The Road To Wigan Pier Analysis Sample Paper

George Orwell’s criticisms of socialism in his book, The Road to Wigan Pier, present the compelling argument that socialism is almost an impossible concept to acknowledge, at least in the context of England. When first reading this book, we find that Orwell is, at one point, living with a miner in the working class and witnessing the poor conditions in which the coal miners endured. Although a middle class man, Orwell observes the many “influences press[ing] [working men] down into passive role[s],” causing him to eventually build on his criticisms of socialism (Orwell p. 9). Although he did not quite fully understand the idea of socialism, he claimed himself to be one and uses his self-acclamation as one of his criticisms of how others do not even understand the gratitude of the class in which they are claiming. Through his observations in Wigan and his own self reflections, Orwell’s criticisms come to shape his propositions for what should be done next, in regards to the working people of Britain. Socialism, in Orwell’s eyes, is no longer a movement of the working class, yet something that the middle class is steering on.

He says, “We are living in a world in which nobody is free, in which hardly anybody is secure, in which it is almost impossible to be honest and to remain alive. For enormous blocks of the working class the conditions of life are such as I have described in the opening chapters of this book, and there is no chance of those conditions showing any fundamental improvement” (p. 149). It is also worth mentioning how Orwell mentions how that if anyone really thought about the problems in England that they would realize that socialism was the answer.

However, instead, the idea of socialism is on the back-burner and Orwell finds himself trying to come to a consensus of why it is not being implemented. He realizes that there are those people who cannot bear socialism and even adds some of his own personal feelings in the book as well. At one point, he mentions that “[he] seem[ed] to have spent half the time in denouncing the capitalist system and the other half in raging over the insolence of bus-conductors” (Orwell pg. 41). As Orwell goes on though, readers start to receive a better view of how people view the idea of socialism. People during this time were more against the actual “socialists” rather than the concept of socialism. One would expect to see a working class man as the typical socialist; however, this was not the case in The Road to Wigan Pier. Instead, the movement of socialism was being steered by the middle class, what Orwell also refers to as the bourgeoisie.

Something worth noting as well is that the middle class people stayed true to their class status and it is something that ends up appearing in things like socialist literature although the ideas were completely opposing those people in the working class. Orwell does come to mention, though, that a man in the working class is often never associated or claims to be a member of the socialist party. Either that or the men in the working class do not fully understand the concept of the word so they, instead, have their own idea of what it is in relation to the work they do.

In their minds, socialism is about a sense of freedom and ability to run their own shifts without anyone to boss them around. Orwell mentions that “often, in my opinion, he is a truer Socialist than the orthodox Marxist, because he does remember, what the other so often forgets, that Socialism means justice and common decency” (Orwell pg. 154). In regards to the revolution that is occurring, the issue of socialists joining together in order to liberate themselves and have a movement poses the criticism of how socialism brings about “followers” that are taken advantage of.

Orwell is one of the people that witnesses how socialism is causing reforms pursuing the idea that since the middle class (and some other upper classes as well) are more full of knowledge because they are in a higher status, that they should impose their cleverness onto the working class so they can unite. Orwell tells a story about “the outer-suburban creeping Jesus… saying, ‘Why must we level down? Why not level up? ,’” which basically offers the suggestion of the working class leveling up to the middle class versus them imposing on the working class (Orwell pg. 162).

It is because of this thought process that socialism appears to many people to judge based off this theory, which is why instead of advancing and thriving in England, it becomes slighted as a policy. As Orwell continues, he does come to talk about how there are those people who are against socialism for ideological reasons. The fact is, in England, that socialism could be done but it would steer away from a better, more primitive lifestyle for people. Socialism was seen tied to industrialization and mechanization and therefore, had some people on edge since a few were not supporters of the ideas associated with industries taking over.

Orwell says at one point in his book that, “[t]he sensitive person’s hostility to the machine is in one sense unrealistic, because of the obvious fact that the machine has come to stay. But as an attitude of mind there is a great deal to be said for it. The machine has got to be accepted, but it is probably better to accept it rather as one accepts a drug – that is, grudgingly and suspiciously” (Orwell pg. 178). Because of these attitudes and mindsets of those against industrialization, it becomes seen that those individuals who are against it, come to have the same feeling towards socialism as well.

