The Surgical Procedure And Psychology Homework Essay Sample


Many scholars believe that personality is something permanent. However, some researchers have been focusing on different surgeries that make it easier for people to change their appearances. The argument presented in this paper is that individuals who elect to have plastic surgery develop different personalities. The surgical procedure is also known to have negative consequences or psychological disorders. This argument presented in the paper is supported using the concepts presented by Erik Erikson in his psychohistory theory. The stories of Michael Jackson and Jennifer Aniston are also used to describe how plastic surgery can increase a person’s self-confidence and support his or her dreams.

Many psychoanalysts and theorists tend to argue that personality is fairly static across human beings’ lives. This means that an individual’s personality will be influenced or shaped by his or her childhood experiences. The attributes, values, and behaviors of a person will not change significantly throughout the lifespan. Unfortunately, modern scholars have used various examples such as plastic surgery to explain why (and how) human beings might develop different personalities. This discussion examines this issue using Erik Erikson’s viewpoints and theoretical assumptions.

Plastic Surgery and Personality

Golshani et al. (2015) define “personality” as a set of feelings, behaviors, emotions, and patterns of thinking exhibited by a given individual. Human beings portray diverse personalities depending on their social backgrounds, experiences, and genetic constitutions. It is agreeable that some people might feel inferior and dissatisfied with certain issues or physical deformities. Such problems have become sources of motivation for individuals who elect to have reconstructive surgeries.

Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson’s psychological arguments and concepts can be used to examine the nature of plastic surgery. Using his concept of psychohistory, Erikson examined how human beings harbor undesirable identities in their lives. He went further to assert that such negative attributes could be irreconcilable. The concept of transference is used by Erikson to explain how a person uses his or her pre-adult past to view every new friend or acquaintance (Margraf, Meyer, & Lavallee, 2015). Consequently, identity problems affect many people in different parts of the world. Such gaps force them to seek alternative measures to transform their deformities and lead lives that appear normal to them. Others do so in an attempt to get rid of any secret curse that might be affecting their identities, successes, or achievements in life. With this kind of understanding, it becomes quite clear that people elect plastic surgery in an attempt to transform their images and “improve” their personalities.

Development of a New Personality

As described above, any form of surgery is capable of changing an individual’s personality. According to Erik Erikson, the decision makes it possible for the person to deal with his or her deformities. A person’s physical appearance can be affected by deformities, aging processes, or diseases. Individuals can choose surgical procedures to improve their looks (Golshani et al., 2015). This move has the potential to improve a person’s confidence. For instance, women can decide to have plastic surgery in an attempt to feel younger and sexier. It is agreeable that a person who gets the surgery will feel good about his or her new appearance.

Anxiety is another concern that encourages people to seek ways of improving their looks. With plastic surgery, it becomes easier for them to feel satisfied with themselves. For example, women have been seeking plastic surgery to change different aspects of their bodies such as breasts. They do so to hide undesirable features. With this kind of transformation, it becomes quite clear that plastic surgery changes an individual’s personality (Margraf et al., 2015). This is the case because the targeted person believes strongly that the procedure has improved his or her appearance. Consequently, the process will result in increased self-esteem and confidence. These are critical aspects that define personality. When a person’s self-confidence is boosted, it becomes easier for him or her to achieve every outlined objective in life.

Positive and Negative Implications

Plastic surgery is something that has been observed or believed to transform an individual’s personality. This kind of change makes it easier for a person to focus on various goals in life. The surgical process results in increased buoyancy and coolness. Individuals who have undergone plastic surgery will feel attractive and contented with their looks. Such feelings maximize one’s self-esteem, thereby encouraging him or her to interact with others positively. Milothridis, Pavlidis, Haidich, and Panagopoulou (2016) clearly indicate that self-esteem is something that tends to permeate in every aspect of a person’s life.

On the other hand, plastic surgery has negative implications that have the potential to affect a person’s goals. For instance, Erikson indicates that many people always focus on the best approaches in an attempt to have worthwhile lives. Some individuals who feel that they are not pretty might decide to undergo surgery to improve their looks and pursue their goals. However, the move might disorient such individuals after realizing that the procedure did not support their objectives. The process also amounts to deception. A person who embraces this kind of medical procedure to improve his or her looks might develop a psychological disorder (Gilleard & Higgs, 2016). This condition might result in negative ideas and lack of focus in life. Additionally, the negative health outcomes associated with any form of reconstructive surgery cannot be ignored. That being the case, individuals planning to have any form of plastic surgery should be aware of these potential positive and negative consequences.

