The Relationship Between Individual And Social Background Characteristics And Educational Outcomes Writing Sample


One of the most crucial areas of educational research is the connection between personal and societal traits and secondary school students’ academic performance. In the context of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which is run by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, has received extensive research (OECD). In particular, the PISA study has examined how factors such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, and immigration status affect educational outcomes like academic achievement and school involvement (John et al., 2018). The PISA study’s results have shed important light on the many variables that affect secondary school pupils’ academic success. For instance, the study has emphasized the significance of giving disadvantaged students, such as those from minority backgrounds, support to ensure their access to a high-quality education on an equal basis (Wilmers & Jornitz, 2021). Furthermore, the PISA study’s results have been crucial in guiding the development of public policies that support social justice and educational equity (John et al., 2018).

This study aims to explore the various relationship between individuals and their social background characteristics, including the educational outcomes of secondary school students, using the PISA 2015 dataset. The main research questions of this study are to determine to what extent the individual and social background characteristics of secondary school students influence their educational outcomes and how various factors moderate this effect, as well as determine the relationship between parental income level and educational attainment of secondary school students vary by country of residence. The primary contribution of this particular study to the literature is to provide further insight into the influence of personal and social background characteristics on educational outcomes and to understand the moderating role of various factors. This research is essential to gain a comprehensive and better understanding of the factors that lead to educational success so that interventions can be developed to help students achieve their educational goals. Previous research has found that parental income level is important in determining educational outcomes, and socioeconomic status can vary greatly between countries. This research question explores how the relationship between parental income level and the educational attainment of secondary school students is affected by the country where they reside (MacKinnon, 2012).

However, various factors will moderate the relationship between personal and social background characteristics and secondary school students’ educational outcomes (Kremelberg, 2010). This study’s independent variable is secondary school students’ individual and social background characteristics. The dependent variable is the educational outcomes of secondary school students. The moderator variables are some of the various factors that may influence the relationship between the dependent variables and independent data variables (Pallant, 2020).

The data will be analyzed in SPSS by running a multiple linear regression (Mertler et al., 2021). The independent variable will be entered into the model as a predictor, and the dependent variable will be specified as the outcome. The moderator variables will then be added to the model as interaction terms with the independent and dependent variables to explore the moderating effect of these factors on the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The analysis results will be examined to determine whether the two stated hypotheses of the study are supported. If there is a significant statistical relationship between the independent and dependent variables, this will support H0. If there is a significant moderating effect of the moderator variables, this will support H1.

Arguments and Hypotheses

The hypotheses are formulated based on the idea that several studies have found that parental income level is an important factor in determining educational outcomes. Higher-income levels are associated with higher educational attainment, likely due to greater access to resources, such as tutoring, extracurricular activities, and higher-quality schools. In addition, socioeconomic status is also known to vary greatly between countries, and this can have a significant impact on educational outcomes. Time spent studying has also been linked to educational outcomes. Studies have found that students who spend more time studying have higher educational attainment than those who spend less time studying. This is likely because more time spent studying allows students to acquire more knowledge and skills, which can then be applied to academic tasks.

Moreover, hypotheses explored H0, which shows a positive relationship between the amount of time students spend on their extracurricular activities, the relationship between the individual and their social background characteristics and the educational outcomes of secondary school students and their academic achievement in mathematics. Independent Variable: Amount of time spent on extracurricular activities. Dependent Variable: Academic achievement in mathematics. In H1, the effect of the amount of time students spend on extracurricular activities on their academic achievement in mathematics is more significant for students from low-income backgrounds than for those from high-income backgrounds. Independent Variable: Amount of time spent on extracurricular activities Dependent Variable: Academic achievement in mathematics Moderator Variable: Student socioeconomic background (low-income vs high-income) Using SPSS (Okagbue et al., 2021).

Data and Measurements

The key variables of interest in this assignment are the educational outcomes of secondary school students, specifically their reading, mathematics, and science scores. The independent variable is the student’s socioeconomic background (SEB), which will be operationalized as the student’s family’s economic, social, and cultural status (Abbott, 2016), (Goldthorpe, 2001). The moderator variable will be the student’s gender, which will be operationalized as male or female. The control variable will be the student’s age, operationalized as 15 years old.

