The Role Of Law In Shaping The Relationship Between Race/Ethnicity And Space In Canada: A Historical Analysis Sample Paper

The law has played a significant role in society by ensuring people live in harmony with one another, which despite taking effect, has not been sufficiently redressed, i.e., the past and recent efforts to dismantle the inequality structures to achieve inclusivity and equality through the law require further input. While the link between race and space seems obvious, the law as the mediator shifts the gear to the definition that it has been used as a historical instrument to shape how people are distributed in various physical spaces based on their racial identities. The historical record of the law’s mediation role has seen the designated segregation of a certain group of people based on their race. For instance, North America had segregation laws enforced in various parts of individual countries to force racial minorities into living in certain neighborhoods and schools and receive services from particular locations for the better part of the 20th century. The difference between the abolition of such laws and the contemporaries is the history of the emotional pain these laws caused and the unerasable legacy with regard to the spatial distribution of various groups and access to community and national resources. Therefore, the law has been central to the link between race and ethnicity and space in Canada, symbolized by the historical redlining practices, racial segregation, zoning laws, racial profiling, immigration policies, general practice policies, and the Indigenous land claims legislation.

Immigration policies make one of the significant laws that were linked to race such that it defined groups of people allowed entry into the country in the past. Most studies have found that Canada was among the North American countries that set immigration policies that favored one group over the other. This favoritism led to the concentration of particular ethnic and racial communities in particular geographic areas of the country. For instance, the Canadian Immigration Act of 1910 granted the Cabinet the power to prohibit immigrants belonging to any race (Matas, 1985). This is one instance of how the then-Canadian laws contributed to racial stereotyping advancing from the 19th Century of Irish and Chinese immigrants to Japanese and Indian arrivals. Matas (1985) described the immigration policy of the country back in the day as racism paraded as policies. Despite the wording changing from time to time between 1910 to 1978, the power to choose who to let into the country remained the same. Immigrants of any race were deemed undesirable because of their habits, customs, way of life, and property ownership styles. These policies blocked the entry of German, Austrian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, or Turkish immigrants unless the Minister of Immigration permitted such (Matas, 1985). This March 14, 1919 order is strictly racial and cannot be argued. In another instance, Chinese immigrants were subjected to head tax and other exclusionary policies that led to the formation of Chinatowns across the Canadian provinces.

There is no doubt that the Indigenous communities have fought for their position in society despite being the original owners of their land, which is evidenced by the Indigenous land claims legislation. According to the Ontario Human Rights Commission (2005), policies and practices pertaining to Aboriginal persons have been historically based on assumptions that they were often regarded as inferior to govern these people. Moreover, the people themselves were considered backward, especially their culture. Therefore, the new government would make laws that would define who is considered indigenous, what practices have to be upheld (like forcing education upon them to abandon their culture), which places to live, and what they can own (Reece, 2020). Sovereignty and self-governance were not heard of at the time, as the Indigenous communities had to be under the law provided. Therefore, the law was used as an instrument to assimilate, displace, and segregate the Indigenous peoples as a race. For instance, the Indian Act of 1876 gave power to the federal government to control the Indian political structures, resources, and economic development, especially landholding patterns. This form of control’s focus on Indians was racist because of the racist features held within. Besides, the Act directly showed targeting because it blocked land ownership, choosing leaders, barring the people from voting, prohibited movement out of the reserves, and halted all cultural celebrations.

Redlining is another practice that dates back to the 1930s when institutions declined to make mortgage loans in specified areas. Harris and Forrester (2003) attribute this practice to the federal agencies’ involvement in encouraging lenders to rate neighborhoods for mortgage risk. Redlining operated as a law that drew lines where institutions could give mortgages. As literal lines on a map, redlining restricted loans, becoming a highly racialized practice that affected Black people and some parts of minorities. Canada is known for being a tightly woven state comprising of a socio-political network that Berkeley Underground Scholars (2020) describes as a state relying on exercising physical, emotional, spatial, economic, and political violence, both sanctioned by the state to preserve its interests. The result of the latter description is a network that benefits one group while disadvantaging the other. For instance, there are private prison contracts, courts, law enforcement, and other state faction that benefits either financially or politically from the convict lease system, predatory racial profiling, and the gradual unequal incarceration of the Black and Indigenous people. These bodies usually rely on the power manifested upon them by the law to ensure order, which they divert to their own version. In other words, there exists intersectionality of the Canadian carceral systems with regard to the legal enterprises built upon white supremacy. The above description mostly leans on carceral redlining, which is slightly different from the basis the concept of redlining was formed. Regardless, redlining and the ultimate carceral redlining showcase the intersection between race and the law dating back to the 1930s and extending to modern policy practices.

