The occurrence of homicide, with all its complexities, has fascinated scholars and the public for centuries. This paper explores the psychological underpinnings of homicide, from premeditated killings to crimes of passion. It reviews the existing literature on the topic, drawing on a range of peer-reviewed journal articles to shed light on what motivates people to commit murder. Through this analysis, the paper uncovers various factors contributing to homicide, including personality traits, mental health issues, social and environmental factors, and cultural norms. Ultimately, the paper argues that a comprehensive understanding of homicide requires consideration of these various factors and that this understanding can help us to develop more effective strategies for preventing and addressing this complex phenomenon.
Homicide is intentionally killing one person by another, one of the most extreme forms of interpersonal violence. Despite its gravity, homicide is surprisingly common worldwide, with an estimated 475,000 homicides occurring globally in 2019 alone (Stickle & Felson, 2020). Understanding what motivates people to commit murder is an important area of research with potential implications for criminal justice, public health, and social policy.
This paper aims to explore the psychological underpinnings of homicide, drawing on a range of peer-reviewed journal articles to investigate what motivates people to commit murder. The paper begins by reviewing some of the key theoretical frameworks developed to explain homicide before discussing the various factors that have been found to contribute to this complex phenomenon.
Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to explain homicide, each highlighting different aspects of this complex phenomenon. One of the most influential of these frameworks is the social learning theory, which proposes that individuals learn violent behavior through exposure to violent models, either in person or through media (Solakoglu & Yuksek, 2020). According to this theory, individuals exposed to violence are more likely to engage in violent behavior.
Another important theoretical framework is the general aggression model, which posits that aggressive behavior results from a complex interplay between cognitive, affective, and environmental factors. According to this model, the likelihood of aggressive behavior is influenced by various factors, including personality traits, situational factors, and cultural norms. In addition, some researchers have proposed evolutionary theories of homicide, which suggest that homicide may be an adaptive behavior that has evolved to enhance the reproductive success of individuals and their kin. According to these theories, homicide may be more likely to occur in situations threatening an individual’s reproductive success, such as in cases of infidelity or sexual competition (Silberberg & Thyer, 2023).
Another important theoretical framework for understanding homicide is the strain theory. This theory posits that individuals are more likely to engage in violent behavior when they experience strain or frustration due to the discrepancy between their aspirations and the opportunities available. Strain can result from various factors, such as poverty, unemployment, or social inequality. According to this theory, individuals unable to achieve their goals through legitimate means may turn to violence to obtain their desired outcomes. Control theory also suggests that individuals are less likely to engage in violent behavior when they have strong social bonds and connections to their communities. According to this theory, individuals with strong social ties embedded in their communities are less likely to engage in criminal behavior, including homicide (Hardesty & Ogolsky, 2020). Conversely, individuals who lack social connections and feel disconnected from their communities may be more likely to engage in violent behavior.
Another theoretical framework that has gained attention in recent years is the biosocial theory of homicide. This theory posits that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the likelihood of engaging in violent behavior. The interplay between these factors is crucial for understanding why some individuals are more prone to homicide than others. Biosocial theorists suggest that environmental factors, such as violence or childhood trauma exposure, may trigger genetic predispositions to aggression. This perspective highlights the complexity of homicide as a phenomenon and underscores the need for interdisciplinary approaches to understanding it.
Factors Contributing to Homicide
While theoretical frameworks can help us understand some underlying mechanisms that contribute to homicide, they do not provide a complete picture of this complex phenomenon. Other factors have been found to contribute to homicide, including personality traits, mental health issues, social and environmental factors, and cultural norms. Personality traits have been found to play an important role in the homicide. For example, research has suggested that individuals with high aggression, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking may be more likely to engage in violent behavior (Connolly et al., 2020). Other research has suggested that individuals with certain personality disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder or borderline personality disorder, may also be at higher risk of committing homicide. Mental health issues are another important contributor to homicide. Research has found that individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, may be at increased risk of committing homicide. Furthermore, this does not suggest that all individuals with mental health issues are violent but that certain conditions may increase the likelihood of violent behavior.
