The Relationship Between Sleep Quality And Internet Use Among College Students Essay Example

Decent sleep hygiene is the ability to get a good night’s rest without interruption or interruptions. A good night’s sleep may be aided by a comfortable bedroom and the everyday luxuries that one enjoys (Cherney, 2015). Even in the business and the community, excellent sleep hygiene has several advantages, including a healthy mental and physical condition as well as increased productivity and efficiency in both individuals and groups. According to Simsek (2014), Young people are predominantly influenced by social media, which implies they spend the majority of their time online. As a consequence of the effect of social media, many people have lost track of the passage of time and maybe easily identified as having gone days without sleeping (Simsek, 2014). The importance of good sleep hygiene cannot be overstated for a person’s health and well-being. Without enough sleep, performance suffers, motivation wanes, and even the desire to work becomes difficult (Irish et al., 2015).

Good sleep hygiene is a combination of a person’s sleeping environment and their behaviors while in bed. The bedroom and how you sleep is referred to as the surroundings (Irish et al., 2015). Free of interruptions, a good night’s sleep may be enhanced by sleeping on a comfortable bed with clean bedding (Cherney, 2019). There are more female college students with poor sleep quality than there are male students, according to this study. When it comes to women’s sleep problems, one theory is that hormonal changes associated with puberty, such as insomnia during menstruation, are partly to blame. However, the rising use of electronic devices (such as cell phones) may also do with the problem (Hysing et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2018). Another research found that female teenage pupils were more affected by smartphone usage than their male counterparts (Yang S.-Y. et al., 2018). Long-term internet use among college students may be explained by their devices’ quick internet connection, which allows for a wide range of entertainment and social activities to take place.

As far as internet-related sleep disturbances are concerned, research including 4,750 teenagers found that girls had a higher risk than boys (Yang J. et al., 2018). Female college students’ worse quality of sleep is a critical problem, especially in light of recent research showing that they are more prone than males to get addicted to the internet (Chiu et al., 2013). Among female college students, greater research should be done into the link between internet use and sleep quality. Female college students were recruited for this research to examine the relationship between excessive Internet use and sleep deprivation, and if there are variations in sleep patterns among students with varied internet usage levels.Also, The everyday routines of the day and night also have an impact on one’s ability to obtain a good night’s sleep, as if you’ve been working or exercising all day, you’re more likely to fall asleep easily at night (Cherney, 2019). Diet is an integral part of the routine, and the ingredients in foodstuffs significantly contribute to poor sleeping patterns. As a result of a lack of focus on healthy behaviors among the younger generation, many individuals are afflicted by sickness and sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation may result from the use of caffeine-heavy beverages, such as coffee.The way young people use their free time and the information they consume has been radically altered by the emergence of the internet and new technologies (Polond, 2012). There is evidence that many young individuals lack excellent sleep habits, according to Cherney (2019). Deplorable sleep hygiene is defined by daytime tiredness, erratic sleep quality and amount, as well as the most frequent difficulty falling asleep.

Technology improvements are making it increasingly difficult for teenagers and young people to arrange their lives and maintain healthy habits, such as good sleep hygiene (Armstrong et al., 2000). Teens and young adults use social media sites such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, and YouTube to watch movies and read articles in their leisure time, according to the Pew Research Center. This kind of website has a great deal of interesting content as well as a great deal of useful information on various topics (Polond, 2012). Despite the fact that good sleep hygiene is very important, people’s lives, vocations, and personal preferences vary greatly from one another (Irish et al., 2015). Because everyone’s sleeping patterns are different, individuals must experiment with a range of ways to excellent sleep hygiene in order to find what works best for them. Individuals must decide what they want or need in order to live a healthy lifestyle, according to Rubington (2010), before starting. Good sleep hygiene may also be important in the growth and development of a person, as well as in their ability to be productive in their jobs (Rubinton, 2010). It becomes easier to build and adopt healthy and practical habits that are beneficial to the individual and result in a good night’s sleep as a result of doing so.