Redlining was a constituent of racial segregation that saw the separation of people or a group of people based on their race. Canadian history captures these moments when black people were segregated and denied equal opportunities and resources like housing, employment, transportation, and commercial success. Most studies record evidence of this racial segregation while attributing it to the law, i.e., the segregation of Black people was enforced through the courts and laws such that it spread to become a social norm. For instance, the law allowed Nova Scotia and Ontario to set up segregated schools where black students would be separated from white students. It was either the black students attended at a different time or went to a different school. Land grants were another concept supported by the law that Black Canadians did not have access to land grants because of their race. The lots they were allocated were of poor quality and small, found in areas like New Brunswick away from white settlers. For instance, one of the 1928 Vancouver real estate deeds clauses stated, “That the Grantee or his heirs, administrators, executor, successors or assigns will not sell to, agree to sell to, rent to, lease to, or permit or allow to occupy, the said lands and premises, or any part thereof, any person of the Chinese, Japanese or other Asiatic race or to any Indian or Negro” (Bell, 2015). Bains (2014) explains that this was racially motivated, given that the clause clearly stated who should be excluded from purchasing and owning land.

Zoning laws mostly led to housing discrimination and spatial segregation in Canada. Gray (2022) describes the zoning laws as apartheid by another name. Back in the day, communities weaponized zoning, which spills to today to keep themselves together while alienating the poor from suburbs where there is better access to jobs and education. In the colonial sense, the residential schools mentioned earlier in this paper were also an example of the link between race and space facilitated by the law. The logic of eliminating the indigenous communities from their land to make them meet the criteria to be allocated land was rather dispossessing what the people had treasured for a long time. The settlers set requirements for the acquisition of land and resources, which evolved into violence that characterized the settlers across the world (Dorries, 2017). Dorries (2017) discusses Harris’s discussion of white supremacy, which he centers on in his analysis to show how racial identity and property claims were co-produced in law. Through this discussion, whiteness emerges as a form of property through the concept of racial formation, where racial categories are formulated, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed. Therefore, the formation of race is institutionalized so that the social, economic, and political lines intermingle to constitute racial projects that lead to the distribution of resources depending on race. Subsequently, the American slave law was a product of zoning that transformed the white race into a treasured property that had to be served and protected, which was also legally acknowledged with a bundle of rights ad privileges that were untransferable.

On the other hand, racial profiling is a product of all concepts described above, from immigration policies, zoning laws, redlining, etc. These laws created the basics for racial profiling in Canada back in the day, such that black people, indigenous communities, and other minorities were profiled as inferior. For instance, disregarding the Indigenous peoples’ culture and way of life as being primitive and labeling them as inferior was one way of profiling, which led to their general profile as backward people. Simultaneously, black people as slaves suffered the most from the laws that encouraged profiling. From the color coding in 1901 as white, red, black, and yellow during the census to name calling, Canada had such a history in the books. The racial classification, which served as a hand-servant, necessitated the disparate groups to explain their entitlement to inequitable power, status, and resources over their counterparts. Besides, it is the description of race using colors that aided the black slavery institution that has been passed down to profile the race as the group that has to have continued run-ins with the government. According to Backhouse (1999), the concept of race is central to Canada’s history because it led to racial distinctions, assumptions, activities, and laws topics subject to racist ideology and practice. As years went by, the racialized society would embrace systemic racial exploitation through the justice system and access to resources. Therefore, it would be fair to conclude that race classification led to the omnipresence of racism through profiling, segregation, and inequitable access to resources and services.

