The eastern and southern crises mentioned in the article are the threats formed in the Middle East and Russia, respectively. According to the authors, each of these threats poses a significant challenge for European interests. The southern crisis results primarily from increasing political and social turbulence in the Middle East. The ongoing conflicts in the region, combined with the emergence and strengthening of ISIS have disrupted the stability in the area and introduced a number of internal and external threats.
The situation is further complicated by the shift of political balance resulting from the implosion of several major countries. The authors recommend encouraging local actors to take responsibility for their actions, with a de-escalatory approach in the short term. The Russian issue can be traced to several origins. First, the situation is influenced by the worldview of Russia’s current leader, Vladimir Putin, who adopts his own interpretation of the interactions with the West in governance. Second, the lack of democratic legitimacy resulting from the absence of freedom of elections prompts the government to seek alternative sources of legitimacy.
The authors argue that this objective is resolved by introducing an emotional component – specifically, “by mobilizing the population against an enemy – real or imagined, internal or external” (Dennison et al. 2). Third, it is possible to consider that Russia’s current oligarchic economic model plays at least some role in the issue. The necessity to manifest itself as an influential player on a global scale requires the manifestation on every conceivable level, including the domination over neighboring countries.
The authors also point to the fact that the described perception has endured a change of regime in the past and argues that such resilience can be undermined only as a result of a fundamental re-evaluation of priorities in Russia. The situation is further aggravated by the existence of tensions between Russia and some of the members of the EU Eastern Partnership. The determination of these countries to improve governance has been met with approval and support from the EU and an understandable resistance on the part of Russia.
The authors recommend developing a dual approach termed “tough love” (Dennison et al. 2). On the one hand, the EU should provide support in terms of additional security of Russia’s borders and assist the country’s economic independence by establishing market access. On the other hand, sanctions should be applied to account for risks in the short term.
The creation of an intergovernmental conference organized by the EU member states is crucial for putting it back on the global political map primarily because of the extreme diversity of approaches devised for tackling the identified crises by different countries. At the time of the publication of the article, several such approaches were outlined by the member states, with each taking into account specific foreign policy considerations.
Understandably, such foreign policies are incompatible and cannot be meaningfully unified into a single concept. In addition, the growing concern with the complex immigration issue has created strong support for anti-EU sentiment, further undermining the solidity of the effort. Under such conditions, the proposed intergovernmental conference would allow summarizing the priorities of different member states.
Once a comprehensive picture is obtained, it will be possible for the review team to identify interests common to all participants and arrive at a mutually satisfying solution. Such a strategy has been successfully implemented in the past, specifically during the 2014 collective effort to adopt sanctions on Russia using a unified foreign policy at the expense of domestic resources. It should be pointed that in order for such a conference to be successful, strong institutional mechanisms need to be developed that would ensure that the unit is maintained consistently. In this way, the responsibility for the foreign policy’s success will be distributed evenly across the participants without putting leading players at a higher risk.
In order to account for possible discrepancies within the described unified approach, the authors recommend the use of variable geometry. The idea behind the concept is the creation of coalitions in which more than one actor demonstrates the determination and capacity for assuming a leading position (Dennison et al. 6). The important thing to understand about the variable geometry approach is the low probability of its effective facilitation based on a non-generalizable solution.
A recent collapse in Libya can be considered a good illustration of the concept. Despite the evident instability in the state and surrounding region, the majority of the EU members have assumed that someone would take responsibility for the collective response. Eventually, none of the actors has taken the lead, resulting in major adverse effects in the form of ISIS expansion and a dramatic increase in immigration. The variable geometry approach is expected to eliminate the possibility of such a scenario by introducing ground rules for participation in the response.
Dennison, S., et al. “The Road Back to European Power.” ECFR, 2015. Web.
Mental Health And Domestic Violence In Bangladesh
This article investigates the experiences of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh that are exposed to lifetime domestic violence (DV). According to the study, the research on this subject is scarce, and the connection between the mental health of pregnant women and domestic violence is rarely discussed. Researchers try to find a correlation between the type of domestic violence and its effect on women’s mental health. Moreover, the authors aim to find a connection between domestic violence and cortisol levels in pregnant women. According to Ziaei, Frith, Ekström, and Naved (2016), domestic violence can be divided into several types, including “physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior” (par. 2). Therefore, the authors explore which kind of violence is the most damaging to pregnant women’s health.