A good sleep pattern is one in which a person is able to fall asleep easily, remains asleep for the most of the night without waking up, and wakes up feeling refreshed and reenergized (Suni, 2020). It is not typical for anybody, regardless of their age or condition, to be unable to obtain a decent night’s sleep. Depending on their age and stage of life, each person requires a different amount of time (Medic et al., 2017). When compared to teenagers and adults, the elderly and children fall asleep with relative ease and without much effort. In today’s society, a variety of elements, such as the internet, drugs, medication, and social interactions, may have an influence on young people’s sleep habits (Simsek, 2014). Physical and mental perplexity might result in insomnia, which can interfere with a person’s ability to be productive since they will be anxious. Some people’s sleep patterns may be disrupted by pauses in breathing since they have to work harder to take in air, which may result in a lack of sleep for those who are affected (Suni, 2020).

Their sleep habits influence a young adult’s quality of life. Nightmares might disrupt people’s sleep patterns because they stay up the majority of the night to fend off the monsters they fear. It is common for young people to get up many times a night to use the restroom. It is possible that frequent nighttime toilet visits are a consequence of youngsters’ social habits, which lead them to consume excessive amounts of fluids and alcohol and compel them to do so (Suni, 2020). There may be long-term health repercussions, physiological consequences, and poor hygiene habits as a result of poor sleep patterns in young people. According to Medic et al. (2017), unhealthy sleeping habits may have short- and long-term consequences, depending on how you address them. In the short term, sleep deprivation may cause various issues, such as daytime sleepiness and moodiness (Medic et al., 2017). As a result of a lack of sleep, young people may find it challenging to get out of bed in the morning. The reason is an organ that takes a lot of rest in order to function correctly. Thus, a person is constantly on guard (Cherney 2019).

A lack of sleep as a young adult might lead to a deterioration in one’s memory. A person’s ability to think, recall details, and absorb information might be negatively impacted by a lack of sleep (Medic et al., 2017). A minimum of seven hours of sleep every night is required for a young adult. The quality of a young adult’s life improves due to being able to engage in everyday activities and maintain a healthy social life without the distractions of cell phones and other devices. In addition, drowsiness caused by a lack of sleep increases a young adult’s risk of getting into a motor accident (Medic et al., 2017). It is estimated that the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s sleepy driving has resulted in the deaths of many young individuals each year and automobile accidents and injuries (Medic et al., 2017). Lack of sleep impairs one’s ability to concentrate and pay attention to the road, which increases the risk of a single error leading to several deaths.

If you are a young adult, you may find yourself in circumstances where you can’t come to any significant conclusions on how to develop relationships. Due to the fact that young adult is going to be grumpy at all times, they may get into arguments and fights with their friends and family members (Irish et al., 2015). A young adult’s inability to contribute to society as a whole might be caused by poor sleep habits, which could lead to excessive daytime drowsiness (Medic et al., 2017). The majority of the young adult’s waking hours will be spent sleeping to make up for the lack of sleep at night. The long-term consequences of poor sleep hygiene and sleep patterns, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attack, or stroke, are a significant concern for young adults since they are the most productive in society (Suni, 2020). Premature aging of the eyes and face and dark circles under the eyes and face may occur in young people with poor sleeping habits (Cherney, 2019). Destructive sleeping habits significantly influence young adults since their physical appearance has been damaged.

According to Irish et al. (2015), Young people do not get the recommended amount of sleep from their physicians. The suggested minimum is seven to nine unbroken hours of decent sleep every night. To get the recommended number of hours of sleep, teenagers and young adults should get a whole night’s rest (Cherney, 2019). Most young individuals do not think or take sleep seriously at this period. When a person is able to sleep well, they are getting a good night’s rest. In other words, you won’t have daytime drowsiness or nighttime awakenings because of this (Suni, 2020). Apart from bettering one’s sleep, excellent cleanliness also aids one’s overall well-being.

Significance of Internet Use

In the wake of internet use, young people have experienced increased social relationships, self-empowerment, information exchange, and the capacity to access information (Poloind, 2012). Internet data misuse is a concern in certain cases, since malicious individuals may exploit and manipulate information in order to harass and threaten other people who use the Internet. Simsek (2014) has used the Internet to research the different platforms, kinds of material, and methods of approaching them, according to Simsek (2014). Simsek (2014) has used the Internet to research the various platforms, types of material, and methods of approaching them (2014). Internet platforms have the potential to reach a huge audience, particularly young people, in circumstances such as raising awareness or sensitizing persons to a variety of social problems (Armstrong et al., 2000). Also included may be the selection of which social media networks to use, such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram. The amount of time that young people spend online, both hooked and non-addicted, has been analyzed throughout time, and the results are in (Poloind, 2012). The study has been finished, and the behaviors of young people are being followed depending on the platforms used and the gender of the individuals involved.