Lastly, the general practice policies were linked to the profession the minorities were allowed to be part of. For instance, black people were not allowed to practice medicine. And if they did, they were under maximum supervision and had to be among the loyalist group. Women who desired to be nurses had their dreams shut down because the nursing schools did not allow people of their kind. Such practices extended to access to healthcare where systemic racism had leaked over to the overt depiction of ‘whiteness’ and ‘blackness’ in the justice system, morality reforms, communities, etc., in other words, the judges, community advocates, lawyers, litigants, legislators, and other commentators were only described by their race. Backhouse (1999) notes that racism became customary and increased in its virtual invisibility to contemporaries that credits to the hard work and input were only dependent on race or ethnicity. Perhaps, the depiction of race as a scientific fact both in philosophy, law, and other versions created hindrances to seeing or realizing non-racist views, and the racism victims internalized the oppressive ideology due to the racist worldview with regard to language and even conceptual thinking. To say the least, Backhouse (1999) supports that the economic, cultural, legal, racial, intellectual, and political history of Canada was far more complicated in its infancy and served as one reason for the multitextured and complex society. The thought of normalizing racism did not improve situations as practice, supported by the laws that made some races subordinate. The impact of the past history of racism in Canada gradually led to opposition to the racism ideology to only struggle against the racist policies in practice and dispositions.

In conclusion, the law has historically linked race and space in Canada through zoning laws, racial profiling, redlining practices, racial segregation, immigration policies, general practice policies, and Indigenous land claims legislation. Despite the issues surrounding race and space being influenced by law and policy, the human element was also involved, as discussed herein. For instance, the zoning laws determining who lived where and how they lived impacted the neighborhoods, especially on their access to resources. The same applied to redlining, profiling, and segregation as intermingling concepts. The immigration laws were no different as the results of the law’s involvement in the link between race and space. They led to certain groups of people getting denied of entry into Canada and also shaped the distribution of people according to racial backgrounds. As such link spills over to modern-day Canada, there is a need for reconciliation practices to ensure that the resultant effects of the law and policies on the affected groups are addressed such that racial groups do not form the basis for the definition of the type and amount of access a group of people has to resources.


Backhouse, C. (1999). Colour-coded: A legal history of racism in Canada, 1900-1950. University of Toronto Press.

Bains, M. (2014). Vancouver real estate titles reveal city’s racist history. CBC News.

Bell, R. (2015). Opinion: Racial Discrimination in BC Real Estate. Rew.

Dorries, H. (2017). Planning as property: Uncovering the hidden racial logic of a municipal nuisance by-law.” Journal of Law and Social Policy, 27 , 72.

Gray, M. N. (2022). Apartheid by Another Name: How Zoning Regulations Perpetuate Segregation. Next City.

Harris, R., & Forrester, D. (2003). The suburban origins of redlining: A Canadian case study, 1935-54. Urban Studies40(13), 2661-2686.

Matas, D. (1985). Racism in Canadian immigration policy. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees5(2), 8-9.

Ontario Human Rights Commission. (2005). Policy and guidelines on racism and racial discrimination. Ontario Human Rights Commission.–setting-context-understanding-race-racism-and-racial-discrimination

Reece, R. (2020). Carceral redlining: White supremacy is a weapon of mass incarceration for Indigenous and Black peoples in Canada. Brief published by Yellowhead Institute, June25, 2020.

Why Do We Do It That Way (Electoral Colleges) Essay Example


The Electoral College is a unique and complex system that Americans have used to vie for its presidents since the state’s founding. The Electoral College is an indirect voting device wherein electors, selected by each state of America residents, strong their votes for the president and the deputy president. The candidate who gets most of the electoral votes (currently 270 out of 538) is elected president.

Many Americans and people around the sector have questioned the Electoral College’s relevance and legitimacy in modern instances. In this essay, I will explore the records and intent at the back of the Electoral College, reading why Americans use this system and why they continue to do so nowadays.

