The Role Of Parents Within The Education System Homework Essay Sample

Author’s argument

From the article ‘How African American parents understand their teachers role in children’s schooling and what this means for pre-service teachers,’ the author tries to illustrate the importance of parent involvement in the transition of their children into early childhood education. This means that the education of the child does not depend entirely on the teachers. This article proofs that there is a need for the educators of the pre-service teachers to actively integrate the parents within the education system (Fabienne, 2009, p.123).

Theoretical influences

In demonstrating the role of parents’ involvement in the education of their children’s, two main theories are used. These include the theory of phenomenology and ethnography (Fabienne, 2009, p.123).

Ethnography is a branch of anthropology. It refers to a study involved in the description of a particular human society. The individual involved in the study lives amongst the people who are the subject of his study but he is detached from them. A close relationship is developed with the informants enabling the researcher to obtain more information related to his area of study. In this article, aspects of ethnography are utilized in conducting the research on African American parent involvement in early childhood education.

On the other hand, phenomenology refers to the method of inquiry that is based on the concept that reality is composed of various events as they are perceived through human conscious. This implies that anything that is outside human consciousness is disregarded.

Implications of the research

Solutions for change

The research implies that in the early childhood education, a bottom-up approach should be considered. For its effectiveness, two main concepts should be considered in relation to the role of teachers and parents involvement. These include multiculturalism and collectivism.

Collectivism implies that the teachers and the school system should understand the contribution of the parents and other care givers in the learning of the children. Though this may not be directly observable, they play a paramount role. This means that the school system should not discriminate the contribution of parents within the school system basing on their race or social class. Collectivism also implies that there are various parties that should be considered in the development of the child. This includes the divergent parties within the village (Fabienne, 2009, p. 125).

Through the teacher and Parent involvement in early childhood education amongst the African American should be aimed at ensuring the promotion of multiculturalism. This would enable in entrenching a sense of worth and high self esteem amongst the children resulting into effective performance. On the other hand, parents should be objective in engaging their children in various activities. This would enable the children to face the real world more positively (Fabienne, 2009, 128).


The transition of children during their early childhood is paramount to their educational development. According to this research, the bottom-up approach should be enhanced with active involvement of the various parties within the society.

Despite the fact that parents play significant role in the educational development of the child, there little understanding of their actual contribution. This means that there is need for more research on the things that the parents and the caregivers do with the children resulting into their development. This means that the education system should not describe a specific method of parent involvement in early childhood education. This is due to the diversity in the methods of involvement.

Reference list

Fabienne, D. (2009). How African American parents understand their and teachers role in children’s schooling and what this means for preparing pre-service teachers. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher education, vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 108-139. New York University: New York.

Crisis In American Institutions: Privatizing America

Subsidizing Tobacco

The United States government resorts to subsidizing the tobacco producers as the means of developing the country’s agricultural sector of economy (Skolnick and Currie, 2007, p. 58). The major programs and initiatives taken by the government to assist tobacco producers in their work include, according to Farm Subsidy Database (2009), the programs like Tobacco Loss Assistance for whose purposes $276,503,782 were paid between 1995 and 2006, Tobacco Payment Program that involved over $51,058,535 of spending, and Tobacco Disaster Assistance that amounted to $2,696,981 of governmental subsidies (Farm Subsidy Database, 2009). These subsidies facilitate the tobacco production but cause numerous political and public protests.

The main reason for the protest, as Skolnick and Currie (2007) argue, is the sharp increase of tobacco smoking related deaths in the USA (p. 162). Public and political organizations tried to stop subsidizing but the answer of the tobacco lobby to this was the statement that tobacco industry is vital for the country’s economy, and without subsidizing this industry will fail causing the failure and collapse of the whole US economy (Skolnick and Currie, 2007, p. 58). Thus, tobacco subsidizing was prolonged for several years, reached its peak in 2000 ($345,123,312) and stopped only in 2005 – 2006 (Farm Subsidy Database, 2009).