Internet use is more prevalent among guys in their twenties and thirties than among females in this age group.

Use of the internet may provide insight into a person’s thinking processes as well as the ability to predict future events (Simsek, 2014). The use of the internet also provides the ability to learn about and forecast the decisions of young people. When exploring the Internet, it is easy to gain information and produce new ideas, making it handy for individuals who do research online (Poloind, 2012). Young people have seen their social networks dwindle as a result of the emergence of the Internet, and they are more likely to stay at home and surf the Internet rather than going out and seeing their friends in person (Poloind, 2012). Due to a significant gap in engagement caused by negative social connections, people are less concerned with their social counterparts and more immersed in technology as a consequence of this.

Several disorders associated with excessive online time have been made public as a result of the Internet’s dissemination of information (Armstrong et al., 2000). There has been a great deal of worry regarding sleep deprivation and headaches resulting from extended screen usage. In addition to a lack of time to prepare healthy meals, those who suffer from eating disorders are more likely to depend on fast food or other unhealthful choices (Medic et a., 2017). In both cases, the labels “bad eating habits” and “eating disorders” are used to describe the same thing: a dysfunctional connection with food.

Excessive Internet use as a Social Problem

A social issue is a situation that harms the community and must be handled. As a social concern, internet usage has a wide range of adverse effects on the community, particularly young people (Rubington, 2010). Many young people are struggling with mental health issues, including issues with self-expression and sleep disorders, as a result of excessive internet usage (Rubington, 2010). According to Homsey and O’connell (2012), using sleep medicines is both widespread and helpful in the treatment of sleep difficulties. Sleep medication use was shown to be associated with Internet use, suggesting that persons with moderate to severe Internet use are more likely to take sleep medication (Simsek, 2014). This finding might be explained by the link between internet use and negative emotions (such as depression, anxiety, social competence, and hostility), as well as the linkage between emotional distress and sleep medication usage (Kodaira and Silva, 2017).

For example, driving (cycling), having a normal meal, or participating in social contacts were all negatively affected by internet use and daytime dysfunction throughout the daytime hours of the study. Due to the absence of real-world social interaction that comes with not being able to access the Internet for work or educational purposes, those who depend on it for learning and amusement may have daytime malfunction. A good night’s sleep may be improved by using the Internet regularly, controlling your emotions before bed, and keeping a regular bedtime(Mohammadbeigi et al., 2016; Higuchi et al, 2005).

Internet-based communication has become ubiquitous in today’s world. Every scientific, educational and cultural field is influenced by computers and the Internet as the primary means of communication. Since the need for the Internet has grown exponentially, it has resulted in a wide range of psychological and societal difficulties. A large number of individuals have been enamored with browsing the Internet during the past several years, notably university students .IAD (Internet Use Disorder) is a new kind of use that has developed due to the increased availability of the Internet. Depression, irritability, restlessness, and schizophrenia are signs of internet use, as can failures in personal relationships and academics.

According to the research findings, Iran is the Middle East’s most active internet user, according to statistics, with 11 million users in 2006 and 33,2 million users in 2012, respectively. According to research, kids who often use the Internet have higher rates of pathological and psychological problems than their peers who do not. The greater the amount of time individuals spend on the Internet, the worse their mental health gets. People who are addicted to the internet may have both direct and indirect consequences in their life. Furthermore, the prevalence of Internet use among young adults has led in a loss in young people’s ability to think creatively and design new things (Armstrong et al., 2000). The majority of ideas and modes of expression are shared on the Internet, but it is impossible for them to do the same in person, requiring face-to-face communication. According to Simsek (2014), we have lost the ability to make decisions about our life on our own without relying on the Internet for guidance (Simsek, 2014). A lot of people resort to the Internet as a safe haven where they can get away from the harsh truths of life, rather than addressing them head-on.

According to Rubington (2010), internet usage is a social problem that, if not handled, will have a detrimental influence on how people conduct their life in general as well as on the way future generations are shaped. Strategies for lessening our reliance on the Internet should place a greater emphasis on building deeper personal connections with individuals we already know in person, rather than utilizing the Internet as a major source of socializing. Particularly noteworthy is that 75-100 college students who agree to participate in the study on the consequences of internet usage will be recruited to participate in the study. Because of the need for safety, only the participants’ initials will be published in order to protect them from being targeted by others. Students will be offered the option of taking the test either in person or through the internet. The goal of the study is to determine whether or not Internet use has an impact on young people’s sleep patterns and hygiene.