Why Do Americans Do the Electoral College

One of the reasons why Americans use this device is to stabilize power between big and small states. This is because the founding fathers were worried about the balance of power between the massive, populous states and the smaller, much less-populated states. They favoured creating a tool to give smaller states a voice in the presidential election technique.

The Electoral College system additionally guarantees that the president has broad-based aid across the U.S.A. This is because a candidate wishes to win a majority of electoral votes to be the president. This requirement incentivizes candidates to build huge coalitions and search for support from numerous groups of voters. The system also prevents the tyranny of the majority by ensuring that the president has support from a majority of the states, not simply a majority of the famous vote. This is viewed as an important aspect in opposition to the tyranny of the majority.

The Electoral College system additionally protects the rights of minority groups. In a direct popular vote system, candidates may additionally focus their campaigns totally on the majority group, ignoring the desires and issues of minority groups. The Electoral College ensures that candidates must win the trust of a vast cross-section of the population, which include minority groups, to win the presidency. This is viewed as a necessary protection of minority rights.

Another reason why Americans use the Electoral College system is its historical significance. The Electoral College has been used in each presidential election since 1789 (Cheibub, Limongi, & Przeworski, 2022). Changing the system would require a constitutional amendment, which is challenging and lengthy. The Electoral College has become an important phase of American democracy and is seen with the aid of many as an important historical tradition.

The Electoral College system promotes balance and certainty in the presidential election process. In a direct famous vote system, a recount or venture to the outcomes likely impacts the whole country’s outcome, leading to uncertainty and instability. The Electoral College device limits the possible influence of a recount or venture to a precise state or set of states, providing more simple stability in the election process.

Additionally, some argue that the Electoral College system allows for stopping fraud and ensures the election’s integrity. This is because each state is accountable for handling its election process and ensuring the accuracy of its outcomes.

Why Do They Do It That Way

The use of the Electoral College system in the United States may be traced lower back to the united states’ founding. The founding fathers showed interest in power stability among big and small states and favoured growing criteria that could give smaller states a voice in the presidential election method. They also desired to ensure the president had vast-based aid across the state. The Electoral College achieves those desires by giving every country a positive variety of electors based totally on its population.

This system ensures that smaller states have a voice in the election process, as they are given a minimum of three electors regardless of their population (National Archives,2019). It additionally incentivizes candidates to construct huge coalitions and seek aid from diverse groups of voters to win the majority of electoral votes.

In conclusion, the use of the Electoral College device in the United States has its roots in the country’s founding and its subject for balancing the power between big and small states. It also ensures that the president has broad-based support across the country and beats the tyranny of the majority.

However, the system has confronted complaints and controversy over the years, with issues raised about its capability effect on election outcomes and the representation of certain states. Critics argue that the Electoral College can cause conditions wherein a candidate can win the famous vote but lose the election. It can bring about candidates focusing their campaigns on swing states instead of the entire U.S.A.

On the other hand, supporters of the system argue that it promotes balance and easy tasks in the election manner, and prevents fraud and errors.

Ultimately, the effectiveness and legitimacy of the Electoral College will rely on the capability of the U.S.A. To address the worries and criticisms raised by its detractors and ensure that it keeps serving the wishes and is within the satisfaction of all Americans.


Cheibub, J. A., Limongi, F., & Przeworski, A. (2022). Electing Presidents: A Hidden Facet of Democratization.

National Archives (2019). What is the Electoral College? (2019, August 27). National Archives. Retrieved from

Analyst In A Consulting Company: The University Of Texas Hospital In Austin Essay Sample For College


In this course, integrated delivery Networks are a crucial topic which every student must familiarize themselves with. To acquire knowledge about IDNs, this report involves the University of Texas Health System as an example of IDN in Texas. The institution is ranked second in Texas after Tenet Healthcare, with 26 owned hospitals. The report will help understand IDN as part of the course and draw clear and comprehensive information about the University of Texas Health System. It can also be used by interested parties to acquire information about the institution to enable them to make informed decisions. There are many IDNs in the healthcare industry, but most people need to understand how they work and why they exist. Therefore, this study helps to provide information about the University of Texas Health System as one of the biggest and most popular IDN in Texas and outside the state.

