The Short Story “White Hills Like Elephants” By Earnest Hemingway Sample Assignment

If there is one universal quality that describes humans, it is the unwillingness to confront or accept harsh realities like death, terminal illness, and loss. This human nature is seen in humankind’s attempt to downplay the seriousness of issues through the use of euphemisms, ignoring painful truths, and the use of colorful language and metaphors to describe painful events. Despite the use of euphemisms, the author shows that the issue in question (abortion) bears heavily on the characters’ minds, hence the need to avoid talking about it directly.

In “Hills Like White Elephants,” the two main characters, an American man and his girlfriend simply known as “Jig”, are having a conversation about the need for the girl to abort the unwanted pregnancy. The dilemma that the author presents is the man’s need to convince the girl to terminate the life of her unborn baby, without making it to sound painful or bad. To resolve this dilemma, the author employs euphemisms to describe the experience of aborting. Accordingly, nowhere in the text does the author use the term “abortion” to indicate it was what the man means when he asks the girlfriend to have an “operation.” The use of the term “operation” instead of the actual term to describe the act helps the man to view it as a harmless act. Abortion involves the termination of life, but the man does not want to acknowledge that he is proposing to make his girlfriend terminate the germinating life inside her (Jiahong 100). Secondly, he uses the term operation in a way that suggests that it is a treatment procedure. Before the reader gets the gist of it, it is easy to be misled into thinking that the girl is suffering from some kind of disease, for which she needs an operation to get well. In this regard, when the man says “It is really an awfully simple operation, Jig,” the reader is persuaded to think that the man is referring to something as simple as removing jiggers (Hemingway 476). At the same time, it is easy to assume that he is trying to persuade the girl to go under the knife for her own good. One becomes suspicious, however, after realizing that even the girls does not know what kind of operation she needs, or that she needs one at all. Yet, the man does not want to tell her directly because it will not only hurt her, but also because he does not want to put into words the life-ending act he is thinking about.

To conclude, the short story “White Hills Like Elephants” by Earnest Hemingway demonstrates how humans deal with harsh realities like abortion by speaking about them in a harmless way. The man’s reluctance to have a meaningful conversation about it indicates that he would like to be through it as quickly as possible without thinking about its implications. His approach suggests humans’ reluctance to directly confront the harsh realities of life.

Works Cited

Hemmingway, Ernest. “Hills like White Elephants.” Charters, Ann (Ed.). The Story and its Writer: An Introduction to Short Fiction. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2003.

Jiahong, Ren. “The Analysis of Characters’ Speech Act in Hills Like White Elephants.” Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, vol. 4 no. 14, 2017, pp. 99-106.

Technology In Health Care

The healthcare industry has always been one of the most crucial aspects of citizens’ well-being both at the governmental and local levels. Without allocating sufficient resources to health care, countries’ leaders cannot expect positive dynamics in the quality of life. Recently, much attention has been gained by the issue of technology in health care, or health information technology (HIT). Many researchers, caregivers, and patients report that the implementation of HIT has a beneficial effect on the process of treatment, as well as on the post-hospital recovery. HIT has the potential to simplify physicians’ and nurses’ work. However, favorable outcomes can only be gained with due support from the government and local authorities. Without appropriate funding, HIT implementation can be challenging and may lead to adverse results. Therefore, it is necessary to lobby legislators for funds to make the transition from traditional healthcare approaches to HIT-incorporating ones smooth and advantageous. The present paper outlines the main points related to HIT and offers an overview of possible ways to reach out to legislators’ support.

The Rationale for Choosing the Topic

HIT has been gaining more and more attention from healthcare professionals and legislators alike over the past few decades. Researchers analyze the topic of patient safety and healthcare quality (Feldman et al., 2018; Hessels, 2015). Acceptance, effectiveness, and efficiency (AEE) of HIT has been the object of analysis in nursing care (Krick et al., 2019). The impact of HIT on healthcare providers’ burnout and stress has been investigated (Gardner et al., 2019). The financial performance of hospitals and their products have also been analyzed from the point of view of HIT implementation (Wang et al., 2018). These and other studies indicate that the topic selected for analysis is highly relevant and presents interest to researchers and practitioners alike. It is of utmost importance to investigate this issue not only from the point of benefits for patients and healthcare institutions. Rather, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms promoting and hindering HIT implementation so as to explain the need for its support to legislators. The topic of HIT in health care may not be new, but there are still many aspects that deserve additional attention and require immediate consideration.