Most sleep quality parameters (such as subjective sleep quality, latency, duration, and disturbance) showed significant correlations with Internet use in this study. The results show that people with moderate and severe Internet use have poorer sleeping habits than those who are only casual internet users or have a mild internet dependency. In addition, poor sleep quality was revealed to be a strong predictor of Internet use.


Armstrong, L., Phillips, J. G., & Sailing, L. L. (2000). Potential determinants of heavier internet usage. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53(4), 537–550..

Cherney, K. (2019). Best time to sleep for different age groups: Benefits and side effects.

Irish, L., Kline, C., Gunn, E. (2015). The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.

Medic, G., Wille, M., & Hemels, M. (2017). Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption.

Poland, A. (2012). The significance of studying internet use.

Simsek, E., Sali, B. (2014). The Role of Internet Use and Social Media Membership on University Students’ Psychological Capital.

Suni, E. (2020, December 8). Sleep hygiene.

Rubington, E., & Weinberg, M. S. (2010). The study of social problems: Seven perspectives (7th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

The Contributions Of Botticelli To The Renaissance Sample Paper

Sandro Botticelli was a great humanist painter who lived in the 15th century. Although most of his artwork is a mystery to many people today, his works of the painting represent a climax of the flourishing culture in Medici’s Florence. Medicis Florence was a successful society that allowed the growth of philosophy, art, and literature. Borticelli full name was Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, Sandro Borticelli. He was the best painter in Italy and lived between 1445 and 1510 (Price,1997). He was able to study under a monk who was referred to as Filipo Lippi, and with his assistance, he got a studio in the palace of Medici. In the 1460s, after opening his studio, he allowed other commissioned paintings that were of great influence during those times. The artworks of Botticelli are evidence of his contributions to the entire art culture. This paper talks about the contributions of Sandro Botticelli to the renaissance era as follows;

Botticelli commissioned the works of the Religious authorities through his paintings. In the early 1480s, Pope Sixtus IV asked Sandro and other artists to paint the Sistine chapel’s walls. The commission was done more than three decades before Michelangelo painted the ceiling fresco. The works of Botticelli in the chapel are the frescoes found on the south and north wall in the nave. These include; ’Christ’s temptation’ ’Destruction of Dathan, Abiron and Core’ and’ Trial of Moses.’ His artistic contribution to the Sistine chapel influenced the frescoes on the canvases of the churches in the Florence area. Also, his paintings of the Madonna had a great influence on the period (Lazzeri et al.,2019).

Moreover, Sandro Botticelli was able to commission the public works. According to the book’ Renaissance and Reformation by James Patrick, Borticcelli was among the best portrait painters around Florence during the 1470s up to the 1480s and later. According to James, Botticelli’s use of shade and light in his paintings enhanced the feature and character of the subject. He was a good at using this technique that was the main feature of portraiture in those times.’ Fortitude’ is a a good example of such a painting that displayed his expertise in human portrait art. (O’Malley,2020)

Another of his contributions is his influence on a unique form of art. Besides painting religious images, Sandro painted images from his own images. Some of his paintings promoted the clothing of his own time. For example, instead of painting biblical subjects in the traditional historical clothes, he used Florentine attire in the paintings. This painting style is referred to as Christian Neoplatonism. According to the California States University, this painting style is a reconciliation of classical views with the Christian views. An example of such a modern art genre is the ‘La Primavera.’

Nevertheless, Botticelli’s artwork was used as a reflection of religion as in the studies of California University. After the Medici was expelled from the Palace in Florence during the 1490s, Sandro experienced religious challenges. This influenced his paintings in the later years as he was following Savonarola’s teachings. His paintings reflected his devotion to the religion and wished to portray his commitment to spirituality despite the crisis in Florence. Some of the paintings that portrayed spirituality in the renaissance period include ‘e’ and ‘Mystic creativity.’

In conclusion, Sandro’s works of art were of great importance to the renaissance period. They influenced many aspects of life, like culture and religion. Also, they influenced people after years to pay more attention to classical learning and to have an individualistic view of the nature of man.