The study uses peer-reviewed academic journals to collect information about the University of Texas Health System. It has also primarily used the UHCL library to acquire more comprehensive information about the institution, which enhances extensive analysis and conclusion. The research has found that IDNs play a significant role in the health industry by enhancing and providing comprehensive research on various health issues, advancing education, and improving healthcare facilities. The University of Texas Health System has remained impactful in the health industry of Texas and has worked to achieve its mission and vision, which is to improve quality of life. The study has also helped me understand the University of Texas Health System as my chosen IDN, which is essential for my course.

General Description

An integrated delivery network (IDN) is a company or institution that owns and operates a network of several healthcare facilities or entities (Bouras et al., 2020). Texas has many integrated delivery networks, and the University of Texas is second on the list. It has 12,423 affiliated practitioners, second to Tenet Healthcare which has 24,218. University of Texas (HS-X8PMGZPMG56R) has 26 hospitals that are owned and operated under its management (Compile, n.d.). To appear in the second-ranking position, several factors are considered, including the number of hospitals owned by the IDN, patient volumes, and affiliated physicians. Hence, the University of Texas is a famous healthcare system in Texas missioned to advocate for a higher quality of life through quality healthcare services. The organization’s vision evolves with creating a vital, inclusive health ecosystem.

The University of Texas System has been operating for more than 130 years now. It has been committed to improving the lives of not only Texans but also people worldwide through research, education, and healthcare services. The institution produces more than 64,000 graduates annually, which has significantly improved the healthcare industry. Generally, its owned and affiliated hospitals and clinics account for more than 9.2 million outpatient visits and almost 1.8 million hospital days per year. The University of Texas System has over 85,000 healthcare professionals, researchers, and support staff. It impacts the health sector directly by providing quality healthcare services and indirectly by producing competent graduates who are available to serve in the industry.

The University of Texas General History

The University of Texas at Austin was founded in 1883 by the Texas State Constitution. In 1891, the University of Texas established a medical branch in the city. The institution was influenced by the need to provide medical education in the state’s capital. However, the movement toward creating a medical school in Austin hastened in the late 2000s. When starting, the University of Texas at Austin had eight professors and 221 students. The institution has grown fast, where it is among the top 40 universities globally. By 2012, the University of Texas had become one of the state’s most influential and famous medical schools. It was known for having a medical school and teaching hospital. The university is setting itself apart with the audacious objective of changing health care and is a game-changing asset to central Texas and the institution.

History of Mergers and Acquisitions

Since its establishment, the University of Texas has had several mergers and acquisitions aimed at improving healthcare services in the state. For example, in 2019, the university merged with UT Tyler (UTT) and the UT Health Science Center at Tyler (UTHSCT). However, UTHSCT was to retain its status as a health-related institution. This was an internal merging between the two medical colleges.

Recent News, Events, or Issues of the University of Texas IDN

The University of Texas Health System has recently released good news for a social issue in the current communities. Intimate partner violence has become a serious and prevalent public health issue that leads to other health issues like physical and mental health difficulties and trauma. It has established a Strength at Home (SAH) facility, which has been used to reduce intimate partner violence. The program is aimed at minimizing intimate partner violence in our communities. Intimate partner violence has become prevalent, and cases have been increasing daily. To mitigate this issue, the University of Texas Health System has used the SAH program, which has worked, but its patient outcomes as implemented within organized health care have not been examined (Creech et al., 2023). Through the SAH program, the University of Texas Health System has positively impacted Texans and all people worldwide by minimizing intimate relationship violence that has become an issue even with economic growth.

Since 1987, the Woody and Gayle Hunt Family Foundation has made grants and commitments of approximately $147.9 million to institutions aiming to improve health care, advance regional economic and cultural development, create a greater quality of life for all Borderplex residents, and transform education. The Hunt Family Foundation recently announced a $500,000 commitment to the University of Texas Health Science Center. This is aligned with goals to support students wanting to pursue a master’s degree in public health and increase the number of public health practitioners in the region. The funding is aimed at helping students cover their tuition costs and other financial needs. This goes in hand with the primary objective of the University of Texas Health System to improve quality of life. Hence, students willing to attend the University of Texas have been granted an opportunity to become what they wish to be in the medical field.

