“The Purloined Letter” By E. A. Poe And “Bartleby The Scrivener” By H. Melville University Essay Example

The stories “The Purloined Letter” by Edgar Allan Poe” and “Bartleby the Scrivener” by Herman Melville are absolutely different in content but what is interesting about them is the role of the narrator which is very important in these stories because namely narrators help the reader to find out more about the characters of the story and how they are connected with everything which is going on. After reading these two stories some people state that the narrators in them perform one and the same informative function, however, the others keep to the point that the narrator of the “Purloined Letter” has more influence on the events taking place in the story and can change them whereas the narrator of “Bartleby the Scrivener” does not have powers to affect the course of the events. As a result, there arises a necessity to consider the differences and similarities of the roles of narrators in “The Purloined Letter” and “Bartleby the Scrivener”.

What should be mentioned above all is that the narrator in “The Purloined Letter” serves as means of controlling and dominating. The domination can be observed in numerous scene descriptions and in telling the readers about different characters, their appearance, and their life in general. For instance, he describes the Prefect as a person who treats the things he does not understand as the odd ones. The domination can also be felt when the crime scenes or just the interior of premises is described because the narrator is trying to show that he knows more about what’s going on in the story even such insignificant details as to where the table is and in which order are the papers lying on it. This also helps the reader to feel that the narrator is perfectly aware of the events which take place in the story and this makes the readers want to ask the narrator different questions which is a sign of his domination. The narrator’s controlling lies in the fact that he is the only one who knows what exactly is going on and, moreover, knows what the story is going to end with thus being able to control the thoughts of the reader and influence them because it is only the narrator who can evoke in the readers positive or negative emotions about certain characters or events. The readers trust the narrator and their overall impression about the story depends on what exactly the author wants to tell because no matter which attitudes the narrator is going to express regarding this or that event or character, the reader will necessarily take after his point of view and will start thinking about the characters in narrator’s way.

Another role of the narrator in this story is to inform the reader about the events and about something that may not be clear from the context. He gives some explanations and additional information about new people that are introduced into the story. Dupin is often turning to his unnamed friend for a piece of advice and told him about his achievements and problems with the investigation, namely that some of his searches turned out to be unsuccessful. What’s more, the narrator is often asking Dupin questions that can help him in his investigation. For instance, he is asking Dupin what exactly he was trying to do when replacing the letter with a facsimile and how it is useful for the investigation. The narrator here performs the function of not somebody who is just shared impressions with but to some extent of a supervisor and assistant in the process of investigation. He performs the role of Dupin’s friend who is older and more experienced when it comes to the investigation and whose advice Dupin can rely upon and trust. The importance of the narrator in “The Purloined Letter” consists namely in his domination over the readers and the protagonist of the story because it evokes respect to him and makes the readers sure that everything is under control.

In contrast, in “Bartleby the Scrivener” the narrator is part of the story and he is telling it by using examples of what he came through. He tells the stories of other characters in a way he considers right and does not make readers choose who is a good or evil character. The narrator here is an active participant who just leaves the story to the judgment of readers trying to convince the reader in the end that he was not guilty in the death of Bartleby. Nevertheless, just like in the first two stories the role of the narrator in “Bartleby the Scrivener” is also informative. It is also worth mentioning that unlike “The Purloined Letter” the narrator in Bartleby the Scrivener” does not have a role of domination or even controlling of the readers’ thoughts. He is just laying out the events performing the purely informative function. He does not question or gives advice to the characters. What’s more, the narrator when telling the story offers the reader to be a judge and to consider the events of the story in the way he or she considers necessary. The narrator is sort of guilty before the reader and suggests him or her this story for judgment, expecting that the verdict will not be very strict. It is namely because of this that the narrator is trying to tell the reader that Bartleby died not because of him. He is searching for excuses that would justify his actions and will make him look innocent in the eyes of other people. Just like in “The Purloined Letter” the narrator here is unnamed but we still know some facts about him, to be more exact, that he is a lawyer but not a very reliable one because he is not experienced. In the first story, we could observe the domination of the narrator over the reader and over Dupin, one of the characters. Nothing like this can be found in “Bartleby the Scrivener” where the narrator is on the same level with the reader and the character, Bartleby. He does not also exercise any control over the reader and though he knows what the story ends with he is not aiming to show this. His aim is to tell the story in all the details and let the reader have his or her own opinion about it. The role of the narrator in “Bartleby the Scrivener” is also very important because he is telling the story and the readers believe in it because the narrator presents himself as the participant of the story thus convincing the reader that he does not lie. His importance also lies in the fact that he helps readers to become participants of the story by offering them to judge the situation he got into.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the roles of the narrators in “The Purloined Letter” and “Bartleby the Scrivener” are almost completely different with the only similarity being informing the reader about the events and adding explanations to what is unclear. The main difference is that the narrator of “The Purloined Letter” is dominating over the readers while the narrator of “Bartleby the Scrivener” imparts the story with the readers without questioning anyone or telling the characters what to do. The narrator of “The purloined Letter” is constantly interacting with the protagonist of the story and asking him different questions when the narrator of “Bartleby the Scrivener” is the protagonist himself.