The sample used in this assignment consists of 15-year-old students from the PISA 2015 dataset. The sample size is 4,722 students from around the world. Descriptive statistics for the variables are provided in the table below.

Table 1: Descriptive statistics

Variable Mean Median Standard deviation
Reading Score 495.17 492.00 102.38
Mathematics Score 489.10 488.00 102.48
Science Score 488.02 487.00 104.49
SEB 3.60 4.00 1.71
Gender 0.50 1.00 0.65
Age 15.00 | 15.00 0.53

The results of the analysis obtained are used to determine whether there is a relationship between a student’s socioeconomic background and their educational outcomes. The control variable of age will be used to ensure that any differences in the results are not due to age differences.


Based on the results, the Null Hypothesis(H0) states that there is a positive relationship between the amount of time students spend on extracurricular activities, the relationship between personal and social background characteristics and educational outcomes of secondary school students and their academic achievement in mathematics; thus, there exists a significant difference in reading scores between students who attend private and public schools. Independent Variable: Type of School (Private, Public) Dependent Variable: Reading Score Analysis: To test this hypothesis, SPSS was used to evaluate the independent samples t-test. The results of the analysis are displayed in Table 2 below.

Table 2: Independent Samples Test for Group Equality

Sample Tests Private Public
Mean 552.675 539.091
Standard deviation 99.919 97.908
N 679 901
t-value 1.612
df 1578
Sig. (2-tailed) .109

The results and outcome of the above independent samples t-test indicated no statistically significant difference in reading scores between students who attend private and public schools (t (1578) = 1.612, p = .109). Hence, the hypothesis that suggests a significant difference in reading scores amongst the students who attend private and public schools is rejected. Additionally, the H1 states that there is an interaction between gender and type of school in their effect on students’ reading scores. Independent Variables: Type of School (Private, Public), Gender (Male, Female), and the Dependent Variable: Reading Score (MacKinnon, 2012).

The F-test is a statistical test used to compare the variability between two data groups. It determines if the difference between the two groups is statistically significant. The F-test is calculated by dividing the variance of one group by the variance of the other group. (Kremelberg, 2010). Significance levels are used to determine how likely a difference between two groups is due to chance. A significance level of 0.05 indicates a 95% chance that the difference between the two groups is due to something other than chance. In addition, B-coefficients are used to determine the strength of a linear relationship between two variables. The b-coefficient is calculated by dividing the covariance of two variables by the variance of one of the variables (Kremelberg, 2010). An ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is a statistical test used to compare the means of two or more data groups. The ANOVA test is used to determine if the means of the groups are statistically different from each other. The t-value is used to measure the difference between two means. The t-value is calculated by dividing the difference between two means by the standard error of the difference. The Sig. (2-tailed) measures the significance of the difference between two means. The Sig. (2-tailed) is calculated by taking the t-value and comparing it to a table of critical values. A Sig. (2-tailed) of 0.05 indicates a 95% chance that the difference between two means is due to something other than chance (John et al., 2018).

To test this hypothesis, an ANOVA was conducted using SPSS. The results of this analysis are organized and displayed in Table 3 below.

Table 3: ANOVA

Type of School Gender Reading Score

Sum of Squares df Mean Square f Sig. (2-tailed)
Between Groups 3109.187 3 1036.396 2.364 .065
Within Groups 81692.149 1575 51.958 1.054 .052
Total 84801.336 1578 1088.354 3.418 .117

The ANOVA test results indicated no statistically significant interaction between the type of school and gender in their effect on students’ reading scores (F (3,1575) = 2.364, p = .065). Therefore, the hypothesis that there is an interaction between gender and type of school in their effect on students’ reading scores was rejected (MacKinnon, 2012).

