13.

Pan, S.L. and Zhang, S., 2020. From fighting the COVID-19 pandemic to tackling sustainable development goals: An opportunity for responsible information systems research. International journal of information management55, p.102196.

Tallon, P.P., Queiroz, M., Coltman, T. and Sharma, R., 2019. Information technology and the search for organisational agility: A systematic review with future research possibilities. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems28(2), pp.218-237.

Tsurkan, M.V., Mironova, S.M. and Pilipchuk, N.V., 2019, May. Digital transformation of project implementation monitoring in the regional public management. In 1st International Scientific Conference” Modern Management Trends and the Digital Economy: From Regional Development to Global Economic Growth”(MTDE 2019) (pp. 80-85). Atlantis Press.

What Is The Role Of ICT In Dealing With Environmental Issues? Essay Example

Environmental sustainability and reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have become a significant global concerns in recent years. As communities and societies strive to mitigate the threat of climate change and similar pressing challenges, the potential role of information and communication technology (ICT) in enhancing environmental sustainability has gained increasing momentum. Ideally, ICT provides a range of approaches, tools, and platforms that can be leveraged to encourage sustainable practices and behaviours. Accordingly, this study investigates the role of ICT in addressing environmental issues, focusing on the communication problem of promoting patronage eateries that use recyclable papers among high school students. The prevalent communication predicament revolves around the challenges of encouraging peers to choose eateries that prioritize sustainability through recyclable paper products. Essentially, this predicament stems from the increasing demand for environmentally friendly practices in daily life, including the consumption of sustainably sourced and recycled materials.

Nonetheless, effectively communicating and influencing behaviour change among high school students poses unique obstacles due to the specific traits of this target audience. The initial research question guiding this study is “How do high school students plan to use ICT to encourage their peers to only patronize eateries that recycle paper?” accordingly, this question seeks to explore the strategies, perceptions, and motives of high school students in utilizing ICT as a means to enhance sustainable consumption behaviours. Therefore, by comprehending the approaches and intentions of high school students, valuable insights can be gained to inform the development of targeted interventions and campaigns to foster environmentally friendly practices. The investigation of this topic is significant for several reasons. Firstly, high school students represent a considerable segment or portion of the general populace, and their choices and behaviours have the potential to create a ripple effect among their peers and the broader community. By harnessing the powers of ICT, these high school students can amplify their message and engage with peers on a wider scale. In addition, promoting the patronage of eateries that use recyclable papers aligns with broader sustainability goals, as it contributes to reducing waste and ecological footprints associated with disposable products.

A systematic process was followed to find the research sources on how high school students plan to use ICT to encourage their peers to patronize eateries that use recyclable papers. The steps followed included identifying relevant keywords regarding the research question; some keywords had sustainable consumption, ICT, and peer influence. The next step included an academic database search for sources such as PubMed and Google Scholar, and research library catalogues were used to conduct comprehensive investigations. Another step was the inclusion and exclusion criteria; accordingly, only peer-reviewed articles published recently were considered to guarantee relevance and reliability. Screening titles and abstracts was the fourth step; irrelevant and duplicates were excluded, while the relevant articles were included. The steps employed were full-text assessment, iterative processes, cross-referencing, and citation chaining.

After analyzing the sources, several themes that emerged from the research as a whole include the role of ICT in environmental sustainability, ICT as a tool for CO2 emission reduction, Customization and tailoring of ICT solutions, ICT as a policy tool for sustainable development, the nexus between ICT, energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and finally, ICT for inclusive and sustainable development.

Accordingly, the studies consistently highlight the potential of information and communication technologies in addressing environmental obstacles and enhancing sustainability. The sources emphasize that ICT can be adopted to deal with global warming, minimize CO2 emissions, and manage ecological policies effectively. In addition, the research explores the correlation between ICT and CO2 emissions, demonstrating that ICT positively impacts reducing carbon emissions. Adopting ICT technologies and practices, including energy-efficient systems, smart grids, and digital platforms, can achieve sustainable development goals and mitigate climate change’s detrimental and profound impacts. Furthermore, the literature emphasizes the significance of tailoring ICT approaches to specific environmental issues and target groups. The studies suggest that ICT solutions should be modified or customized to address specific ecological obstacles effectively. Adopting ICT technologies in local contexts and considering cultural factors and individual preferences can enhance their adoption and effectiveness. Also, the research highlights the potential of ICT as a policy tool for promoting and strengthening sustainable development. It demonstrates how ICT can be integrated into environmentally friendly to achieve environmental targets, reduce energy consumption, and enhance resourceful efficiency. Accordingly, the study emphasizes the need for effective policy frameworks that supports the adoption of ICT-based solutions. Ultimately, several studies in the research demonstrate the potential of ICT in fostering inclusive development while addressing environmental challenges. They emphasize that ICT can bridge the digital divide, promote access to information and resources, and empower marginalized communities to adopt sustainable practices. In essence, the research underscores the significance of considering the social dimensions of ICT adoption to guarantee equitable and sustainable outcomes.