Sheltering Income from Taxes

Sheltering income from taxes can prove to be rather important if one takes a closer look at the tax code of the US. Paying all the taxes might leave an individual or a company without funds at all, so both people and corporations use tax shelters to save money formerly spent on taxes (McIntyre, 2005, p. 10). Needless to say, the large corporations and unions of business companies have advantages over individuals in income sheltering procedures. Among those advantages, the power of corporations and the amounts of income sheltered by corporations play the prominent role.

Thus, according to McIntyre (2005), the corporations can succeed more in sheltering their income from taxes due to the fact that they have “tremendous lobbying power in Congress” (p. 10). Based on this, the corporations can achieve making exceptions for the tax payments at the legislative level and save more funds by this step, which is inaccessible to individuals (McIntyre, 2005, p. 11). The second step a corporation can take is to outsource its production. In other words, the corporation can resort to producing goods in one country with high taxes and sells them in a low-tax country, the incomes can be higher than if the corporation would pay high income taxes in its original country (McIntyre, 2005, p. 11). Individuals cannot act in such a wide scope, so their opportunities of income sheltering are narrower.

Campaign Contributions

The nature of the American politics is rather interesting as seeking financial support from outside, non-partisan, individuals or companies (campaign contributions) is open and legal (Skolnick and Currie, 2007, p. 81). However, scholarly evidence exist that proves the fact that the public consideration of campaign contributions and overall financial side of elections leads to the discouragement of voting rates and undermines the beliefs of people in the politicians and ideas they support (Skolnick and Currie, 2007, p. 82).

For instance, Cebula (2007) argues that the “there appears to be strong evidence that PAC congressional election campaign contributions may have also acted to reduce the voter participation rate over the study period” (p. 399). Thus, according to Cebula (2007), people tend to vote less willingly in times of financial and economic prosperity, especially when they openly observe the work of politicians not on improving their lives but on getting money for their election campaigns (p. 400). Accordingly, the relation between campaign contributions’ obtaining and voting discouragement is direct as the former facilitates the latter.

Water Services Privatization

The specificity of the American multinational society has led to the process of privatization in various fields of public economy. Water services sector has been subject to privatization as well, first of all due to the complaints of numerous people about the quality of tap water provided to them (Varghese, 2007, p. 1). The major reasons for the dispute was the inability of municipal and federal authorities to provide proper funding and maintenance to water supplying systems. As a result, according to Varghese (2007), the state authorities chose to allocate water services to private entrepreneurship instead of looking for funds to maintain and update them themselves (p. 1).

However, the results of the water services privatization cannot be called positive. As Varghese (2007) argues, the current public opinion on water supply is divided between the people who support bottled water use as the way to consume healthier water, and those who are prone to look for means of updating and maintaining the public water supply system (p. 6). Private water service providers are not considered as alternatives as their standards are rated and different for various social income groups of people, while the very providers, as Varghese (2007) notes, are not responsible to the community for the quality of water provided.


Cebula, R. (2007). Pac congressional election campaign contributions and other political or economic influences on the voter participation rate. The American journal of economics and sociology, 66(2), 399-412.

Farm Subsidy Database. (2009). Tobacco Subsidies in the United States. Web.

McIntyre, R. (2005). Tax Cheats & Their Enablers.

Skolnick, J. H., and Currie, E. (2007). Crisis in American Institutions. 13th ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Varghese, S. (2007). Privatizing U.S. Water. Web.

Skin Cancer, Its Causes And Preventive Measures


Cancer is a much dreaded medical condition. The words death and cancer are sometimes closely associated with each other. Although mankind has progressed to a point that he can cure a very sick person dying of cancer, in many cases cancer can be a death sentence that comes too quickly. The patient and family members are caught unaware. The devastating loss of a loved one coupled with the expensive medical care is a very unpleasant experience. It is therefore important to take heed of a recent trend, the alarmingly increasing cases of skin cancer in the United States. Two things must be made clear about it. Skin cancer is lethal but it is curable. It is also very common. Skin Cancer is one of the most common of all cancers, therefore, society needs to know the risks involved and must be better educated when it comes to preventative measures.