Probably the most evident reason for selecting the topic is that HIT has proven to be an effective method of enhancing hospital care. Furthermore, HIT, such as electronic health records (EHRs), have demonstrated a positive impact on clinical decision support, patient safety, and patient-provider communication (Feldman et al., 2018). Apart from these factors, patient satisfaction and quality of care also play a vital role in the process of treatment. Therefore, HIT’s potential to reduce the length of stay and eliminate readmissions is another factor deserving careful consideration (Hessels et al., 2015). The topic is highly relevant in many dimensions, the most important one being the readiness of healthcare practitioners to implement new technologies in their practice.

It is no secret that physicians and nurses meet many challenges in their daily practice, including a high nurse-to-patient ratio, long shifts, insufficient resting time, and others. These issues complicate healthcare employees’ routine and may lead to increased levels of stress. HIT implementation can serve as an additional stress factor since it requires new skills and extra time. Careful analysis of the topic will allow understanding the ways of mitigating difficulties associated with HIT implementation and use. Furthermore, the investigation of the selected issue will promote the justification of lobbying legislators for providing funds to support the trend.

Current Relevance of Material

The chosen topic is highly relevant both in current practice and research. Many scholarly investigations have been made on HIT during the past few decades, but for the relevance of the present paper, only those published within the past five years have been selected. Hsiao et al.’s (2019) study analyzes the potential of HIT, as well as its challenges and opportunities. Scholars note that by collecting and using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) correctly, it is possible to enhance the delivery of health care and improve the patient experience. In this connection, Hsiao et al. (2019) emphasize the significance of HIT as a productive PRO use in healthcare settings. Researchers also note that the advanced use of PRO can enhance shared decision making and harmonize the workflow. At the same time, there are challenges on the way to utilizing HIT by healthcare practitioners. As Gardner et al. (2019) report, many physicians and nurses admit having too little time for documenting patient data and being forced to work on EHRs in their free time. Furthermore, healthcare practitioners face various obstacles in filling out HIT documentation, which results in their frustration and work-related stress.

Another indication of the topic’s relevance is that HIT is likely to promote a positive return on investment to patients’ satisfaction with the care they receive at hospitals. As Werder (2015) notes, HIT has become “a key ingredient” in the patient experience discussion (p. 143). Patient experience and HIT are constantly becoming closer to one another, which justifies the pertinence of the theme. The implementation of HIT is a consequence of the introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) by President Barack Obama in 2010. This law is aimed at enhancing the quality of health care, promoting access to healthcare services, and cutting down on costs (Werder, 2015). HIT has been acknowledged as the principal element in increasing patient satisfaction due to providing access to data among caregivers as well as offering quick access to patients’ previous medical information.

At the same time, it is necessary to discuss challenges posed by HIT implementation since these are crucial issues to consider in the current healthcare system. Most importantly, healthcare providers lack user-friendly data display, which results in excessive time spent on filling out EHRs and other HIT-related systems (Hsiao et al., 2015). Additionally, it is necessary to improve the process of implementing HIT so that it does not distract physicians and nurses from their direct responsibilities. Furthermore, healthcare employees need to receive appropriate support and instruction on how to utilize HIT with the greatest benefits. Although HIT has been introduced in the healthcare system, these and other questions remain unanswered and require immediate consideration on the part of hospital administrations and legislators alike.

Integration into Clinical Practice and the Use of Information in Clinical Settings

The integration of HIT into clinical practice is a process requiring time and attention. Apart from that, incorporating HIT in hospital settings necessitates additional resources that constitutes another reason for lobbying legislators for funds, which will be discussed in one of the further chapters. Most typically, integrating HIT into clinical settings is associated with the need to reduce the number of adverse events triggered by medical errors. Such events have the potential to escalate patient mortality and morbidity (Hessels et al., 2015). Moreover, medical errors frequently result in additional costs for hospitals and patients. Therefore, with the inclusion of HIT in clinical practice on a regular basis, hospitals can expect a reduction in adverse events and an increase in patient outcomes.

Paper electronic records, which prevailed in the past, took much time to fill in, but it was not their main drawback. There was only one copy of a paper record, so physicians and nurses had to share it and could not get timely access to crucial data. As a result, many of the patients’ needs remained unmet or neglected due to bureaucratic procedures associated with the processes of keeping and sharing health records. Meanwhile, the introduction of EHRs enabled healthcare professionals to speed up the process of recording patient data and to share it without having to wait until a colleague does not require it any longer.

Not only EHRs have been integrated into clinical practice as a means of HIT. Other information technology innovations, such as software, mobile devices, and communication devices, have gradually entered the clinical practice and gained popularity there (Werder, 2015). Out of software applications utilized, practitioners acknowledge the positive role of mHealth programs, which enable them to counsel patients without arranging personal appointments (Lobelo et al., 2016). Such apps allow reducing the risk of serious diseases, controlling patients’ indicators, and prescribing treatment via smartphones. Additionally, the data from mHealth applications can be retrieved to one’s EHR, which is another asset of integrating HIT into clinical practice. As a result of this process, healthcare practitioners can provide more opportunities to patients. Still, certain barriers both to integration and implementation of HIT exist.

