The Research Process And Reporting Sample Paper

Research reports are crucial sources of information professionals can use to improve their practice and develop a foundation for further scientific progress. The reports might lack quantitative data or sufficient background to submit a discussed issue’s significance in counseling. For instance, the research with the listwise deletion used for solving a missing data problem reduces its statistical credibility and might present biases (Cook, 2021). Another common problem of the research report is missing elements of methodology a researcher did not include assuming they were not significant for the results (Giordano et al., 2021). The issue affects professionals who study the sources before having the results for their evidence-based practices because they risk making irrelevant conclusions if they are not familiar with all methods used. Reports must be transparent and detailed about the background, data collection, analysis, and limitations to help counselors make correct decisions or use the research in their own studies.

A report is necessary to synthesize the study’s results, validate them, and clarify if the outcomes align with initial purposes and hypotheses. In counseling research, the assignment contains an abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and reference sections that provide a reader with a structured scope of information about the subject (Giuliano, n. d). The report must include these parts regardless of its methodology because all types of studies require an evidence-based explanation of the problem identified and strategies used for getting outcomes. The abstract highlights the main objectives, research design, and conclusions to encourage further discussion in counseling research. The introduction states the problem, includes brief background, and explains the purposes and hypotheses, while the method discusses the design and qualitative and quantitative approaches utilized throughout the research (Giuliano, n. d). Results and discussion are the vital sections that include conclusions, types of analysis, statistics, acknowledgment of limitations and practical benefits of the study; references mention all literature mentioned in research materials.

Making a research report is similar to standard graduate-level writing because it includes synthesizing broad scope of information and must align with referencing guidelines. Moreover, the structure is common because an identified problem gets through the same stages of description, analysis, and discussion (Balkin & Kleist, 2017). The distinction between the two types of writing is that a research report must include evidence such as previous studies’ results or statistics to submit the problem.

The key components of the research process are selecting a topic, reviewing the literature, stating the question and hypotheses, data collection, analysis, and conclusions discussion. The first step is significant as it determines the course of study; thus, a counselor must carefully check the subjects and eliminate biases. A literature review is vital to conduct to submit the urgency for exploring the background and identifying problems worth studying. After a topic is selected and examined, hypotheses can be stated, and relevant data can be collected from diverse sources. The latter is significant because using literature reviews, and qualitative and quantitative research conducted influences the study outcomes, and the information collected from primary sources must align with what was found in the secondary (Balkin & Kleist, 2017). Analysis and conclusions synthesize the evidence and identify how the results are useful in the selected field. Every counselor reading research must be aware of these components in conducting their own or studying other sources because if one or similar of them is missing, the information’s credibility is questionable.

Objectivity and subjectivity in social research have philosophical roots as these conceptions determine how a researcher’s individual assumptions and perception of society-developed events influence study results. Furthermore, both factors commonly appear throughout the process because although an issue might be selected based on a personal viewpoint, it will still be explored in a particular historical moment and with the methods developed and influenced by others (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014). Indeed, in SAGE Publications’ video (2014), the expert claims that the “social situation itself is not just simply a methodological one, but it’s also the context of the society that the sociologist, for example, is working in.” Objectivity and subjectivity inevitably appear in research and influence the methodological issues, such as biases, sampling, and categorization. For instance, if a study explores a counseling problem that varies among patients, subjectivity might force the researcher to draw conclusions based on the more relevant cases to their initial viewpoint. It is vital to remember that social study results impact further practice; thus, an author should balance the objective and subjective aspects of their claims and the sources they select.

Research reports are valuable sources for all professionals who want to apply EBP in their operations, yet they should consider the time necessary for studying the sources.


Balkin, R. S., & Kleist, D. M. (2017). Counseling research: A practitioner-scholar approach. American Counseling Association.

Cook, R. M. (2021). Addressing missing data in quantitative counseling research. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 12(1), 43-53.

Giordano, A. L., Schmit, M. K., & Schmit, E. L. (2021). Best practice guidelines for publishing rigorous research in counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 99(2), 123–133.

Giuliano, T. (n. d). Guide for writing in psychology

Lyon, A. R., Stanick, C., & Pullmann, M. D. (2018). Toward high‐fidelity treatment as usual: Evidence‐based intervention structures to improve usual care psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 25(4), 70.

SAGE Publications Ltd. (2014). Objectivity and subjectivity in social research

Zionism Issues In Israel And Palestine Conflict

Zionism is a nationalist movement advocating for regaining residence of the Jewish state within the territories of Palestine, Canaan, and the Holy Land of Jewish through connection and attachment to the land. Zionism pushed on the agenda of establishing a state that could make the Jews liberated from discrimination, humiliations, antisemitism, and persecutions. They faced this already while in a foreign land, so they ingathered these exiles to be one of the heartlands belonging to the Jews. The movement continued to threaten sustained security in ancient Israel; since its establishment in 1948, it has continuously received support from Zionism.