  1. Melville, H. (2011). Bartleby, the Scrivener a story of wall-street. Lightning Source.
  2. Melville, H. (2021). Bartleby, the Scrivener illustrated.
  3. Poe, E. (2017). The purloined letter. Litres.
  4. Poe, E. A. (2019). The purloined letter. WS.

Role Of Food In Marquez’ “One Hundred Years Of Solitude“ And Esquivel’s “Like Water For Chocolate”

Laura Esquivel was born and raised in Mexico and may have written this novel with the hope of portraying to her readers some Spanish background and history. As well, she may have used her novel to show her talent and creativity which she could not portray in her previous screenplay. She is a young author and is working on a current novel. Like Water for Chocolate is the kind of book anyone would appreciate.

It is full of suspense, emotion, and tradition. Some parts of the novel are very far-fetched but this unique style of writing is all part of this fantasy. Like Water for Chocolate is definitely worthwhile to read. It will leave you with a sense of knowledge of all the hardships that Mexican women once went through and a better understanding of the pain love can possess.

In Like Water for Chocolate, love, food, and magic are all joined together. Love is expressed through food. The food is magical and causes others to feel happy love, sad love, as well as sexual love. Being able to feel the emotions and pain of the main character is an incredible sense that can be achieved in Like Water for Chocolate. This novel will be hard to put down; the subtle climaxes leave you hanging until the very end. Just as Tita poured love into her food, Laura Esquivel has poured love into her novel. After reading this book, a sense of understanding can be grasped of the author as well as the main character.

Tita was practically raised in the kitchen and she communicates her love for Pedro through the dishes she prepares, and he, in turn, shows his affectionate gratitude. Tita’s quest to be with Pedro is shared only with Nacha, the main cook and helper on the ranch. Nacha understands Tita’s pain and consoles with her. Nacha dies from the sorrow of the loss of her love and throughout the story appears as a kindly ghost. Pedro and Rosaura move away from the ranch leaving Tita alone. She then discovers her love for a local doctor, John Brown, who cares for her deeply. Tita realizes her love for John could never compare to her suppressed feelings for Pedro. As the story progresses, many tragedies occur, but Tita and Pedro still have an undying love for each other.

One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Marquez is a novel focused on the life of the Buendia family. There are many themes in this novel but one that stands out throughout the novel with constant debates is the theme of the contrast between the Buendia men and the Buendia women. As the family moves through different generations there is a constant repetition of this theme which follows through till the end, showing how Marquez has a strong opinion of this theme which he reveals with the ending of the novel.

The theme of the Buendia men and women is also tied with biblical references such as that of Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve were the first humans on earth who were expelled from the garden of Eden just like Jose Arcadio Buendia and Ursula who were also exiled to some extent for the reason that they were relatives and were married. Another similarity between these two themes is how Ursula and Jose Arcadio Buendia after moving started a new life somewhere else later known as Macondo which refers to Adam and Eve being parents to everyone mainly to Christianity, Jewish and Islamic religions. The sense of Ursula being the backbone of the family is clarified when she gets old and useless because the Buendia family decays with her, and when she finally dies it marks the beginning of the end of the family and Macondo.

The Buendia men have most of the traits of Jose Arcadio Buendia, which are strong, smart, adventurous, having leadership skills but amongst these, there is also solitude. Solitude becomes the ending downfall for all the Buendia men. The typical Buendia men are the simplest to predict their traits for the reason that there are two characters; Aureliano or Jose Arcadio, the outgoing or the solitary type but at the end, this really doesn’t matter because at the end they become the ‘same’ fall into solitude and die away slowly without people really realizing.

Circularity stands out when talking about the Buendia men because there is a constant repetition of how the personality traits evolve. An example of this would be the names of the decedents; if they have the same name with slight variation they will take the personality traits of that person who mainly is either Jose Arcadio or Aureliano.

The Buendia women mainly have the descending traits of Ursula which qualify as; strong character, hardworking, loving, and morally correct. All the Buendia women descent from either Ursula or Remedios which is seen again through the repetition of the names in reference to the pattern of the characteristic traits. Petra Cotes even though she is not a Buendia woman she can still very closely refer to them mainly to Ursula seen by how when the father dies it is up to her to bring in the money for the family by keeping the family business alive (lottery), she also shows her loving trait by providing for Aureliano Segundo’s death which all refers very closely to Ursula. The ending of the novel concludes the comparison between men and women by how as Ursula dies who is portrayed as the main Buendia woman the whole family and town fall apart.