Social and environmental factors are also important contributors to homicide. For example, research has suggested that poverty, unemployment, and social inequality may increase the risk of violent behavior. Other research has suggested that exposure to violence in childhood, such as domestic or community violence, may increase the likelihood of engaging in violent behavior later in life (Santacrose et al., 2021). Cultural norms are also an important factor to consider when exploring homicide. In some cultures, violence may be an acceptable way of resolving conflicts or protecting one’s honor. In addition, this can contribute to higher rates of homicide in these cultures.
Similarly, cultural norms around masculinity may contribute to higher rates of homicide among men, who may feel pressure to be aggressive and dominant. Access to firearms is another factor. Research has shown that firearms in a household or community can increase the risk of homicide, as they provide a lethal means of carrying out violent acts.
Furthermore, the role of alcohol and drug use in homicide is another factor. Substance abuse can impair judgment and increase impulsivity, making individuals more prone to violent behavior. In addition, drug-related disputes or transactions can escalate into acts of violence, particularly in communities where drug use is prevalent, or drug trafficking is common. The use of drugs and alcohol has been implicated in a significant proportion of homicides, particularly those that occur in domestic or intimate partner violence situations (Gillard, 2019). In recent years, the impact of technology on homicide has become an emerging concern. The rise of social media and online communication platforms has provided new avenues for individuals to engage in cyberbullying, harassment, and other forms of online violence.
In some cases, this online violence can escalate to physical violence, as individuals may seek to confront or harm those they feel have wronged them online. Using technology in homicide has also raised new challenges for law enforcement and criminal justice systems. Tracing online communications and gathering evidence in these cases cannot be easy.
Finally, the role of societal and cultural factors in homicide cannot be ignored. The way that homicide is portrayed in popular media, for example, may influence attitudes and behaviors around violence. Normalizing violent behavior in media or cultural products may desensitize individuals to the consequences of violent actions, making them more likely to engage in violent behavior themselves. Similarly, the way that homicide is perceived and addressed by society can impact its prevalence. For example, a lack of trust in law enforcement may make individuals less likely to report acts of violence, allowing perpetrators to go unchecked.
Prevention and Intervention
Understanding the various factors that contribute to homicide can help us develop more effective prevention and intervention strategies. For example, reducing poverty and inequality may help decrease the likelihood of violent behavior. Similarly, interventions that address mental health issues and support individuals who have experienced trauma may help reduce the risk of violent behavior. Changing cultural norms around violence and masculinity may also effectively reduce homicide rates (Malhi et al., 2020). Furthermore, this could involve education campaigns, community outreach programs, and efforts to promote alternative forms of conflict resolution.
To effectively prevent and intervene in cases of homicide, it is important to adopt a comprehensive approach that considers the multifaceted nature of the problem. In addition, this involves addressing a wide range of risk factors, including but not limited to poverty, mental health issues, social and environmental factors, and cultural norms. One promising approach to prevention and intervention involves a community-based strategy that involves engaging with local stakeholders, such as community leaders, law enforcement agencies, and mental health professionals. This approach can help to foster a sense of ownership and accountability among community members, leading to greater commitment to reducing the incidence of homicide (Alvarez et al., 2022). Additionally, community-based interventions can be tailored to different communities’ specific needs and cultural contexts, considering their unique risk factors and social norms. Another effective strategy is the use of early warning systems that can help identify individuals who are at risk of committing homicide. These systems can involve a range of tools, such as predictive analytics, threat assessments, and screening tools that can help identify individuals who need intervention. Early warning systems can be particularly effective in identifying high-risk individuals with mental health issues or a history of violent behavior.