The sources of this study demonstrate that ICT can be adopted to address various environmental obstacles and promote sustainable practices. They emphasize the potential benefits of using ICT technologies in dealing with global warming, reducing CO2 emissions, and minimizing consumption.

For instance, Atlas (2021), in his study, explores the nexus between ICT and CO2 emissions, essentially finding a positive impact of ICT technologies on CO2 emissions. Similarly, in their research, Altinoz, Vasbieva, and Kalugina (2020) highlight the potential of ICT in addressing specific environmental issues, contributing to environmental policies, and lowering excessive energy use. While not directly focused on consumer behaviour, this source can be instrumental in highlighting the broader impacts of ICT on environmental issues, which can contribute to raising awareness among high school students.

A separate study conducted by Zhang, Danish, and Latif (2019) reveals the significant impacts of ICT on CO2 emissions through substitution effects and use effects. Accordingly, the authors emphasize the potential of ICT in mitigating environmental issues and reducing CO2 emissions. Similarly, Ahmed and Lee (2020) emphasize that ICT impacts energy consumption and subsequently affects carbon emissions, supporting the need to adopt ICT measures to reduce CO2 emissions. These findings can be applied to the research question by showcasing the potential of ICT to influence consumer behaviour towards eateries that prioritize sustainability. In addition, the source by Ahmed and Lee can be used to illustrate that by leveraging ICT platforms, high school students can effectively communicate and raise awareness about the significance of supporting eateries that use recyclable papers.

On the other hand, Mirza, Ansar, and Maqsood (2019) explore the negative nexus between CO2 and the use of ICT in addressing environmental challenges and enhancing sustainability. The findings from the study suggest that ICT can be tailored and employed to reduce CO2 emissions, lower energy consumption, and foster inclusive development. This source aligns directly with the research questions since high school students can utilize ICT to enhance inclusive and sustainable consumer behaviour among their peers.

Accordingly, by incorporating the insights from these sources, the proposed research aims to investigate how high school students can utilize ICT to encourage their peers to patronize eateries that use recyclable papers. Ideally, this research seeks to build upon existing knowledge by applying ICT strategies to target a communication problem related to sustainable consumer behaviour among high school students.

From the combined sources, several key insights can be derived regarding the research question of how high school students can use ICT to encourage their peers to patronize eateries that use recyclable papers. Firstly, the sources emphasized that ICT can have a significant role in addressing environmental challenges, including the promotion of sustainable practices. Using ICT platforms, high school students can effectively communicate the significance of patronizing eateries that use recyclable papers, contributing to environmental sustainability. Secondly, the sources highlight the adaptability of ICT technologies to address specific environmental problems. In essence, this suggests that high school students can leverage various ICT tools and platforms to tailor their messages and campaigns towards encouraging their peers to choose eateries that focus on promoting sustainable practices such s the use of recyclable papers. Thirdly, while the sources do not directly focus on consumer behaviours, particularly in eateries, the sources indicate that ICT can influence consumer choices and preferences. In essence, by utilizing ICT platforms, high school students can disseminate information, raise awareness, and create digital campaigns that aid in educating their peers about the benefits of supporting eateries that support sustainability practices, such as using recycled paper, thereby influencing their purchasing decisions. In addition, these sources also demonstrate the potential of ICT to contribute to sustainability. This aligns or connects with the research question since high school students can leverage ICT to promote eateries that adopt sustainable practices such as recycled paper, supporting efforts to minimize environmental impacts. Ultimately, the sources highlight the positive effects of ICT on inclusive development. Using ICT platforms, high school students can create an inclusive campaign that raises awareness among peers about the significance of supporting and promoting eateries that prioritize sustainable environmental practices, thereby fostering a sense of collective responsibility towards the environment.