Works Cited

Gabriel Garcia Marquez: One Hundred Years of Solitude: Harper Perennial Modern Classics (2006).

Laura Esquivel: Like Water for Chocolate: Black Swan; New Ed edition (1993).

Public Safety Department Of Connecticut Vs. John Doe


The “Megan’s Law” in Connecticut asserts that an individual convicted of a sexual crime has to register with the a Public Safety department soon as he or she is released from conviction to join the society, the law at Connecticut also requires the former sexual convict to be registered into a registry, his or her name, photos, addresses to be recorded and this details to be availed on the website for perusal of the public in some specific offices of the state. A respondent of a sex offense made a move and filled a legal action on behalf for his rights and any other sexual offender who could also fall a victim of such circumstances. This sexual offender claimed that his inter alia had been violated by the fourteenth amendment of this law (Jean, 2007). The Supreme Court then gave out the respondent’s summary of the judgment, licensed a group of persons subject to the ruling, and undyingly enjoined the legislation’s communal revelation provisions (Bernard, 2007). The petitioner in this case the sexual offender in question claimed that this law denied the person registered according to what the law stated, his or her freedom and liberty of interest (Walter, 1992).

Amicus become concerned with the additional issue in this case and wanted to seek clarification if the passing of information could be withheld unless there was substantial proof that the passing of the information was essential to guard public safety. The Second Circuit’s hearing and ruling in this case become a contentious issue since it implied that honest in sequence about the convicted offenders of asexual act should not be passed on to the public unless of substantial reason to necessitate that to be done. In this case Amicus was concerned about the interpretation of the law by the Second Circuit’s could lead to across the board limitations on the diffusion of straightforward information (Aaron, 2000).

By this tangible factual foresee by amicus curiae, it was necessary for amicus curiae to request for the Supreme Court to allow the sexual offender who wanted to file a petition to do so.

The intention of Amicus Curiae

The Reporters Committee for autonomy of the Press, which is a charitable, unincorporated union of the media personalities and editors who work in the pursuit of defending the 1st amendment of the freedom and rights of information benefits of the media. This Committee usually forwards representation, direction and investigation in the 1st amendment of Information Act since the year nineteen seventy to safe guard the freedom of media.

This committee had vested interest in the 1st amendment and right of entry of this as it was raised by this case. The 2nd United States of America court of Appeals ruled out that an individual who is convicted with a felon should be subjected to a scrutiny to rule out the possibilities of an individual who was once committed of a sexual offense to rule out the possibilities of him or her committing such a crime in the future. The second amendment gives a barrier, to passing on of the truthful information regarding those who have gotten conviction of crimes which infringes the 1st amendment rights of the public and press and also limits the capability of the community to watch over the works of the state. The court of appeals ruling regarding this matter is troublesome since it follows that there should be a depiction of need before the right information is passed over to the public. The Reporters Committee powerfully refuted any rule that needs proof of need before truthful information may be dispersed. as a final point, the journalists Committee was disturbed by any kind of understanding that could mean that disseminating true information concerning illegal convictions might defame the individual.

Summary of Argument

The Second Circuit stated that protection of the ex convict of a sexual offense must prevail before the government decides that there is necessity of disseminating the truthful information (Alfred, 2004). The journalist association which was concerned disapproved that the prohibition of dissemination of the information regarding the convicted and his conviction was not realistic since the information in the registry about that convict was bear truth and it was the publics right to get to know such information.

The claim that an individual is “dangerous” is not a thing which can be disapproved or proved to be true or false since such a thing needs specific know how of the individual’s future actions which a difficult thing to accomplish. it is even more defaming for the government to claim that an individual will commit a felon in future than to just list information which is true about the past crimes convicted off by an individual. The journalist commission claims that truthful information can’t be used as basis of defamation even if the speaker is a government personnel or a normal citizen.

The resulting Argument

One of the hot debates was that the dissemination of truthful information regarding a conviction doesn’t result to defamation. Sex offenders argue that their liberty and rights are violated as a result of this amendment since the state sex convicts information dissemination is a form of states defamation and that the need for having registry legislation puts their rights at stake. Although on the contrary the sexual convicts registry on the other hand only tells the truthful information and no more information about the offender’s personal life. In this case, the Second Circuit passed that sex offenders were liable to be subjected to an intense hearing to establish if they are likely to remain dangerous or not before decision of putting their names in the sex offenders registry can be made (Doe verses the Dept. of Public Safety, 2001).