Finally, efforts to reduce the availability of firearms and other lethal weapons can also be an important component of prevention and intervention strategies. Moreover, this can include background checks, gun buyback programs, and restrictions on selling and owning certain firearms (Sanchez et al., 2020). Such measures can help reduce the likelihood of impulsive acts of violence and make it more difficult for individuals at risk of committing homicide to access weapons.
Homicide is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon influenced by various psychological, social, and environmental factors. While theoretical frameworks can help us understand some underlying mechanisms that contribute to homicide, a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon requires a nuanced consideration of the various factors that contribute to it. By better understanding the psychological underpinnings of homicide, we can develop more effective strategies for preventing and addressing this complex phenomenon.
Alvarez, K., Cervantes, P. E., Nelson, K. L., Seag, D. E., Horwitz, S. M., & Hoagwood, K. E. (2022). Structural racism, children’s mental health service systems, and recommendations for policy and practice change. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 61(9), 1087-1105.
Connolly, E. J., Cooke, E. M., Beaver, K. M., & Brown, W. (2020). Do developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation-seeking uniquely predict violent victimization? A test of the dual systems model. Journal of criminal justice, p. 66, 101639.
Gillard, S. (2019). Peer support in mental health services: where is the research taking us, and do we want to go there? Journal of Mental Health, 28(4), 341–344.
Hardesty, J. L., & Ogolsky, B. G. (2020). A socioecological perspective on intimate partner violence research: A decade in review. Journal of marriage and family, 82(1), 454-477.
Malhi, N., Oliffe, J. L., Bungay, V., & Kelly, M. T. (2020). Male perpetration of adolescent dating violence: A scoping review. American journal of men’s health, 14(5), 1557988320963600.
Sanchez, C., Jaguan, D., Shaikh, S., McKenney, M., & Elkbuli, A. (2020). A systematic review of the causes and prevention strategies in reducing gun violence in the United States. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 38(10), 2169–2178.
Santacrose, D. E., Kia‐Keating, M., & Lucio, D. (2021). A systematic review of socioecological factors, community violence exposure, and disparities for Latinx youth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 34(5), 1027-1044.
Silberberg, P. J., & Thyer, B. A. (2023). Evolutionary psychology and social work. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 1-26.
Solakoglu, O., & Yuksek, D. A. (2020). Delinquency among Turkish adolescents: Testing Akers’ social structure and social learning theory. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 64(5), 539-563.
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The Woman King University Essay Example
The Tewa Onasanya-directed film “Women King,” which tells the story of the Agojie female army of the Dahomey village and its commander General Nanisca, celebrates bravery and sisterhood. The Agojie are a brave group of female warriors who combat with men to demonstrate their combat prowess. The Agojie are kept together during their difficult journey by General Nanisca’s leadership. This sisterhood accepts each woman’s strengths and weaknesses and supports one another in such a hazardous and unreliable field. General Nanisca demonstrates her skill in using strategy and tactics that lessen the exposure of military forces to conflict without sacrificing their ability to fight or their lives. Thus, “Women King” portrays the bravery, strength, adaptability, and sisterhood of Dahomey village women warriors during the war.
The Awaye women are physically strong and take an active role in society as key decision-makers, emphasizing their selfless leadership, fidelity, and combat prowess. For these reasons, the King gives them authority and values their opinions on matters of state. Even though she is admired and respected, the King’s wife plays a foil role whose jealousy grows as her husband favors Nanisca’s counsel and advice. However, Nanisca has won the King’s respect through extraordinary tenacity and bravery by sparing him from certain death on the battlefield. Her reputation as a leader has been enhanced by this deed, which has motivated other Awaye women.
The trade of slavery is also covered in the movie. Nanisca denounces this cruel practice and emphasizes the availability of alternative resources. Her willingness to question societal norms in the face of opposition from those who cannot accept dissent demonstrates her ability to think creatively. Nanisca won’t back down and insists on being heard and respected her views. Her intelligence, bravery, and resolve to transform her society are all displayed in the movie. The Oye men’s refusal to acknowledge Nanisca’s assertion is yet another stark reminder of the denigration, cruelty, and ongoing exploitation of slavery. Because of this, Nanisca’s words have a lot of potential in their battle against this dark spot in history.