The Jews view the state of Israel as a nation that adheres to the practices of Judaism. They support the decisions of the Jews to return to the nation of Israel to increase their numbers in their ancestral land and prevent the Jews from being assimilated into different cultures. Generally, Zionism and its advocates perceive the move to push for reinstatement of the persecuted individuals living in other nations as minorities. Conversely, People who oppose and criticize Zionism perceive the movement to be exceptionalist, racist, and colonialist ideology that made its advocates cause violence that initiated the exodus of Palestinians.

The Palestine land was retrieved from Ottoman after the British had fabricated some inconsistent assurances to the Palestinian Jewish and Arab people during WW1. The British inaugurated the Peel of Commission in 1937 after the six months of the Arab General Strike. The Peel of Commission divided Palestine into two states, the Arab nation, and the Jewish state, claiming that the mandate had ceased working, but the Palestinians refused this decision. The British limited the number of immigrants to Palestine when WWII broke out in 1939.

President Truman allowed a hundred thousand Holocaust survivors into Palestine in August 1945 after WWII. Still, the limited number of Jewish immigrants was maintained, leading to another request to partition Palestine. The United Nations was handed the Palestine Mandate by the British in 1947, and it established a non-binding approval for sovereign Jewish and Arab states. The Palestinians refused this offer once more, leading to civil war.

The Jewish state is the term that describes the nation-state of Israel as the homeland for the Jews, with some debating its religious versus secular usage. On May 14th, 1948, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Transjordan’s armies launched the 1948 Arab-Israel War a day later, and this resumed for a year until the cease-fire. The term gained traction by David-Ben-Gurion, and it has since been used interchangeably with Israel.

The Palestinian Exodus of 1948 occurred after the war between Israel and Arab escalated and pushed them to run away from their land. Some historians have described this expulsion of the Palestinians as ethnic cleansing. The Palestinian refugee camps in the Arab world accommodated the Palestinian Arabs, most of which went to other nations. The Jordanians gave them citizenship while other Arab countries denied them the offer. Today, over 2 million registered Palestinian refugees reside in Jordan.

Such issues created an antagonistic stance. An example is the 1956 crisis of Suez and Palestinian refugees toward Israel. There was a heightened tension of the same by June 1967. Israel attacked Egyptians to mobilize their army on the Peninsula border. This move destroyed almost all dispatched Egyptian air force members. Jordan and Syria were deceptively recruited into the war by Egypt but still resulted in Israel’s victory. One week after the end of the war, Israel was able to gain control over Syria, the Gaza Strip, the eastern part of Jerusalem, and other regions. The outcomes of the war significantly increased Israel’s morale and international prestige.

Motivation At The Workplace: An Email Survey

Profile of the Respondents

Some of the respondents’ profiles include demographics such as age, ethnicity, gender, education level, marriage status, current designation, and current residence. In the case of age as a profile, the question posed was how old are you, and there were various ranges such as 19-24 years, 26-34 years, and 46-54 years, among others. Regarding gender, there were several choices, such as male, female, and others (AL-Tkhayneh et al., 2019). The ethnicity profile has various decisions such as Latino, Pacific Islander, Asian, American Indian, Black, White, and others. The option of the highest level of education has different choices, such as a doctorate, graduate, college, and high school, among others.

Questions Posed in the Email Survey

  • What are the three issues that motivate employees at work?
  • What are the things that managers do that demotivate employees?

Responses to the Questions

The first question about what motivates you at work had several responses from the respondents. Most of those who responded (approximately 70%) claimed that meeting goals, targets, and deadlines were a top priority. However, a few people claimed that learning new things, coaching, and mentoring others were things that motivated them at work. In addition, a few people also claimed that working in a team environment was a motivating factor in their places of work (AL-Tkhayneh et al., 2019). The second question of what managers do that demotivate their employees also had different answers. Most respondents (approximately 65 %) felt that lack of development opportunities, poor leadership, and unrealistic workload were the most demotivating factors. However, a few people also felt that conflict at the place of work and feeling undervalued were factors that led to demotivation.

Summarizing the Findings

In summary, the email survey revealed various personality and motivation findings. In this case, different people have different motivating factors in their work environment (AL-Tkhayneh et al., 2019). For example, some people seemed motivated by meeting targets and deadlines, while others’ motivating factors included mentoring and coaching others. The email survey also brought about two sets of people: low-motivated and highly motivated people.


AL-Tkhayneh, K., Kot, S., & Shestak, V. (2019). Motivation and demotivation factors affecting productivity in public sector. Administratie Si Management Public, 1(33), 77–102. Web.

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