Skin Cancer

There are many different types of cancer affecting various internal organs or systems such as cancer of bone, stomach, pancreas, liver etc. But overall, among all ages, it is a skin cancer that is the most commonly occurring in the United States (Buckmaster, p. 8). Every year there is an estimated 1.3 million cases of skin cancer reported in the U.S. and that means that the number of diagnosed cases of skin cancer is more than all of the other kinds of cancer combined (Buckmaster, p. 8). This is indeed an alarming trend.

The reason for the high incidence of skin cancer can be attributed to the fact that the skin is the largest organ of the body. Thus, there is more surface area that can go wrong especially if the skin is subjected to external forces that is harmful to skin cells. It is important to understand why there is a high incidence of skin cancer in America. It is a country dominated by Caucasians – people who have fairer skin. The reason for this phenomenon can be explained by the presence of melanocytes, these are skin cells that produce melanin, which in turn is a substance that gives skin color (Buckmaster, p. 10). The darker the skin the more melanin it contains (Buckmaster, p. 10). Thus, white-skinned people have less melanin but just like any other normal people Caucasians with fairer skin love to go to the beach, do sunbathing, and play outdoors, exposing their skin to the harmful radiation coming from the sun. Ultra-violet rays or UV are one of the chief causes of skin cancer.

The two most common form of skin cancer is squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma that are both cancers of epithelial cells (Cohen, p. 652). Squamous cell carcinoma can be observed as a painless but firm red nodule or plaque that may evolve into a form that has surface scales or ulceration (Cohen, p. 652). Basal cell carcinoma on the other hand is the most common form and more than 75 percent of all skin cancers are basal cell types (Cohen, p. 652). It will appear as smooth pearly papule (Cohen, p. 652). While skin cancer is common and can be very painful and destructive the good thing about this medical problem is the fact that it can be seen from the outside. Unlike cancerous invading internal organs and the person can suffer for months without knowing the real reason for the pain and discomfort, skin cancer patients on the other hand can immediately go to their doctor and get treatment.

Causes of Skin Cancer

There are at least three major causes of skin cancer. It would be best, to begin with, the least known: human papillomavirus (“HPV”). For many years, doctors have known the link between HPV and non-melanoma skin cancer but they could not pinpoint the exact reason why this occurs. But lately, researchers were able to determine reason why. They found out that a protein in HPV causes skin cells to invade underlying tissue (Damania & Pipas, p. 115). The culprit is a protein found in HPV called E7. (Damania & Pipas, p. 115). The E7 protein can sabotage the tumor suppressors found in cells as well as transform cells through biochemical mechanisms (Damania & Pipas, p. 115). The best preventive measure is to request for specialist care when a person is diagnosed with HPV. Since, this medical breakthrough, patients can now be forewarned that being infected with HPV can lead to non-melanoma skin cancer.

While skin cancer that will arise from HPV rarely occurs, the second most important cause of skin cancer that requires attention is genetic predisposition. According to medical experts, there are certain physical characteristics, such as fair skin, red or blond hair, inability to tan, and a freckling phenotype that can be linked to an increased risk for melanoma. But the more tangible proof that genetic disposition is a factor was traced to the diminished ability of the epidermis to respond to UV damage (Reichrath, p. 253). This is due to certain pigment regulating gene called melanocortin-1 receptor or MCIR (Reichrath, p. 253).

Aside from the said pigment regulating gene, there is also the rare hereditary syndrome called xeroderma pigmentosum or XP (Reichrath, p. 253). Those who have XP, “…carry a nucleotide excision DNA repair defect” that can result in acute photosensitivity and as a result, the person can develop multiple skin cancers (Reichrath, p. 253). There is no easy way to find out if a person carries this genetic predisposition or that someone suffers from XP. The best way to deal with this problem is to find out if skin cancer is common in the family. If this is the case then it would be wise to request a medical check-up to find out in advance if a person is predisposed to this type of cancer.