The Supreme Court realized that in putting a sex offenders details in the registry it was like the government branding that person as still having the potential to commit that crime again (Hall, 1999). Although the court decided this it did not find out otherwise if such information was put on the website could actually cause the effect it was claimed that it could do. Yet such information being put on the web could only make easy access of this information and not to act as a warning to the public about a specific individual.

Amicus argued on the other hand that there have been many cases where criminals brought defamation claims against those who have passed out accurate information about them. The courts have always dismissed this claim when finding out that the information that was being passed on was true and hence not a basis for defamation of the person. A good example where this happened was in the Newton verses Schaefer case where a convicted killer could not withstand the author calling him a murderer and went to the court to raise his case and the court dismissed him since the information was true, this in per say is contrary to what the court had eventually decided to give a backing to, that the information of a sex criminal should not be made public. Another example which Amicus used to argue is the case between Hall and Bukowski where it was ruled out that a man who asexual criminal cannot raise a suit against his or her victim since such allegation were true.

Amicus also claims that sine the registry had records of other criminals who had committed other crimes rather that the sexual crime had their details in the registry and therefore amicus claimed that this list was just to be used for public access and in itself doesn’t cause potential harm to violate the individuals rights and hence amicus did not see why the sexual convicts list should be made public. The United States of American law system recognizes that the events and facts used in a previous criminal case cannot be carried forward to be used in a future criminal case. This was adopted because the state understood that given the fact that an individual had been convicted in the past times doesn’t follow that this individual will commit another crime.

Hence such factual circumstances and rules should also apply in this case. Although someone might peruse through the list of sexual offender this doesn’t mean that the state has stigmatized the individuals in the list and also does not mean that the individuals are currently harmful since the United States law doesn’t make a connection of the past offenses and the future ones. Hence this common sense should apply in this case and make the list of sex ex convicts to be public just like the way other ex convicts of other cases is treated.

The Second Circuit, which stated that having the names of the sexual convicts in the registry depicted that the individual was currently harmful and found that such an implication was defamatory. Paul’s test says that a defamatory statement should be capable of being proved to be either false or true. The most amazing part of the Second Circuit’s conclusion in the case is when the Supreme Court decided that it was certainly possible to be able to find out whether it was false or true of a particular individual being dangerous at that particular moment.

This is the issue that also made Amicus to disagree with the court ruling, the issue that the sex offender’s registry had a provision which stated that a person could be depicted to be currently dangerous by the public which to Amicus this allegations cannot be proven to be false or true at any specific time.

The Second Circuit’s proposal has far more reaching damaging effects to the ex convict than the effects which the registry list can do. Although the governments intention was to list past conviction information for easy access the second circuit wanted the state to start putting labels to people as being dangerous which mighty not always apply to all the convicts and it might even raise more stigmatization to the person which raises the question that will the stigmatized person file a suit against the person who stigmatizes him or her in case he or she doesn’t commit any other crime.

Hence this can lead to an inference which could go like this, that the second circuit is giving the court the powers to label individuals as future crime committers who might cause a lot of problems to the stigmatized individual. This will be to a large extent more than what the listing of the truthful information in the registry could cause to the individual.

Amicus urged that If due procedure protection are relevant, then they are supposed to apply before the ex sex crime convict’s information is put in the register on the website. The Second Circuit passed out that sex criminals were allowed to be heard to rule out whether there was a necessity of disseminating there information to the public. However, if the judges found out that the sex offender is entitled to a notice and a chance to be heard, then subsequently this protection is supposed to apply prior to registration with the government. It depicts sense to state that sex offenders should register with the state but that the information shouldn’t be passed on devoid of a hearing.

An example is given that a man or woman who is convicted of a sexual crime is supposed to be heard before he or she is registered in the sex offense register. This kind of hearing should also be adopted in the federal sex offender’s law of Alabama.

Amicus disagrees with the rule that says that a sexual offender should register with the state and that the individual first subjected to proof of necessity which is the proof of ascertaining if the individual is actually dangerous before the information is allowed to be passed to the public. Such a rule Amicus says will definitely interfere with the public’s capability of examining how the state is subjecting its laws. Furthermore, it could make the register null and void.


Owing to this turn of events Amicus therefore requested that the court should think and understand that protection of a sexual offender is not necessary before the state may pass on the information to the public.


Aaron L. (2000). Law: Ethical dilemma. USA: Larson publication.

Alfred, Donald G. (2004). Constitutional Law of America: Selected Cases.

Bernard, C. (2007). Some selected court proceedings and cases. Alabama press journal.

Hall, K. (1999). Law: The Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford University: Oxford publishers.

Jean, R. (2007) Review of the fourteenth amendment of federal and state constitutional rights. USA: Midland publishers.

Walter, L. (1992). Overview: the court system in America. USA: Radon publishers.

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