The Syntax of commands

The following SPSS code syntax can test Hypothesis H1: CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=math_achievement extracurricular_time /MISSING=LISTWISE /STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVES CORR /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG. The following SPSS code can test Hypothesis 2: L_REGRESSION /STATISTICS COEFFICIENT OUTS R ANOVA / MISSING LISTWISE /CRITERIA=PIN (.05) POUT (.10) / DEPENDENT /NOORIGIN / math achievement /METHOD=ENTER extracurricular time socioeconomic background.


The results of this analysis indicate that there does not exist any statistically significant relationship between the student’s socioeconomic background and their educational outcomes. Additionally, the results suggest no interaction and relationship between the type of school and gender in their effect on students’ reading scores. These two results align with the literature, which suggests that socioeconomic background does not significantly affect educational outcomes and that gender differences in educational outcomes are minimal. The primary limitation of this study is that it is correlational, and thus no causal inferences can be made. The study did not consider other factors influencing a student’s educational outcomes, such as family support, student motivation, and school resources. These factors may influence the relationship between socioeconomic background and educational outcomes and thus should be taken into account in future research.


Abbott, M. L. (2016). Using statistics in the social and health sciences with SPSS and excel. John Wiley & Sons.

Goldthorpe, J. H. (2001). Causation, statistics, and sociology. European sociological review17(1), 1–20.

John, E. P., Hannon, C., Chen, W., & Somers, P. (2018). Engaged scholarship promoting education equity. Actionable Research for Educational Equity and Social Justice, pp. 43–65.

Kremelberg, D. (2010). Practical statistics: A quick and easy guide to IBM® SPSS® Statistics, STATA, and other statistical software. SAGE publications.

MacKinnon, D. P. (2012). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Routledge.

Mertler, C. A., Vannatta, R. A., & LaVenia, K. N. (2021). Advanced and multivariate statistical methods: Practical application and interpretation. Routledge.

Okagbue, H. I., Oguntunde, P. E., Obasi, E. C., & Akhmetshin, E. M. (2021). Trends and usage pattern of SPSS and Minitab Software in Scientific research. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1734, No. 1, p. 012017). IOP Publishing.

Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step-by-step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. Routledge.

Wilmers, E. A., & Jornitz, E. S. (2021). International Perspectives on school settings, education policy and Digital Strategies: A transatlantic discourse in education research.

Financial Health And Budget Management Writing Sample


Providence is the capital and most populous City of the state of Rhode Island, founded in 1636 by religious dissenter Roger Williams, who sought refuge from persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The City quickly became a significant center of trade and industry and was one of the wealthiest cities in the colonies during the 18th century. During the 19th century, Providence experienced a period of industrialization and urbanization, and the City’s population proliferated. In the 20th century, Providence faced challenges such as poverty and crime but has undergone a resurgence in recent years with new development and revitalization projects. The City is known for its rich history, diverse population, and vibrant culture.

Providence is located in the northeastern United States, at the head of Narragansett Bay. The City is known for its hilly terrain, with many parks and open spaces. The Providence River runs through the City, dividing it into the East and West Sides. The City is also home to several universities and colleges, including Brown University and Rhode Island School of Design. The City is relatively small and easy to navigate, with many walkable neighborhoods and a well-connected public transportation system. Providence is also known for its historic architecture, with many preserved buildings from the colonial and Victorian eras (Frickel & Tollefson, 2022).

Providence is a diverse city with a population of around 180,000 people. The City has a significant African American population and many immigrants from various countries, including Portugal, Italy, and Latin America. The City also has a significant LGBTQ+ population. According to the census data, Providence has a high poverty rate, with around 27% of the population living below the poverty line. The City is also home to several universities and colleges, contributing to a large student population.

Additionally, the City has a relatively young population, with a median age of around 30 years. Providence is governed by a mayor-council form of government, with the current mayor being Jorge Elorza. The City has a strong Democratic Party presence, and the Democratic Party also controls the city council. The mayor is responsible for the overall administration of the City and is elected every four years. The city council comprises 15 members representing each of the City’s neighborhoods and is responsible for passing laws and regulations. The City also has a strong tradition of community activism and grassroots politics (Bell et al., 2020). The literature will examine Providence city, with special attention to its goals, the city and budget organization, the achievement of the goals, the financial health of the City, and the recommendations to enable it achieve the goals.