The most common cause of cancer is exposure to sunlight, specifically ultra-violet rays. But there is more to sunlight than what the naked eye can see. In fact the UV rays that causes cancer is invisible to the naked eye. There are two kinds of UV rays: a) UVA and b) UVB (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). These two can be differentiated by their wavelength. A UVA is between 400-320 nanometers while a UVB is between 320-290 nanometers (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). Both types of UV light can penetrate the atmosphere and has been known to cause premature skin aging, eye damage, and skin cancers. As of recent times, there was a common belief that UVB is the chief cause of skin cancer because of the way it damages the epidermis but scientists are now convinced that both types of UV rays can cause skin cancer. Although UVA is less intense than UVB it is prevalent throughout the day and constitutes 95 percent of the UV radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). UVA is the main light used for tanning (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). This is the reason why it is now imperative to observe preventive measures all throughout the day and not just during times when the sun shines the brightest.

While UVA is present all throughout the day, UVB occurs between 10AM and 4PM in between April to October – the times of the year when it is best to go out and play outdoors and expose the body to the sun for tanning or for work purposes. The UVB is known to be the chief cause of skin reddening and sunburn and damage to the epidermal layers (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). Those who live in high altitudes and work near reflective surfaces are prone to skin damage from UVB (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). The aforementioned two common forms of skin cancers – squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are caused by the mutation-causing effects of sunlight’s UV rays (Cohen, p. 652). It is important to find out the mechanism that can bring about skin cancer.

UVA and UVB rays damage skin cells. They specifically damage DNA and induces repair (Ruddon, p. 43). While the repair process was initiated there is a risk of errors and this can lead to mutation and then to cancer. Thus as the skin is repeatedly damaged as in the case with people who continue to expose their skin and those who love to get a tan, the cycle of repair, recovery, and damage goes on and on. As mentioned earlier, the process can be repeated and every time DNA was damaged and repaired the chances of error increase. For those who cannot efficiently repair the damage to skin, the risks are higher and they are more prone to skin cancer than others (Ruddon, p. 44). There is therefore the need to take extra precaution when it comes to sun exposure.

It has been proven that ultraviolet light coming from high-pressure sunlamps in most tanning salons produces 12 times more UVA than the sun (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). This is the reason why those who frequently visit tanning salons are prone to skin cancer. They are 1.5 times more likely to develop skin cancer (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). One way to prevent skin cancer from occurring is to avoid going to tanning salons. Another way is to limit exposure by using appropriate clothes to cover exposed skin. Some clothes were designed to have a higher ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) and by using these types of shirts one can be assured that only a limited amount of UV rays can penetrate the skin (Skin Cancer Foundation, p. 1). Hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen can help too.


Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States of America. But it is also a form of cancer that is preventable because the common cause is exposure to ultraviolet rays, specifically UVA and UVB. There used to be an erroneous belief that UVB is the only light spectrum that can damage the skin. Now, it has been proven that even UVA, the type used in tanning salons can also cause cancer. Thus, the best way to prevent skin cancer is protect the skin from exposure to UVB and UVA. This means that fair-skinned people must reduce time spent in tanning salons and if possible they should not go there at all. If they love to go to the beach during summertime then it would be best to use clothing that has high UPF. If this is not possible and they need to expose their skin then it would be best to use sunscreen for optimum protection. While UV rays are the main culprit it would be wise to examine other factors such as HPV and certain genetic predisposition to skin cancer, especially those who cannot efficiently repair damage skin that was exposed to sunlight.


As wise men say, prevention is better than cure. Americans, especially Caucasians must end their love affair with tanning salons and sunbathing knowing that their skin type is prone to damage and mutation when exposed to the sun. They must do everything they can to protect exposed skin by either using clothes with ultraviolet ray protection or use creams that will help their skin combat the harmful effects of the sun. Skin cancer is indeed common but this can be prevented if Americans will be better educated to the major causes of skin cancer and learn about preventive measures.

Works Cited

Buckmaster, Marjorie. Skin Cancer. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2008.

Cohen, Barbara. Medical Terminology: An Illustrated Guide. PA: Wolters Kluwer Health, 2008.

Damania, Blossom & James Pipas. DNA Tumor Viruses. New York: Springer, 2009.

Reichrath, Jorg. Sunlight, Vitamin D and Skin Cancer. New York: Springer, 2008.

Ruddon, Raymond. Cancer Biology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Skin Cancer Foundation. Understanding UVA and UVB. 2009. Web.

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