The information is used in clinical settings to promote healthcare practitioners’ and patients’ awareness of opportunities and benefits provided by HIT. Additionally, financial departments of hospitals can utilize data to find ways of reducing costs and increasing return on assets (Wang et al., 2018). The use of information enables healthcare practitioners to connect with their patients better, which results in higher satisfaction rates and improved patient outcomes. The data is used in clinical settings with the help of computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, and various applications that can be installed on any of these devices with the help of the Internet connection.

Lobbying Legislators for Funds

Taking into consideration the aforementioned facts and research findings, it is relevant to explain the need to lobby legislators for funds and the ways of doing so. There are several important aspects of HIT integration in health care related to funding. Firstly, additional financial help is necessary to provide healthcare institutions with opportunities for human resource planning and handling expectations (Feldman et al., 2018). Secondly, funding obtained with policymakers’ help will enable hospital administrations to “enable large-scale, long-term evaluations” of HIT in health care (Krick et al., 2019, p. 1). Next, legislators’ support will allow filling the gaps in research associated with HIT implementation and successful usage.

In order to lobby legislators for funds, the bottom-up approach will be utilized. First of all, it will be necessary to identify an organization that might be interested in the selected topic. Most likely, it will be the state’s organization of nurses since such communities are highly interested in improving the conditions in which nurses and physicians work. Typically, the provision of high-quality health services and satisfaction of patients’ needs are enclosed in such organizations’ vision and mission statements.

The next step on the way to lobbying legislators for funds would be the preparation of a brief report enumerating the main benefits of HIT in health care. Also, the report will contain a description of the major challenges to HIT implementation. This report will be prepared by an interdisciplinary team consisting of the following specialists: a nurse, a physician, a human resource manager, and a chief financial officer. The mentioned professionals do not have to work in the same healthcare institutions, but they need to hold regular meetings to divide responsibilities and be on the same track. In current conditions related to the pandemic, it will be both convenient and safe to hold Zoom meetings or utilize any other means of virtual communication.

After preparing and issuing the report, one person will be selected to present it to the legislators who can facilitate the process of lobbying. Hence, it will be necessary to contact the responsible legislator and ask for an appointment with him or her. At the meeting, the report presenter will outline the main issues connected with the problem of HIT in health care. An emphasis should be made on the potential of HIT to improve communication among caregivers, eliminate redundant data collection, and deliver value (Werder, 2015). At the same time, the report presenter should note the drawbacks of insufficient funding, such as healthcare professionals’ burnout and stress (Gardner et al., 2019). The legislator should be informed and that by increasing funds to support HIT, hospitals will be able to increase their return on assets and productivity in the long run (Wang et al., 2018). After presenting these data to the legislator, it is expected that he or she will contact the main decision-maker (for instance, the state’s Governor).

Further steps in lobbying for funds will include issuing a bill, presenting it at the state’s committee hearings, and receiving the majority of voices in favor. Next, if everything goes well, the bill will be sent to the other legislative chamber and returned to the house of origin. The final step of the procedure will be the Governor’s decision to sign the bill into law. When all these stages are passed positively, hospitals will receive additional funds for HIT implementation on a legal basis. This fact presupposes that healthcare institutions will be able to arrange proper education for their employees without having to make nurses and physicians spend their free time on utilizing HIT. Also, the levels of stress and burnout will be eliminated, and patient satisfaction rates will increase.

Conclusion

Health information technology is gaining more attention from researchers and healthcare practitioners due to a variety of benefits that hospitals, their employees, and patients can obtain. However, the issue is currently underestimated by legislators, which results in insufficient funding for HIT integration and implementation. Having outlined the major advantages of HIT and challenges that many hospital employees face on the way to mastering it, one cannot but conclude that additional funds are the necessary prerequisite of mitigating the obstacles. The most viable solution to be applied for lobbying legislators for funds is the bottom-up approach. By analyzing the problem from the insider, healthcare providers will be able to explain its significance to the highest-level decision-maker. Once funding is secured, hospitals will be able to reduce risks associated with HIT implementation and increase advantages for employees and patients alike.

References

Feldman, S. S., Buchalter, S., & Hayes, L. W. (2018). Health information technology in healthcare quality and patient safety: Literature review. JMIR Medical Informatics, 6(2), e10264. Web.