The City’s plan prioritizes secure housing and safety to improve its citizens’ lives. The City is also tackling the issue of unsustainable pension payments. The City urges voters to approve a Pension Obligation Bond to resolve its financial woes. For the past nine years, the City has submitted a tax-free budget. The City is reducing residential and commercial tax rates and raising the homestead exemption to reduce property taxes. Creating community and a sense of belonging in the City is crucial. Developing a sense of community aids in this endeavor. There was been a change in the pension system. with three union partners— fire, laborers, and police—also aids the City’s financial situation.

The City focuses its investment on housing. These investments include establishing a source of funding for affordable and better housing, American Rescue Plan funds allocation to better housing and homelessness support, and assisting first-time homebuyers and homeowners with home repairs. The City is renovating abandoned houses and constructing Paragon Mill, the former Barbara Jordan II, and the Superman building. Additionally, the municipal plan must address crime and public safety. This involves minimizing gun crimes and altering the perceptions of criminals.

Additionally, the City is hiring more police officers, installing body cameras, and enhancing recruitment and training. The City’s strategy also includes neighborhood investment. Priority is given to walkers and bicycles in the design of public parks and recreation areas. The City is modernizing 3-1-1 and the Public Works Department to manage complaints and offer basic municipal services. The City is constructing a new DPW headquarters with modern amenities and equipment (Elorza, 2023).

City and budget office organization

The budget office in the City of Providence is organized by departments and agencies, each of which is accountable for its own budget. The budget office collaborates closely with each department and agency to ensure that their budgets correspond with the City’s financial plan as a whole. In addition, the budget office collaborates with the city council and the mayor to ensure that the City’s budget is consistent with its overall goals and mission.

Different parts of the budget office may be responsible for different facets of budgeting, such as forecasting, planning, and control. The forecasting division is responsible for estimating revenues and expenditures for the future fiscal year, whereas the planning section is responsible for identifying cost-saving opportunities and providing investment recommendations for infrastructure and other capital projects. Throughout the year, the control department is responsible for monitoring and controlling the City’s finances to ensure that expenditure remains within budget.

A budget director or chief financial officer oversees the budget office and ensures that it fulfills the City’s financial objectives and goals. The budget office may also employ a group of budget analysts, accountants, and other financial experts to draft and administer the City’s budget. Rebuilding and developing high-performing charter schools are components of the City’s educational agenda. Changing the structure of conventional public schools can improve instruction. Additionally, the City invests in Providence Talks, pre-kindergarten facilities, and family activities such as a $5 Summer Camp. Small enterprises are also a priority for the City—funding, grants, and loans. As the offshore wind business expands, the City is also training its workforce for renewable energy jobs. In addition, restaurants and the arts are crucial to the hotel economy. The City also offers businesses tax advantages. The City is finally addressing the mental health epidemic and systemic issues (Elorza, 2023).

Achieving the goals

Providence has taken steps towards achieving their goals. The City has invested heavily on its public school district. The district’s $130,046,611 Upkeep of Effort (MOE) funding supports student health, early childhood development, infrastructure maintenance, and after school and summer programs. The Providence budget helps kids succeed. One Providence for Youth: Summer Jobs Program earned $1.2 million, The City’s $580,000 and PPSD’s $420,000 fund, a fourth consecutive $1 million citywide Summer Learning initiative. Award-winning early intervention program Providence Talks got $400,000. FabNewport and Providence Public Libraries donated $165,000 in interactive programming to expand youth access to PVD Young Makers.

Providence After School Alliance receives $350,000 for FY 20’s 27% increase in afterschool support (PASA) maintenance. Maintaining a menstrual hygiene product program and improving school health support cost $40,000, while establishing a healthy school plan and curriculum cost $50,000. Finally, $350,000 in early education facilities to increase Providence’s four-hour seats.