No one really wants to abolish the machine, at least those who have experience hard work, but at the same time, no one is fully supportive of the idea of socialism, which, since it has a close tie to industrialization, causes varied ideas on what should be done. Like Orwell mentions, “Socialism is going to arrive anyway, whether people like it or not, because of that trouble-saving thing, ‘historic necessity,’” (Orwell pg. 180). With all of the criticisms that Orwell discusses in regards to socialism, it needs to be noted how fascism played a background to his ideologies.

He discusses how people with a fascist attitude in regards to socialism should know better. He states, “If you present Socialism in a bad and misleading light – if you let people imagine that it does not mean much more than pouring European civilization down the sink at the command of Marxist prigs – you risk driving the intellectual into Fascism. You frighten him into a sort of angry defensive attitude in which he simply refuses to listen to the Socialist case” (Orwell pg. 186).

In order to fight fascism, one has to understand all of its implications, both positive and negative. Although fascism is ultimately tyranny, the people who are having such thoughts are usually people who mean well with their actions and are just trying to defend the way that they want the future of their nation to be. However, in order to come pass this, Orwell mentions that “We have got to admit that if Fascism is everywhere advancing, this is largely the fault of the Socialists themselves.

Partly it is due to the mistaken communist tactic of sabotaging democracy, i. e. sawing off the branch you are sitting on; but still more to the fact that Socialists have, so to speak, presented their case wrong side foremost. They have never made it sufficiently clear that the essential aims of Socialism are justice and liberty” (Orwell pg. 188). Ultimately, Orwell’s remedies for the criticisms he poses about socialism is to just bring in an effective Socialist party to existence that makes clear that its goals are what is mentioned above… justice and liberty.

Price Elasticity And The Product Life Cycle

Many key factors play a major role in the pricing decisions taken by managers. One of these factors that can help decide the pricing policy of a product is the price elasticities and how they vary over the product’s life cycle. The PLC can be divided into several stages characterized by the revenue generated by the product. As the product progresses in its life cycle, changes in pricing are usually required in each phase, in order to adjust to the evolving challenges and opportunities. During the introduction stage, the primary goal is to establish a market and build a primary demand for the product set. Prices are usually high, assuming a skimming pricing strategy for a high profit margin as the early adopters buy the product and the firm seeks to recoup development costs quickly. This is the case of high-technology products like VCRs, microwaves, mobile phones. Here, the price elasticity of the demand is less than 1. The consumers are willing to pay high price to buy the product having a prestige value.

In this case, the demand is inelastic, but prices may fall considerably during the next stages. In some cases, a market penetration pricing strategy is used and introductory prices are set low to gain market share rapidly. Here, demand is highly elastic. Product differentiation increases with time as a brand image is built and prices are generally raised as the demand become less elastic. -The growth stage is a period of rapid revenue growth. Sales increase as more customers get familiar with the products and additional market segments are targeted.

If demand for this product is increasing, more retailers will sell the product. Often, during the later part of the growth stage, a price competition or increased promotional costs may occur to affect consumers’ preferences and increase sales. The price could be maintained at a high level or reduced to capture additional customers. Here, the demand is starting to become elastic. A price reduction could lead to an increase of revenues. -The maturity stage is the more profitable.

While sales continue to increase, they do so at a slower pace. Because brand awareness is strong, advertising expenditures will be reduced. Competition may result in decreased market share and/ or process. The competing products could be very similar, increasing the difficulty of differentiating the product. During this phase, the main goal is to sustain the market share and extend the product life cycle. Price reduction can be envisaged in response to competition while avoiding a price war. Here demand is elastic. In the decline stage, the sales begin to decrease as the product may become technologically obsolete, or customers may have changed their tastes. If the product has developed a brand loyalty, the profitability may be maintained longer. During the decline phase, prices are most likely to be lowered to liquidate inventory of obsolete or discontinued products. The demand is highly elastic. The customers become very sensitive to price changes. Thus the firm should consider minimizing prices in order to increase demand or at least maintain a certain level of sales.

In the contrary, in a niche market, prices could be maintained for continued products. All in all, firms will adopt different pricing policies for a product at different stages of its life cycle. Price elasticity tends to decrease during the first three stages. In the introductory phase of a new product, price sensitivity is high and demand is elastic, but low for high-tech product. As the brand progress over time, the market become saturated and substitutes increase, so the price sensitivity will increase as well, and the demand becomes more and more elastic.

Gustav Klimt Biography

A Biography on Klimt From around 1900 until his death in 1918, Gustav Klimt dominated the art scene in the capital empire of Austro-Hungary. He was born on July 14, 1962 in Baumgarten, near Vienna. Gustav Klimt was the second of seven children of a meticulous but poor engraver and carver. His brother Ernest, who could have been as talented as Gustav had he not died so young, worked with his brother until death. His brother Georg was a talented sculptor, carver and designer who made many of the frames for Gustav’s paintings.