A major theme of “Women King” is Black girlhood and womanhood. Despite the social stigma associated with being female in a patriarchal society, these female fighters were taught at a young age that they were equal to men in strength, worth, and capability. They were also taught that they could face the same challenges and channel the same courage and tenacity as men. These women had to put in as much effort as the men or risk being killed, expelled, or punished. Despite the constant warnings of danger and humiliation, most young women were inspired by this nigh-impossible task and bravely ventured forth in search of glory and greatness. These fighters demonstrated how their actions could change the world by upholding ideals like courage and dignity in the face of difficulty. These brave warriors can display bravery and strength with honor and reverence despite being victims of a severely oppressive society.
Nanisca encountered obstacles and setbacks throughout her life, but she never gave up and handled them with bravery, fortitude, and creativity. Nanisca defied sociocultural norms and set higher standards, and was remarkably successful. Both allies and enemies respected Nanisca for her tenacity. Nanisca was a highly talented, visionary, and inspirational woman. She disregarded the numerous barriers in her path because she was determined to succeed. Even her harshest critics, who had initially doubted her ability to succeed, came to respect her as she continued to push herself further and further. Nanisca’s bravery and tenacity demonstrated that she would not succumb to tragic events beyond her control. She demonstrated that tenacity and the desire to succeed could overcome any obstacle.
In conclusion, as a whole, “Women King” is a stirring story about bravery, tenacity, intelligence, sisterhood, and overcoming adversity. It also serves as a role model for Black womanhood and girlhood. These women put a lot of effort every day to demonstrate that they were physically and intellectually equal to men. They overcame hardship with grace and bravery to challenge societal norms with their opinions and voices and change their world.
The Woman King: Directed by Gina Prince-Bythewood. With Viola Davis, Thuso Mbedu, Lashana Lynch, Sheila, 18 Sept 2022. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt8093700/
Theoretical Basis Advanced Nursing Practice Essay Example For College
Explanation of Concepts
Concepts in nursing are the practical or theoretical underpinnings that have been recognized through in-depth study or investigation. On the other hand, concept analysis states to dichotomizing a nursing theory into smaller components to examine and define each component so that nursing professionals can understand it. Compassion is a nursing concept that I would like to investigate. Since it is the foundation of nursing care, Compassion is crucial. A compassionate nurse also pays attention to the patient’s needs, care, and issues while assisting them in achieving their desired and favorable health outcomes.
Attributes of Compassion
Compassion entails having empathy or genuine concern for patients and a willingness to take action to meet the patient’s needs. The aspects of Compassion in this view include empathy for the emotions and needs of others and also responsiveness to the suffering of patients. This implies that you must engage the feelings and move toward empathy for the pain of others. Understanding another person’s feelings, a positive nurse-patient interaction, and objectivity are three examples of Compassion.
The first step is to build a strong relationship with the patient. For instance, nurses should address patients by name, make eye contact, and project confidence and competence. To ensure they are participating in decision-making, they should explain their actions and review the care plan with them. Safeguarding patient privacy is also essential (Babaei, Taleghani, & Farzi, 2022). Some patients can benefit from touch to show Compassion and care, but nurses must be mindful of each patient’s preferences and personal boundaries. Cultural awareness is also crucial; patient information and handouts should be offered in the patient’s native tongue, and if necessary, an interpretation should be made available. These essential elements support the growth of trust and the development of communication channels. Giving patients care may be joyful and satisfying.