Gardner, R. L., Cooper, E., Haskell, J., Harris, D. A., Poplau, S., Kroth, P. J., & Linzer, M. (2019). Physician stress and burnout: The impact of health information technology. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 26(2), 106-114. Web.

Hessels, A., Flynn, L., Cimiotti, J. P., Bakken, S., & Gershon, S. (2015). Impact of heath information technology on the quality of patient care. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics, 19. Web.

Hsiao, C.-J., Dymek, C., Kim, B., & Russell, B. (2019). Advancing the use of patient-reported outcomes in practice: Understanding challenges, opportunities, and the potential of health information technology. Quality of Life Research, 28, 1575-1583. Web.

Krick, T., Huter, K., Domhoff, D., Schmidt, A., Rothgang, H., & Wolf-Ostermann, K. (2019). Digital technology and nursing care: A scoping review on acceptance, effectiveness and efficiency studies of informal and formal care technologies. BMC Health Services Research, 19. Web.

Lobelo, F., Kelli, H. M., Tejedor, S. C., Pratt, M., McConnell, M. V., Martin, S. S., & Welk, G. J. (2016). The wild wild West: A framework to integrate mHealth software applications and wearables to support physical activity assessment, counseling and interventions for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 58(6), 584-594. Web.

Wang, T., Wang, Y., & McLeod, A. (2018). Do health information technology investments impact hospital financial performance and productivity? International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 28, 1-13. Web.

Werder, M. (2015). Health information technology: A key ingredient of the patient experience. Patient Experience Journal, 2(1), 143-147. Web.

Information Technology Utilization In Nursing

Introduction

The use of innovative technologies is inevitable in the modern world. At the same time, it is practically impossible to state that they are harmful if used properly. Being the Director of Nursing for an outpatient (ambulatory) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Center, we use Macpractice software for keeping and analyzing data. There are a lot of advantages of the use of this software which are going to be considered below based on the Macpractice software used in my practice.

Some benefits of information technology for nursing

The use of information technology in the hospitals helps cope with a number of problems, increase the quality of the care, “service delivery, HIPAA/security compliance, and financial/billing operational efficiency” (Moen, 2005, p. 27). On the basis of my personal experience, I can state that the use of information technologies (we use Macpractice software) in hospitals is beneficial. First of all, the time for dealing with papers is reduced. Second, doctors have an opportunity to access data from each department, room, and even from their IPods when they have o dictate something to the patient being far from the hospital. Third, any medical record is put in the personal account of each patient from blood test to diagnostic test, so, there is no necessity to check numerous papers for searching the necessary information. Moreover, each patient has an opportunity to check data, the last prescriptions, the day of the last visit, etc.

The use of information technologies in nursing practice is an opportunity to reduce the space for keeping papers in archives. At the same time, some people refuse to trust our system of information keeping and prefer to get hard copies of their diagnoses and the lists of prescriptions. The Macpractice software we use, does not allow us to schedule staff and follow their responsibilities and the scope of done work, still, the use of the information technologies in practice is beneficial as it allows us to access information fast, which is one of the main desires of each nurse.

Can information technology help reduce or control health care costs and issues of access or quality?

The information technologies may help cope with the following problems, personnel administration, ordering medication and other useful issues. Still, some scientists point to the wrong use of electronic health records and think that their direct use should be following the patients, the information about their diseases and prescriptions, not the staff monitoring (Information technology, 2009). The research conducted by Andrews, Pearce, Ireson, and Love (2005) shows that access to information via electronic sources is a necessity. It increases the quality of serving the patients and reduces time on information search when patients wait for some data devoted to their health history. But, along with the number of the advantages, the use of innovative technologies in practice may increase costs, as the software should be purchased and further servicing is also required (Andrews, Pearce, Ireson, & Love, 2005). Moreover, some people point to the violation of the privacy right, even though the system is properly protected and only doctors and another limited number of staff has access to the patients’ data (Stoil, 2004). However the cost of the installation of the innovative technologies is high, they are still considered to be beneficial as they reduce time on information search and accessing data devoted to numerous tests, previous prescriptions, problems, chronic diseases, etc. Time for diagnosing is reduced as well.

Reference List

Andrews, J. E., Pearce, K. A., Ireson, C., & Love, M. M. (2005). Information-seeking behaviors of practitioners in a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN). Journal of the Medical Library Association, 93(2), 206-212.

Information technology: Is long-term care leading the way? (2009). Long-Term Living: For the Continuing Care Professional, 58(6), 53.

Moen, M. D. (2005). Is it time for new information technology? (cover story). Nursing Homes: Long Term Care Management, 54(1), 26.

Stoil, M. J. (2004). Technology as a solution – and a policy problem? Nursing Homes: Long Term Care Management, 53(5), 12.

error: Content is protected !!