Lazzeri, Davide, Ahmed Al-Mousawi, and Fabio Nicoli. “Sandro Botticelli’s Madonna of the Pomegranate: the hidden cardiac anatomy.” Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery 28, no. 4 (2019): 619-621.

O’Malley, M. (2020). Filippino in Botticelli’s Workshop. In Filippino Lippi (pp. 38-62). Brill.

Price, David. “The Renaissance Print, 1470-1550.” (1997): 254-256.

Discussion On Should Governments Be Doing More To End Spread Of Fake News? Sample Paper

This essay will critically look at what more the government need to do to stop the fake news. Accordingly, the definitions of fake news may differ in specifics, but they all agree that fabricated news harms the credibility of news organisations and individuals. Fake news gets a thorough explanation in the assigned reading. Disinformation or hoaxes, as described therein as “a type of yellow journalism” (Wardle & Derakhshan, 2018)) is being disseminated through various media. This description makes it clear that the focus is on intentionally spreading false information. Using this definition, it is possible to accurately describe fabricated news, including the presence of deliberate disinformation. But in my opinion, the definition should be broadened to include the fact that not all fake news distributors are doing it on purpose. Some news organisations or individual bloggers can review and cite fake news shared by other sources based on popularity considerations.

Fake news is spread for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, the failure to verify the veracity of the information presented. The extent to which a message is based on real-world events is clearly reflected in my definition of a fake message. “The level of facticity” is one of the key dimensions that helps define fake news and its subtypes, according to the Center for Countering Digital Hate (2021). Consequently, it is possible to define fake news more precisely by referring to the various types of fake news. Definition of fabricated news and the classification of fake messages are closely linked. More than 30 academic articles were reviewed by Tandoc et al., (2018) in their study on the definitions and goals of the fake news. “Satire, parody, fabrication, manipulation, propaganda, and advertising” are all examples of how authors of high-quality articles use the term being discussed (Tandoc et al., 2018).

This definition of “fake news” can be clarified, in my opinion, by focusing on these aims of the practise. According to the six goals, incorrect information in the media isn’t always linked to propaganda and profit-making activities when included in the definition. To a large extent, the dissemination of fake news is used to influence public opinion on a variety of issues or gain financial advantage. However, some news organisations deliberately fabricate news in order to satirise controversial individuals or trends and, thus, express their views in a satirical manner.

Role of Government to the News Sources

The problem of “fake news” is causing governments all over the world to work overtime to find a solution. From the UK to Turkey, the United States, and India, governments remain investigating and condemning the spread of spitefully false info via social media. A “Fake News Advisory Board” is being considered by California legislators in the US to research how false info spreads on the internet and propose solutions to the issue (Marcetic, 2021). The Indian government has been putting pressure on Facebook to take out newspaper adverts to battle spread of spitefully false info on its prevalent service for messaging, WhatsApp (Kozlowska, 2018). However, putting pressure on businesses or establishing government committees isn’t the answer. It’s a way of teaching critical thinking skills to the next generation. Specifically, government should do the following:

  • Independent, professional journalism is an important thing governments can do around the world. Journalists are needed by the general public in order to help them make sense of complex social, political, and economic events. Several areas are undergoing transformations I’ve dubbed “megachanges” elsewhere, and these alterations have sparked a great deal of hostility, anxiety, and perplexity. Having an independent Fourth Estate is critical in these times of great uncertainty.
  • Governments should refrain from imposing restrictions on the ability of the media to report on current events. Journalists’ ability to cover political developments is hindered by these activities. The United States of America should serve as a paradigm for countries around the world. As a result of American censorship or restrictions on the media, other countries follow suit.
  • Avoid editing content as well as making the online platforms accountable for propaganda, governments should. Free speech could be curtailed if people are frightened to express their diplomatic views for worry of them being marked as fake news and thus censored. Inadvertently inspiring authoritarian administrations to dwindle freedom of expression might be fixed by such overly restrictive policies.

Role of Government to the Public

Improving the Public’s Critical Thinking. Education is the key. It’s concerning giving individuals critical thinking skills. Better thinkers judge information better, plus that’s how we shall conclusively defeat fake news. Presently, a good number of young people can’t tell fact from fiction online. Students can’t tell the difference amid branded advertising and real news. A 2016 Stanford History Education Group study found that people don’t consider source material’s bias when evaluating social media claims. In one study, over a third of kids admitted to sharing fake or inaccurate information online.