The article uses quantitative methods to determine the rates of domestic violence, levels of emotional distress, and amounts of salivary cortisol in pregnant women. Researchers come to some conclusions. First of all, the study reveals that emotional abuse along with controlling behavior can be considered the most damaging type of domestic violence. For example, the outcome of emotional abuse is represented by high levels of distress in the highest proportion of women that reported having the mentioned experience. Moreover, severe physical abuse is also linked to emotional distress. However, the authors do not establish any connections between domestic violence and levels of salivary cortisol in pregnant women. On the other hand, the correlation between different types of violence and mental health is visible. Moreover, the aspect of the duration of domestic violence is also influential. Thus, the authors conclude that women, who experienced lifelong abuse, are more susceptible to emotional distress. Furthermore, emotional abuse seems to be the type of domestic violence that affects women the most.
Ziaei, S., Frith, A. L., Ekström, E. C., & Naved, R. T. (2016). Experiencing lifetime domestic violence: Associations with mental health and stress among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat randomized trial. PLoS One, 11(12), e0168103.
Sikorsky Aircraft: The Output Variation Rates
Providing high-quality services and products is an essential requirement for a company operating in the global economy environment. Because of increasingly high quality standards in the specified area due to the unceasing technological progress, it is crucial to apply the quality control strategy that will help control the production process and not only detect defects but also reduce the number thereof.
By incorporating the Total Quality Management approach, which helps establish a stronger control over the operation processes, managers at Sikorsky will be able to reduce variation rates, therefore, triggering a rapid drop in the number of defective items produced and increasing the quality rates in helicopters production process.
The significance of TQM as the tool to be applied in the context of the Sikorsky Aircraft organization is huge as it allows introducing every single staff member to the philosophy of quality management. Seeing that teamwork is an essential part of the Sikorsky Company’s philosophy, the incorporation of the above concept into the process of quality assurance is a crucial step toward reducing the variation in the number of errors.
The more cohesive the employees’ actions are, the fewer mistakes they are going to make in the process. As a result, a more successful quality management process can be expected (Pyzdek & Keller, 2014).
Similarly, the fact that the Six Sigma framework, in general, and the TQM concept, in particular, implies a stronger emphasis on not only reproducibility but also repeatability of the process serves as the proof for the importance of the above approach in the context of the Sikorsky Aircraft organization. By creating the environment, in which the essential production stages can be supervised by the people involved and maintained impeccably repeatable with the help of the technology engaged, one is likely to reduce the average number of errors made.
Moreover, by helping people remember the pattern of the framework and using the tools that permit the workers to repeat the daily routine easily, one is likely to increase the repeatability and reproducibility rates significantly. Thus, the variation of the errors made by the staff will drop immediately (Understanding Six Sigma, 2016).
The common cause of variation can be traced by comparing the number of errors made previously to the error rate that the staff will display after the TQM strategy is deployed. The special cause variation, in its turn, will be observed as the employees change their attitude toward the very process of promoting quality in the workplace. A more responsible attitude among the members, thus, will be interpreted as the manifestation to the special cause variation. As a result, an impressive rise in quality rates can be expected in the environment of the Sikorski Aircraft organization (Deng, 2014).
The incorporation of the TQM framework along with the basic principles of the Six Sigma DMAIC strategy, one will be capable of improving the output variation rate by reducing the number of defective items. The focus on controlling the manufacturing process tighter and making sure that the staff members should be able to reduce the number of errors made in the course of manufacturing. The integration of the TQM approach, in its turn, it bound to return rather positive effects as it will help redesign the employees’ attitude toward the very process of managing the process of helicopter parts production and their further assembly.
Deng, W. (2014). Applied engineering sciences: Proceedings of the 2014 AASRI International Conference on Applied Engineering Sciences, Hollywood, LA, USA. New York, NY: CRC Press.
Pyzdek, T., & Keller, P. (2014). Measurement systems evaluation. In The Six Sigma handbook. (4th ed.) (pp. 393-426).. New York City, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Understanding Six Sigma. (2016). Web.