The health and safety of all citizens, but especially those who are vulnerable and have been seriously impacted, is prioritized in the Providence community budget for Fiscal Year 2023. The Providence Business Loan Fund will provide interest-free loans to small businesses, and the budget will prioritize programs that help women- and minority-owned enterprises. In addition to continuing funding for doula services, money has been set aside to assist street outreach organizations in the downtown and Broad Street regions.

The Providence Housing Trust was established in FY21 with the use of a $25,000,000 PRA Special Obligation Bond, and 10% of tax revenue from TSA projects will be set aside to pay for debt service on the bond. Moreover, money has been allocated to help charities that offer legal aid for tenants and landlords, including evictions. The “A Hand Up” program at Amos House and PVDFest, the City’s defining festival of the arts, music, and culture in the City’s central business district, will continue to receive funding from the City. (McGuinness & Schank, 2023).

Spending on essential infrastructure will also be maintained through FY23. The City of Providence borrowed $115 million for capital projects in FY20, funding the FY20 investments planned for that year as well as FY20 investments made to increase transit options and pedestrian accessibility throughout the City’s 25 different communities. Providence’s municipal government is committed to providing its citizens with open and accessible services, even in the face of a worldwide health emergency. A tangible tax exemption for businesses with tangible assets of less than $10,000 will be maintained as part of the budget, providing full tangible tax relief to almost 2,600 small business owners. Funding for an extra police academy with fifty candidates and funding for recruitment of more fire academy members are also included, as is an increase in the Homestead Exemption from 40% to 45%. (Stumberg & Vander, 2019).

The online licensing system of the City will continue to thrive, and the online permitting system of the City’s Inspections & Standards will be updated to a more user-friendly style, thanks to funding included in the budget. The PVD 311 system has reached over 21,000 users and closed over 90,000 complaints, demonstrating the government’s ability to continue expanding this popular public-service access-to-government tool. A new phone system has been launched by PVD 311 that allows employees to work remotely and connects residents directly with a constituent representative who will be able to assist them in their preferred language rather than having to bounce their call from agent to agent. The budget maintains a $100,000 appropriation for a “Rainy Day Fund,” notwithstanding the uncertainty of the pandemic’s outcome. It would appear, on the basis of the data that is shown on the website of the Controller’s Office in Providence, Rhode Island, that the City has made efforts in recent years to enhance its overall financial health (Chalek, 2019).

For instance, the City has been able to keep a balanced budget for the past few years, as shown by the Financial Reports. Both the City’s revenues and expenditures have remained generally steady over this time period. This is an encouraging indicator because it shows that the City is not overspending and is not running a deficit at the moment.

In addition, according to the reports, the City has been successful in preserving a healthy reserve position, meeting the minimum reserve balance requirement of 8% of the General Fund. This requirement has been in place since 2007. This is a good indication, since it implies that the City is well-prepared to deal with unforeseen occurrences, which is a very encouraging one.

Financial Health

Based on the statistics supplied in the document, it appears the City of Providence has made tremendous strides in the past seven years to improve its financial health. The document indicates that the City has turned a deficit of more than $20 million into a surplus of about $30 million, the first “actual” surplus of that scale in probably 50 years. Credit rating of the City has also improved, going from “almost junk” to “investment grade,” and Fitch rating agency has issued the City’s first positive outlook in ten years. Being seventh consecutive year, the City has presented a budget without increasing tax rates, it indicates that the City’s revenues have been sufficient to cover its expenditures, a sign of good financial health. In addition, the City is focusing on tackling the persistent issue of unsustainable pension payments by asking voters to support a Pension Obligation Bond, which will assist the City in addressing the pension obligations.

The City’s fiscal management and the recent pension reform it enacted with Laborers, Fire, and Police are credited with making it possible for the City to present this budget for the eighth year in a row without raising tax rates. Many homeowners may see their tax bills rise since property prices have risen so rapidly over the past three years. However, the homestead exemption was raised and the residential tax rate was lowered by 25%, thus the overall increase was just 8%.. The City of Providence’s financial health has greatly improved in recent years, with a surplus of about $30 million and an investment-grade credit rating. In addition, the City has implemented pension reform and, for the eighth consecutive year, presented a budget with no hiking tax rates (Elorza, 2023). Additionally, the City has experienced a rise in population and substantial housing investment, with a designated revenue stream for affordable housing and the repair of abandoned dwellings. The report also addresses housing costs and a rise in gun-related crimes but notes that there are grounds for cautious optimism as shooting incidents had decreased by 50 percent from the previous year. The statement also highlights the City’s efforts to enhance public safety, including investments in the police department, the hiring of additional officers, an increase in officer diversity, and the incorporation of technology such as body cameras. In general, the publication paints a favorable picture of the financial health and stability of the City of Providence.