The Klimt’s were very poor, so they had frequent changes in address in search of progressively cheaper accommodation. In 1873, the situation became worse because of the economic crisis in Austria and so his father had no income for some time. At school, Klimt’s talent was greatly appreciated, and one of his relatives suggested to his mother that he should apply to the School of Arts and Crafts in Vienna at the age of fourteen. For seven years he learned, together with his brother Ernest and Franz Matsch, the most diverse mosaics to fresco.

The trio was so talented their professors let them work on their own decoration projects. Klimt’s style in those days was hyper realistic, inspired by the work of Hans Makart, one of the most famous painters of the day. There were several paintings that announced a change in Klimt’s career. The first was a work that Klimt produced for the rich industrialist Nikolaus Dumba. In 1899 he asked Makart, Matsch and Klimt to decorate three rooms in his villa. Klimt was responsible for the music room and he painted music and Shubert at the piano.

Klimt, who had previously worked hard to please the public, now acknowledged no standards but his own. In 1892 Klimt and Matsch were commissioned by the Ministry of Culture and Education to decorate the great hall of the university, representing the four traditional faculties: Theology, Philosophy Jurisprudence and Medicine. Klimt presented Philosophy to the critics and public in general, which were disappointed and offended by this first panel. Klimt provoked new scandals with his allegories of Medicine and Jurisprudence, the second and the third of his paintings for the faculty.

Congress conducted a poll and Klimt was incriminated for “pornography” and “excessive perversion”. However, he was not intimidated by the intense opposition. Instead, Klimt painted goldfish. The painting only increased general criticism. It is dominated by a naked female showing her behind to the spectator. It is said that Klimt wanted to call the painting “to my critics” which is easy to believe. The scandal the university project provoked made him realise public assignments were not compatible with his artistic freedom.

These paintings were his last government commissions, signifying a radical change in his career. From this moment on Klimt unwillingly became a rebel. From 1891 until 1897, Klimt had been a member of the Cooperative Society of Artists, a very conservative organisation, and membership was essential to every artist determined to make a living. In 1897 Klimt and other members thought that this society had exerted an unfortunate influence on Austrian art and so they formed their own group named the Association of Austrian Visual Artists, widely known as Secession.

The Secession had three main aims: provide to young artists with regular opportunities to exhibit their work; to bring Vienna the best foreign artists; and to publish its own magazine, Ver Sacrum. The Secession adopted Pallas Athene as their protectress. In this painting a new element such as the use of gold and the transformation of anatomy into ornament will determine Klimt’s later work. The Viennese Secession played a central role in the development and diffusion of modernism in painting and in the field of applied arts such as a stylistic counter current against the official academic school and bourgeois conservatism of the time.

This rebellion was so powerful its immediate success was translated into utopic enterprise: the transformation of society through art. Klimt was a regular collaborator in the Secession magazine Ver Sacrum. The movement enabled the construction of the building for the secession, designed by the architect Joseph Maria Olbrich. Klimt’s utopic generation believed that only art could save people, thus the period’s tendency for uniting art. Klimt’s golden age began with a portrait of Fritza Riedler, painted in 1906, and ended with a portrait of Adele

Bloch-Bauer, painted in 1907. Klimt’s work exemplifies the encounter between the old art of the previous century and the new art of the XXth century. One of his greatest contributions to the new era was, more than expressionism and surrealism and sexuality in art. Klimt found his way to landscape painting late in life, the first known landscapes date from the years 1898- 1900, strangely Klimt did not draw sketches or studies for landscapes as he did for his portraits.

Klimt’s golden style lost its lustre with the beginning of expressionism, since the use of gold forced a rigid stylization that made any psychological expression impossible. Gustav Klimt never married or committed to one woman, he did have numerous lovers and seemed to have an insatiable sexual appetite. At the time artists models were looked upon with little more respect than common prostitutes and apparently many of those who posed for Klimt were at one time or another his lovers.

After Klimt’s death at least 14 people came forth and claimed to be his natural children. At least three of these children had been recognised by Klimt himself during his lifetime. In 1918 Klimt suffered a stroke and it paralysed the right side of his body including his right hand which he used for painting, but it did not deprive him of the power of speech. Less than a month later, Klimt was struck by the pneumonia epidemic ravaging Vienna at the time and died on February 6 1918.

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