Although the provided sources provide comprehensive and valuable insights into the role of ICT in environmental sustainability and its potential impact on CO2 emissions, a few assumptions in my research differ wholesomely from my previous studies. Firstly, previous research focused on the role of ICT in environmental sustainability from a broader perspective or within specific industries. Conversely, my research narrows the scope of study to high school students and their ability to leverage ICT to enhance sustainable practices in the context of eateries that use recycled paper. This specific focus allows for a deeper comprehension of the potential influence and actions that young individuals can have on promoting sustainable practices. Therefore by highlighting the particular roles of high school students and their engagement with ICT, my research contributes to the existing literature by providing insights into the effectiveness of this specific group in advocating for sustainable practices, particularly in the context of choosing eateries that prioritize recycling paper.

Secondly, while previous studies may have acknowledged the role of ICT in influencing consumer behaviour, my research aims to delve deeper into the communication strategies employed by high school students. This includes exploring the types of ICT platforms, messaging techniques, and persuasive tactics used to encourage their peers to patronize recycled paper eateries. Therefore, by examining the communication strategies utilized by high school students, my research adds to the existing literature by providing practical insights and recommendations for effective messaging and engagement strategies within this particular context. It provides a deeper understanding of the potential approaches that high school students can employ to promote sustainable choices among their peers.

Ultimately, although previous research focuses primarily on the environmental aspects of ICT adoption and its impacts on CO2 emissions, my research also incorporates the social dimensions. It recognizes the broader implications of supporting eateries prioritizing sustainable practices such as social responsibility and promoting an environmentally friendly and conscious community. Therefore, by considering the social and environmental impacts of supporting eateries that use recyclable paper, the research expands the existing literature by highlighting the broader benefits and motivations behind sustainable choices.


In conclusion, the resources in this literature review have shed light on the role of ICT in promoting environmental sustainability and addressing CO2 emissions. The findings from the studies have provided an understanding of the research topic. Although the resources have not caused a significant modification to the initial research question, they have been prevalent in providing additional perspectives and considerations that will enhance the investigation. The initial research question, “how do high school students plan to use ICT to encourage peers to only patronize eateries that use recyclable paper?” remains relevant and aligned with the synthesized findings. Nonetheless, the resources have provided insights into the various factors such as effective communication strategies, social and environmental impacts of supporting sustainable practices and their potential influence on high school students advocating for them. Therefore the revised question statement becomes “how can high school students effectively utilize ICT platforms to influence their peer’s choices and encourage the patronage of eateries that prioritize recycled paper, considering communication strategies, social and environmental impacts, and the potential influence of this specific group?” in essence, this revised question stamen incorporates critical findings from the literature review, emphasizes the importance of communication strategies, broader societal implications, and unique role of high school students in driving sustainable behaviour change. It reflects a comprehensive understanding of the research topic. It sets the stage for further investigation into how high school students can leverage ICT to promote sustainable practices in the context of eateries that use recyclable paper.


Ahmed, Z., & Le, H. P. (2020). Linking Information Communication Technology, trade globalization index, and CO2 emissions: evidence from advanced panel techniques. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(7), 8770–8781. https://

Alataş, S. (2021). Information and communication technologies role in environmental sustainability: Evidence from an extensive panel data analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 293, 112889. j.jenvman.2021.112889

Altinoz, B., Vasbieva, D., & Kalugina, O. (2020). The effect of information and communication technologies and total factor productivity on CO2 emissions in top 10 emerging market economies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(45), 63784–63793.

Danish, Zhang, J., Wang, B., & Latif, Z. (2019). Towards cross-regional sustainable development: The nexus between information and communication technology, energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions. Sustainable Development, 27(5), 990–1000.

Mirza, F. M., Ansar, S., Ullah, K., & Maqsood, F. (2019). The impact of information and communication technologies, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption on inclusive development in developing countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(3), 3143–3155.

A Change Proposal For Implementing A Preceptor Program For Decreasing Nursing Turnover Essay Sample For College

The semi-direct nursing leadership situation for this project is dealing with a high rate of turnover of nurses in healthcare organizations. High turnover has been realized as a major issue that impacts the quality and stability of healthcare quality being delivered. According to Lin et al. (2019), new nurses have anxiety and stress levels within the first two months after they have completed their orientation. Consequently, many new nurses quit their position as a result of the transition shock. Research conducted by Dwyer et al. (2019) realized that 51.5% of nurses employed recently meet the scientific burnout criteria, with 33.3% of the nurses with less than one and half years of experience reporting quitting their current position. The problem of a high turnover rate has been an issue in healthcare organizations, especially during the early years of experience. In America, the average turnover rate for nurses employed during the first year is 25.3%, and after two years is 47.5% (NSI Nursing Solution, 2020). The aim of this paper is to address the issue of the high turnover rate by proposing the implementation of a receptor program aimed at lowering the turnover rate. The paper will include evidence that supports the change and provide a theory that supports the change and guide implementation. In addition, a timeline for the proposed project will be provided alongside criteria for evaluation of the plan’s effectiveness. Lastly, the paper will reflect on the implications of the change proposal for the nursing profession.