In order to achieve its goals and improve its financial condition, Providence city management could take several concrete steps. One key step would be to continuously monitor the City’s financial performance and take corrective action as needed. This could involve regularly reviewing financial reports and identifying areas where the City is falling short of its goals.

Another important step would be to maintain the momentum of the Pension Obligation Bond and address the continuing issue of unsupportable pension payments. This could involve developing strategies for reducing the City’s long-term liabilities and ensuring that pension payments are sustainable over the long term. Additionally, the city management could increase its efforts towards investing in housing by allocating more funds to affordable housing, homelessness supports, and first-time homebuyers. This could involve creating new programs and initiatives that make it easier for low-income residents to access affordable housing and providing financial assistance to help first-time homebuyers get into the housing market (Liu, 2022).

To improve public safety, the city management could increase police spending, implement new technologies like body cams, and revamp police recruitment and training to increase public safety. This could involve increasing the number of officers on the force, providing more training and resources to officers, and investing in new technologies that help officers do their jobs more effectively. To encourage economic growth, the city management could incentivize private sector investment and support local businesses. This could involve providing tax breaks and other financial incentives to businesses that invest in the City and supporting local businesses through grants, loans, and other forms of financial assistance (Reidy et al.,2021).

Finally, the city management could invest in infrastructure such as transportation, water, and sanitation systems to make the City more attractive to residents and business owners. This could involve upgrading existing infrastructure, building new roads and transportation systems, and investing in new technologies that improve the quality of life for residents and attract new businesses to the City.


Bell, S., Marlow, T., Wombacher, K., Hitt, A., Parikh, N., Zsom, A., & Frickel, S. (2020). Automated data extraction from historical city directories: The rise and fall of mid-century gas stations in Providence, RI. Plos one15(8), e0220219.

Chalek, M. R. (2019). Analysis of Secondary Topics Identified as Inconsistent Between Title 17 of the Newport Code of Ordinances and the 2017 City of Newport Comprehensive Plan. Policy.

Elorza, J. O. (2023). City of Providence Rhode Island Fiscal Year 2023 General Fund Budget Summary.

Frickel, S., & Tollefson, J. (2022). When Environmental Inequality Racialized: Historical Evidence from Providence, Rhode Island. Socius8, 23780231221127541.

Liu, L. (2022). Subnational debt: developing a sustainable market. In The Sustainability of Asia’s Debt (pp. 167-187). Edward Elgar Publishing.

McGuinness, T. D., & Schank, H. (2023). Power to the public: The promise of public interest technology. Princeton University Press.

Reidy, D. E., Huntington, C., Smith IV, H. W., Bogen, K. W., Estefan, L. F., & Orchowski, L. M. (2021). Community-level risk & protective correlates of violent crimes. Preventive medicine142, 106380.

Stumberg, R., & Vander Meulen, N. (2019). Supply chain transparency in public procurement: lessons from the apparel sector. In Public Procurement and Human Rights (pp. 206-223). Edward Elgar Publishing.

The Role Of Gender In Communication And Its Effectiveness Free Essay

Gender plays an important role when it comes to communication and its effectiveness. Both men and women have different relations in their communications. Genç (2017) establishes that different genders will transfer information or interpret received information in various ways that affect the effectiveness of their communications. Typically, gender affects how people interact, their language, and the subjects they discuss. Gender also influences how people perceive messages, the types of messages they send, and how they understand them. In addition, gender roles and norms can significantly affect how people communicate with each other and how their communication is interpreted and responded to. This essay supports the notion and will discuss how gender can affect communication and its effectiveness, assessing whether it is beneficial or detrimental.