Concerning the University of Texas Health System’s recent events, the institution has a couple of events scheduled for April 2023. On April 7, 2023, an event is scheduled to take place on WebEx from 9:00 AM – 10:00 AM. It will be a thesis presentation by Michael Anosike on assessing comfortability and willingness among substance use professionals. Other April 7, 2023 events include a dissertation defence by Katie Burforf on measuring objective traffic-related safety for active commuting to school, a dissertation defence by Dennis Ogeto Nyachoti, and a dissertation defence on Tuberculosis disease and risk factor comparisons.

Another event scheduled on April 10, 2023, is the thesis presentation by Mobin Khajeh on investigating the association of dietary metabolites with cardiovascular health outcomes (Events, 2023). Also, on April 20, 2023, the Austin campus will be holding an event exploring changes in dietary habits regarding known correlates of food insecurity. Generally, all events are health-based, aiming to improve quality of life or advance health care services. This helps the institution enhance quality health care services to its customers and create awareness among the public about emerging issues and how they can be controlled.

Even if the University of Texas Health System has achieved a lot in advancing education and improving healthcare services, there are several drawbacks associated with its operations. First, the institution is alleged to violate Title VI by illegally engaging in racial discrimination based on skin colour. It is said to promote, sponsor, offer, and market a discriminatory program that engages in racial discrimination. An example of an instance where the institution practices racial discrimination is through its GoKAR program. This program operates illegally and exclusively for caregivers and their 4-5-year-old kids who must be white and illegally excludes and discriminates against non-whites (Rao et al., 2021). Thus, anyone who is not categorized as white, even if they are caregivers, is not granted the opportunity for the program. This leads to a violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which outlaws discrimination based on race. Hence, the University of Texas Health System faces these allegations as a serious issue because it makes its equity in service provision fail.

Secondly, despite significant advancements in pediatric cardiology and cardiovascular surgery, congenital heart disease (CHD) still remains one of the primary causes of death among infants and young children in the US (Agrawal et al., 2019). In most cases, patient-independent and patient-related factors affect the impact of patients with congenital heart disease. For example, the patient’s geographical location may influence the outcome of the patient with CHD. In the US-Mexico border, outcomes and management of people with CHD are complicated by additional issues that result from a complex interplay between two different health systems and socioeconomic disparities. With the University of Texas Health System aiming to improve health care services, it has been challenging to deal with congenital heart disease at the US-Mexico border due to the named factors. Hence, CHD in the region remains a serious health sector issue, especially for the University of Texas Health System, to mitigate health issues and improve quality of life.

The University of Texas Health System also faces another issue the high uninsured rate in the United States. In Texas, more than 4.5 million people lack health insurance exceeding California, despite population differences. Even so, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) positively impacted reducing the uninsured population (Seewaldt, 2020). This Act brought coverage to 1.2 million Texans reducing the percentage of uninsured from 22 percent to 16 percent. However, 16 percent is still the highest percentage of the uninsured population today. Due to a high number of uninsured people, the University of Texas Health System faces issues in the provision of healthcare services because most patients lack enough funds to cater to their healthcare expenses. Hence, the institution faces difficulty in ensuring that the quality of life is improved and everyone gets quality healthcare services. Also, tight Medicaid rules have impacted the issues faced by the University of Texas Health System because most people cannot afford to acquire insurance. When people have no insurance coverage, they are more likely to miss health care services because they cannot afford medical bills.

Services Provided by University of Texas Health System and Scope

Most important is the health services that the University of Texas Health System provides to the public. With its mission to improve quality of life, the institution has opened various healthcare facilities to offer easy access to quality healthcare. For example, the University of Texas Health System owns 26 hospitals that provide different health services. Dell Seton Medical Center is a 24/7 emergency care and level I trauma center for adults at the University of Texas Hospital in Austin. Through the provision of quality health services, the institution has helped mitigate and control serious diseases prevalent in most parts of the United States. For example, the institution provides accurate diagnoses and effective care units to reduce and control infectious diseases like viral hepatitis B and C, osteomyelitis, and sexually transmitted diseases. In 2019, the University of Texas Health System proposed a program for building a health communication brand for the institution’s tobacco control (Mackert et al., 2019).