The inability of voters towards distinguishing legitimate information from gibberish is among the most serious effects of a need for critical thinking. The voters should cast ballots founded on actual circumstances in their societies, not bogeymen and myths, as well as fake news along with its gossipy cousins shall weaken democracies. But fake news also hinders the reaction to natural disasters and terrorist attacks. Such as when, during Hurricane Harvey in 2017, officials were rumoured to be asking evacuees about their immigration (U.S. Department of Homeland Security 2018).

That’s why tackling “fake news” requires critical thinking. After all, critical thinking involves questioning assumptions. It’s doubly significant when each factoid all through human history remains theoretically accessible via Google, but is muddled with incorrect or biased information. We must teach our children to question every website they visit: Who designed it? Why? What’s the plan? Most importantly, where does the information come from — innuendo and hearsay, or analysis and data? 2016 Stanford report found that kids rarely consider the polling organization’s potential bias when evaluating poll results. This exposes students to all sorts of bias in the form of facts and figures. But they could learn to evaluate the information source and thus become better information consumers.

Carrying out Public Awareness. People can be misled or manipulated when they engage with information logically, and we all need to get better at recognising when stories lack logic or are written to appeal to our emotions rather than our intelligence. Also for economic reasons, critical thinking is vital. Many current jobs will be replaced by AI, forcing workers to learn new skills which robots and computers cannot duplicate. In accordance with a “2018 McKinsey Global Institute report” (BBC Report, 2017), automation might replace equal to 30 percent of global work hours as of 2030. In relation to the McKinsey analysis, several business leaders by now expect more employees to be able to interpret and process intricate information. Because of new technologies, many current jobs necessitate far more skills of critical thinking compared to the past: Consider how nurses use EMRs to improve patient outcomes. But we must be concerned. Robots may replace humans in hundreds of millions of jobs in impending decades. Democracies are factually at risk. Consider the endeavored election interfering in the US, Italy, France, and elsewhere (BBC Report) (2017). There is decent news. Students can learn to evaluate information critically. In relation to a 2016 study issued in The Lancet, Ugandan students aged 10–12 were taught to spot false medical treatment claims (Nsangi et al., 2017).


So the government should not only come up with legislation to curb fake news but must encourage all to work together to combat fake news. You and I can cut across the sludge and arise as well-versed citizens set to confront 21st century challenges. And our capacity to have functioning economy and democracy hinges on it.


BBC Report (2017) Robot automation will “take 800 million jobs by 2030” – report – BBC News. Available at:[accessed on 26 February 2022]

Center for Countering Digital Hate (2021) ‘The Disinformation Dozen: Why platforms must act on twelve leading online anti-vaxxers’, Available at:

Kozlowska, H. (July 10, 2018) ‘It’s so hard to fight fake news on WhatsApp that Facebook is buying newspaper ads’, Quartz, Available at:[Accessed on 26 February 2022]

Marcetic, B. (2021) If You’re Worried About Misinformation, Focus on For-Profit TV News, Available at:[Accessed on 26 February 2022]

Nsangi, A., Semakula, D., Oxman, A. D., Austvoll-Dahlgren, A., Oxman, M., Rosenbaum, S., … Sewankambo, N. K. (2017) ‘Effects of the Informed Health Choices primary school intervention on the ability of children in Uganda to assess the reliability of claims about treatment effects: a cluster-randomised controlled trial’, The Lancet390(10092), 374–388.

Tandoc, E. C., Lim, Z. W., & Ling, R. (2018, February 7) ‘Defining “Fake News”: A typology of scholarly definitions’, Digital Journalism. Routledge.

Wallace, K. (April 3, 2017) ‘Is ‘fake news’ fooling kids? New report says yes’ CNN Health, available at:[ accessed on 26 February 2022]

Wardle, C. and Derakhshan, H. (2018) ‘Thinking about ‘information disorder’: formats of misinformation, disinformation, and mal-information’ in C. Ireton and J. Posetti (eds) Journalism, ‘Fake News’ & Disinformation: UNESCO Handbook for Journalism Education and Training. Available at:

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2018) ‘Countering False Information Countering False Information on Social Media in Disasters and Emergencies’, Social Media Working Group for Emergency Services and Disaster Management, (March).