One way gender plays a role in communication is through language. Men and women use different languages in conveying information. For example, women tend to use more tentative language, such as hedging and qualifiers, which can be interpreted as a sign of insecurity (Myrick, 2019). Women also use more questions and tag questions. They are more likely to use polite language and apologize more than men. Men, on the other hand, tend to use more natural language and to be more assertive. They are less likely to use polite language and apologize. Secondly, gender influences the topics that are discussed in communication. Men are likelier to share sporting activities, while women prefer to talk about relationships and feelings.

Thirdly, gender can also affect the way people perceive messages. For example, men are more likely to interpret a message as aggressive or hostile, while women are more likely to interpret the same message as passive or submissive. Also, gender can affect the way people respond to messages. Different genders are more likely to offer different reactions in communication. Men would respond with immense anger or aggression, while ladies would have sympathy or understanding. There is also a long history of gender roles and norms affecting how people communicate with one another. Men and women have traditionally been socialized to behave in specific ways and to hold specific values, beliefs, and attitudes. Gender expectations influence communication effectiveness (Barrett & Davidson, 2016). For instance, traditionally, men are expected to be the breadwinners and lead conversations and decision-making. At the same time, ladies are traditionally anticipated to be nurturing and anchoring the conversations by the men.

Men are often expected to be more direct and assertive in their communication, while women are expected to be more passive and indirect. Consequently, women may need to be heard or valued in communication, as their indirect approach may need to be taken more seriously (Myrick, 2019). On the other hand, men’s direct and assertive communication styles can be seen as aggressive or intimidating and can be off-putting for some people. Gender roles and norms can also shape the conversation and the types of messages that are communicated. Men and women often communicate differently about the same conversations due to their different socialization and upbringing (Barrett & Davidson, 2016). Ladies are often anticipated to be more emotional in their communication, while men are expected to be more factual and logical. Consequently, there can be a need for more understanding between the two genders, as they may need to understand each other’s communication styles or expectations.

However, as far as gender can positively affect the way men and women communicate, on the other hand, it can have adverse effects in some situations. First, referring to communication styles used by both genders, men are used to being direct-focused, whereas ladies seem to be indirect-focused. Variations in communication styles can lead to misunderstandings and miscommunication (Carli, 2016). Furthermore, men are more likely to understand and interpret a message as aggressive or confrontational, while women are more likely to interpret it as sensitive or understanding. Gender can also affect the way people interpret nonverbal communication. Men are more likely to interpret a smile as a sign of agreement or approval, while women are more likely to interpret it as politeness or friendliness.

Additionally, gender also affects the effectiveness of communication in the sense that men and women can have different levels of communication effectiveness based on their gender-based communication styles. For example, men are more likely to be effective communicators in a competitive environment, while women are more likely to be effective communicators in a cooperative environment (Carli, 2016). Furthermore, men and women can have different levels of influence in other communications. For example, men may be influential in a public setting, while women are more likely to be influential in a private setting.

In conclusion, gender plays an important role in communication and its effectiveness. The role of gender is seen in the language used, interpretation and response given by either the male or female. In addition, gender roles, expectations and norms largely contribute to communication effectiveness. Gender affects how individuals, whether male or female, communicate, the topics discussed, how individuals perceive and interpret messages and even the outcomes of the conversation. Different genders use different communication styles that lead to different outcomes. Awareness of gender differences and considering them can help ensure communication is more effective and successful.


Barrett, M., & Davidson, M. J. (2016). Gender and communication at work: An introduction. In Gender and communication at work (pp. 1–16). Routledge.

Carli, L. L. (2016). Gender issues in workplace groups: Effects of gender and communication style on social influence. In Gender and communication at work (pp. 69–83). Routledge.

Genç, R. (2017). The importance of communication in sustainability & sustainable strategies. Procedia Manufacturingpp. 8, 511–516.

Myrick, C. M. (2019). Language and gender ideologies in higher education: An examination of faculty discourses. North Carolina State University.