The University of Texas Health System is at the forefront of the provision of quality education to students. The university produces a significant number of graduates in the medical field. It is a dynamic and rapidly expanding health science center with five professional schools, including dentistry, nursing, medicine, the school of biomedical sciences, and health professionals. As a result, Texas is offered adequate quality and competent professionals from the University of Texas Health System. For example, in 2020, more than 15,000 students were awarded degrees across all undergraduate and graduate programs in the University of Texas Health System. These graduates help serve at various state hospital levels, improving the health sector. The institution also provides medical practitioners with opportunities to serve in its health centers as they provide health care services.

The University of Texas Health System also plays a significant role in the research of the medical field. The institution is widely known for its research and discoveries concerning medical issues that face current communities. For example, according to the research by Singer et al. (2020), the University of Texas Health System conducted research on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a low-income Texas community in 2020. This helps the state to discover emergent medical issues that face the communities and recommend effective ways of controlling them. Research provides important information about disease trends and risk factors, outcomes of public health interventions, and behaviours of the diseases. It also helps to unveil the unknown factors that influence the outbreak of certain infections. Thus, the institution also helps educate the public on various diseases, symptoms, and risk factors and how they can be minimized. Kakio et al. (2019) asserted that Texas University conducted a health checkup follow-up project to determine those unaware of suffering from chronic kidney disease and prevent it from developing into the CKD stage. This helped Texans to find out if they had kidney disease and conducted follow-ups for the treatment measures.

The University of Texas Health System has a wide scope of its services to the public, from education provision of health care services and research. The University of Texas provides other courses apart from medical-related courses like communication, journalism, engineering, business, social sciences, and marketing courses. The institution does not leave its graduates after completing their courses, rather they help in creating jobs by opening various healthcare centers in the states. This also helps the state improve income generation, which is crucial in enhancing economic growth.

The executive management team

The office of health affairs runs the UT systems of health institutions. It is in charge of overseeing the whole system, and hence it is the responsibility of that office to run the system. They run the health system with the help of the presidents of institutions. They both facilitate the success of the system by ensuring there is a provision of excellent health care. They as well establish academic plans and programs, facilities planning, construction, health care delivery, and personnel matters, both nonacademic and academic. According to the leadership plan, which was effective starting January 2023, the Office of health affairs has different levels of management. The board of regents falls at the top of the hierarchy, followed by Milliken, the chancellor (academic and health institution presidents). Below the chancellor is the executive vice chancellor (Zerwes). The senior vice chancellor (Shaw Thomas), vice chancellor for health affairs and chief medical officer (Lakey), associate vice chancellor for health affairs (Carruth) and Solberg and Melancon, the assistant to the executive officer, are at the same level.

University of Texas Health System Stakeholders

The University of Texas Health system composes of various stakeholders who enhance its operations. The main stakeholder of the organization is the University of Texas which is the sole founder of the University of Texas Health System in Austin. The organization is the organization’s main investor as they aim to improve health care services for all Texans and people worldwide. Also, sponsors play a significant role in the implementation of the objectives of the University of Texas Health System. For example, the Woody and Gayle Hunt Family Foundation is a key stakeholder since they are committed to funding students to study at Texas University (Bird, 2022). Another type of stakeholder is the employees, who form a key aspect of the healthcare sector. Doctors, nurses, and other care providers keep the project running by offering quality services to the public in the health centers. In any organization, customers are another stakeholder who plays a crucial role in organizational operations. In this case, the community or the public are the health system’s customers. The public has enhanced research done by the institution aimed at improving quality of life. This type of stakeholder is arguably the most important project stakeholder of all. Without them, the project would not exist.