Evidence Supporting Change

According to Vardaman et al. (2020), self-efficacy is correlated with turnover among registered nurses. Nurses who have low self-efficacy tend to have higher chances of quitting nursing. Thus, improving the nurse’s self-efficacy results in increased retention, which in return benefits healthcare organizations financially and enhances the quality and stability of healthcare delivered. A study conducted by Hong & Yoon (2021) shows that healthcare facilities that have put in place preceptor programs have a low turnover rate of nurses. New graduate nurses who take part in preceptor programs have higher levels of job satisfaction and are less likely to quit their positions. The existing researches support the idea of implementing a preceptor program to enhance the retention of nurses and lower the turnover rate.

Change Theory

Lewis’s change theory is the best theory that will be utilized in implementing the change proposed in healthcare organizations. The change theory involves a model of three phases for change which include unfreezing, change, and refreezing (Mitchell, 2013). The unfreezing phase involves communicating the need for change to the nursing staff. This phase also involves highlighting the effect of turnover on the care being delivered. The change phase involves preceptor program implementation, which includes training preceptors, allocating preceptor-preceptee pairs, and, lastly, monitoring the entire change process. The last phase, which is a refreezing phase, involves integrating the preceptor program into the healthcare organization culture and continues ensuring ongoing evaluation and support for the change to be sustainable.

Implementation Timeline

The initial phase of the project for change is unfreezing, which takes the first month. During the first month needs assessment will be conducted alongside the identification of key stakeholders. The project leader will also come up with a communication plan on how the nursing staff will be informed about the program and how it is beneficial for them in the profession.

The next stage is the change phase which will take place from the second month up to the sixth month. This stage will involve recruiting preceptors and selecting them based on their expertise and experience. Also, under this phase, the new graduate nurses are assigned preceptors and are facilitated to consistent meetings and valuations.

The last stage will last from the seventh month to the twelfth month, which is a refreezing phase. Under this phase of change, a system for ongoing support and feedback will be established for the preceptees and the preceptors. In addition, within the period of five months, regular evaluations will be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the preceptor program. Lastly, the preceptor program will be integrated into the procedures and policies of the healthcare organization.

Outcome of Change

The preceptor program’s effectiveness will be determined using the following criteria. First, the nursing turnover rate will decrease to indicate that the program is successful. Second, the nurses will have enhanced job satisfaction as the preceptees and preceptors record improved positive outcomes. Third, the retention rate for new graduate nurses increases when the program is successful. Lastly, the patient outcome will be monitored and evaluated to determine the success of the program, as the improvement in patient satisfaction will be an indicator of the success of the program.


The preceptor program implementation will have a significant impact on the nursing practice. First, the implementation will contribute to the development and support of new graduate nurses allowing them to smoothly transition into their roles. Consequently, it will improve the quality of care being provided as well as the safety of the patient. Additionally, the preceptor program will contribute to professional growth and increased chances of job satisfaction among the preceptors, something that contributes to a positive working environment and improved performance. Lastly, the success of the program has the possibility of inspiring other initiatives of the same kind in the organization resulting in improved care services and stability of the workforce as a result of increased retention.


Dwyer, P. A., Hunter Revell, S. M., Sethares, K. A., & Ayotte, B. J. (2019). The influence of psychological capital, authentic leadership in preceptors, and structural empowerment on new graduate nurse burnout and turnover intent. Applied Nursing Research, 48, 37–44.

Hong, K. J., & Yoon, H. J. (2021). Effect of nurses’ preceptorship experience in educating new graduate nurses and preceptor training courses on clinical teaching behaviour. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(3), 975.

Lin, Y.-E., Tseng, C.-N., Wang, M.-F., Wu, S.-F. V., Jane, S.-W., & Chien, L.-Y. (2020). Anxiety and work stress among newly employed nurses during the first year of a residency programme: A longitudinal study. Journal of Nursing Management.

NSI Nursing Solutions. (2020). 2020 NSI national health care retention & RN staffing report. etention_Report.pdf

Vardaman, J. M., Rogers, B. L., & Marler, L. E. (2020). Retaining nurses in a changing health care environment: The role of job embeddedness and self-efficacy. Health Care Management Review, 45(1), 52–59.