Moreover, still, it can occasionally be physically and mentally exhausting. Nurses provide both patient care and service quality. Maintaining a respectful, professional tone in conversation can be complex. Nonetheless, it can significantly impact a patient’s general health and well-being. Regarding patient feelings, the essential attribute of Compassion is comprehending feelings and providing patient-centered care, employing a holistic approach, and ensuring that the patient is the greatest priority, which helps to meet patient needs. Compassion in nursing transitions a nurse from quality care to outwardly caring through behaviors and actions involving the relationship’s emotional sides.
Antecedent of compassion
Providing holistic patient care is an emerging concept of Compassion in nursing (quality health services to the patient). Within the nursing profession, the goal of delivering holistic care is vital. Giving holistic care to patients is a potent activity that would positively affect the client as a whole, as well as impacting the patient’s soul, mind, cognition, and body and having an impact by transforming the best version of themselves, which supports the concept of Compassion (Straughair, Clarke, & Machin, 2019). Also, Compassion gives your patients the encouragement and trust they need to prepare for a long recovery, confront a scary treatment plan, or resist a dreadful illness.
Consequence of Compassion
One of the outcomes of delivering compassionate nursing care is increased satisfaction with their nursing career and patient services. A sense of satisfaction and efficacy in the personnel and increased confidence in serving the patients and the nurse. Nursing staff who care more about their patients’ comfort and the suffering and horror they endure tend to appreciate their careers more and feel more linked to them. Nursing compassion to patients provides significant self-gratification, but it is essential to avoid compassion fatigue. When caring for patients gets too emotionally draining, you may suffer a combination of bodily, emotional, and behavioral symptoms, physical and mental tiredness, and emotional detachment (Androus, 2018).
Mrs. P, a 36-year-old Latina female, was diagnosed with endometriosis and underwent a hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy while I was a nurse. While we talked with the patient, I realized that patient care is more than just taking care of the patient’s physical difficulties. Patients may be subjected to increased stress due to their financial condition, familial ties, or even their physical surroundings.
As a nurse, managing the illness or damage and treating the patient’s mental state is critical. Nurses who are compassionate toward their patients have been shown to reduce rates of depression and stress, enhancing their will to live — which can significantly impact a patient’s healing time and contentment.
Theoretical Application of Concept
Compassion, as a desire to relieve a patient’s pain, is essential for emancipatory nursing practice theory. The term “emancipatory” emphasizes the importance of power relations in pain and their capability to render Compassion difficult. The theory considers the influence of power relationships on social well-being. Compassion and suffering consider more significant social problems like xenophobia and misogyny. The idea tackles both patient and nurse suffering, and it goes beyond the nurse-patient interaction to contextualize community and population pain and Compassion. According to this notion, it is axiomatic for nurses to develop ways to reduce suffering, upsurge compassion, say the unthinkable, teaches moral awareness, and improve communication (Constantinides, 2019).
I feel Compassion is essential to quality treatment due to its social and intrinsic relevance for patients. I learned in the research a wide range of theoretical viewpoints on Compassion and compassion-related traits in healthcare; this is how developing a therapeutic relationship with the patient assists in achieving satisfaction. Also, as I reflect on my nursing career and patient contacts, I come across a situation that significantly impacted the patient’s overall health and well-being.
Androus, A. B. (2018, October 30). The importance of the nurse-patient relationship for patient care. RN Programs – Start Your Journey as a Registered Nurse. https://www.registerednursing.org/articles/importance-nurse-patient-relationship-care/
Babaei, S., Taleghani, F., & Farzi, S. (2022). Components of Compassionate Care in Nurses Working in the Cardiac Wards: A Descriptive Qualitative Study. Journal of caring sciences, 11(4), 239–245. https://doi.org/10.34172/jcs.2022.24
Constantinides, S. (2019, June 25). Emancipatory theory of Compassion. Neurology. https://nursology.net/nurse-theories/theory-of-emancipatory-compassion-for-nursing/
Straughair, C., Clarke, A., & Machin, A. (2019). A constructivist grounded theory study to explore Compassion through the perceptions of individuals who have experienced nursing care. Journal of advanced nursing, 75(7), 1527–1538.