Structure Organization

The University of Texas Health System is administered through a decentralized leadership system. Thus, each healthcare facility may make its independent decisions, and they do not rely on one central power to implement ideas. Also, this type of system allows organizations to compete among themselves, which helps to improve customer service. In this type of structure, the University of Texas structures itself so each business unit operates as its own company with its manager. This structure helps other sub-businesses’ employees a sense of importance and improves their engagement. Also, decentralized organizations have faster decision-making because organizations do not have to wait for decisions to be approved.

How University of Texas Health System Approaches Their Mission in Healthcare

The mission of the University of Texas Health System is to make lives better through excellence in education, research, health care, and community engagement. The institution approaches its mission by investing heavily in the four aspects of the mission. For example, in excelling in education, the University of Texas provides quality education, which helps to improve literacy in the state and outside its borders. Also, it provides not only medicine-related courses but also engineering, business, and biochemistry fields. This helps to minimize illiteracy which is also a determinant of deteriorating health care among people. Another approach that the University of Texas Health System also uses is to achieve its mission by enabling various research and studies through the school programs. The institution provides the students and other researchers with a conducive environment that motivates them to conduct their research effectively.

The University of Texas Health System mainly focuses on improving the quality of life for the community members. To enhance the quality of life, healthcare services are essential because it helps to prevent or cure diseases that kill most people. The University of Texas Health System has 26 hospitals which show their urge to provide health care services to their people. Hence, the University of Texas Health System extends its services by opening new healthcare facilities committed to providing quality healthcare services. It helps to control and prevent chronic diseases affecting most Texans’ quality of life. This helps the institution to approach its mission, especially in improving the quality of life in Texas.

Executive Summary

Integrated Delivery Networks (IDN) are simply defined as organizations that own and operate a network of several healthcare facilities. In such organizations, the healthcare facilities share one governing board or management while they are led by the same vision and mission of improving the quality of care and patient satisfaction. This research involves the University of Texas Health System as an IDN headquartered in Austin, Texas. It has 26 hospital facilities under its management and is ranked second in Texas after Tenet Healthcare. The research uses various research methods to collect data. It primarily relies on peer-reviewed scholarly articles and books to extract relevant data. It also uses government reports that are available online on government websites. The report hypothesizes that the University of Texas Health System is very significant in the healthcare industry in Texas and worldwide. Another research hypothesis is that this IDN has improved the quality of life, especially in Texas.

The research analysis showed that the University of Texas Health System had played a significant role in the healthcare system through its services. It has also listed some of this health system’s recent events and issues. The University of Texas Health System holds various types of research on healthcare and nursing issues, which helps to improve quality of life. This is achieved by providing robust data on various healthcare issues and making crucial recommendations through research. It also provides comprehensive information that healthcare practitioners can use to improve their services, especially to enhance their quality of life. Some of the report’s findings include how the University of Texas Health System is managed and organized and its issues in providing quality healthcare services. For example, the main challenge they face in delivering healthcare services is many uninsured Texans who cannot afford quality healthcare services (Ela et al., 2021). Also, the institution has several allegations of racial discrimination of segregating black people. However, it has made crucial steps in enhancing the quality of life for many Texans.


The project involves how IDNs work and how they are managed. In this case, I presented comprehensive research on the University of Texas Health System, the second IDN in Texas. While I have learned that this health system has significantly impacted the health industry, it has also helped me understand IDNs and how they work to improve healthcare. As part of my course, this project has enabled me to identify several issues in the organization of IDNs and how they operate objectively to enhance the quality of life. Hence, in my future career in the health management course, I will have comprehensive knowledge about IDNs which has enabled me to practice the role of an analyst in a consulting company in the healthcare industry.

The research has provided crucial information about the University of Texas Health System as an IDN, which will also help us to understand the institution and how it has significantly impacted the health sector. When the topic was introduced in the course, I had yet to learn how the IDNs work, but the research has enabled me to understand it well as part of the course. This project is also beneficial in actual work scenarios because it provides information about the importance of IDNs improving quality of life. Also, it helps executive managers identify various issues facing IDNs and services that they should focus on to achieve their objectives of improving quality of life. It can also be used by stakeholders like investors to understand the University of Texas Health System well.


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