Case Studies

This discussion has led to a personal theory about plastic surgery and personality. According to this concept, plastic surgery is something that has the potential to change an individual’s personality. Several examples can be presented to support this kind of argument. One of the best examples of individuals who had plastic surgery was Michael Jackson. His decision to have his skin color changed through plastic surgery was influenced by his feelings of inferiority and inadequacy as an African American. Plastic surgery, according to Michael Jackson, was the best option to remove every remnant of his background as an African American (Margraf et al., 2015). Consequently, the choice would improve his feelings and make it easier for him to achieve his goals as a musician. It is agreeable that Michael Jackson became one of the most successful and inspirational musicians.

The second example is that of Jennifer Aniston. The celebrity has received several facelifts and nose jobs within the past twenty years. She has elected to have such plastic surgeries to ensure that she continues to look young and attractive (Gilleard & Higgs, 2016). She has been doing so to support her career objectives and realize her potential.


Erik Erikson’s psychohistory theory indicates clearly that people are in constant struggle with their pasts and physical deformities. The argument explains why many people have elected to have plastic surgery. Consequently, the above two examples also show conclusively that individuals who undergo radical surgeries eventually develop new or different personalities. This fact should, therefore, be considered by persons who are planning to have any form of reconstructive surgery.


Gilleard, C., & Higgs, P. (2016). Connecting life span development with the sociology of the life course: A new direction. Sociology, 50(2), 301-315. Web.

Golshani, S., Mani, A., Toubaei, S., Farnia, V., Sepehry, A. A., & Alikhani, M. (2015). Personality and psychological aspects of cosmetic surgery. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 40(1), 38-47. Web.

Margraf, J., Meyer, A. H., & Lavallee, K. L. (2015). Psychological health and aims of aesthetic surgery seekers. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(6), 877-891. Web.

Milothridis, P., Pavlidis, L., Haidich, A., & Panagopoulou, E. (2016). A systematic review of the factors predicting the interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, 49(3), 397-402. Web.

Seamus Company And Technological Solutions


Seamus Company produces educational materials for middle school students and is seeking additional educational solutions for its line of products. This paper presents a proposal for the enhancing of the Seamus Company product catalog through an innovative technological solution. The current abundance of smartphones, tablets, and other mobile technology on the market make them an ideal platform for an accessible and interactive educational application that the Seamus Company may find beneficial. The program would at first provide the user with the material that the company already created, as well as exercises based on its lessons. However, by tracking and collecting the user data, the company should be able to improve its products as well as create new ones with the user preferences in mind. The project would require approximately $86,000 dollars for its development including the application, as well as a team of analytics that would be responsible for the analysis of the collected data. My expertise as an IT professional allows me to understand the benefit of automatic feedback gathering, and its positive effect on the development of future projects. The Seamus Company would receive a powerful platform for distribution of new products, as well as a user base that would willingly improve its products through feedback.

Seamus Company Proposal

Modern technological solutions enable students of all ages to learn outside of the classroom. Smartphones, tablets, and other app-compatible hardware are present in the majority of homes. By taking advantage of the technology proliferation and children’s interest in touchscreen-enabled devices, Seamus Company could augment its product portfolio with effective, and continuously improving mobile learning applications. This proposal will provide an overview of how this project may be implemented.

The Proposed Solution

While mobile applications with a focus on learning are extremely common in the marketplace, the majority of them are static in their development. A teaching company creates an application based on certain topics, releases it, and then it remains the same for the entirety of its product lifespan. Such programs may be successful, but due to their high volume on the market, it is very difficult for the consumer to find those that are appropriate for them. To resolve this issue in an innovative way, the Seamus Company may release a learning application that not only provides information to the customer but uses the data collected from their learning sessions to improve the application and update it with new modules. At the moment, Seamus Company is focused on teaching grammar through cartoon characters, but with a continuously improving application, they would be capable of branching out into science, mathematics, and other school subjects.

In the initial form, the application would be based on the previously developed children’s learning books based on the company’s cartoon characters. Each lesson will be presented as a separate interactive activity where the user would be able to learn and then apply various elements of English grammar. After the end of the lesson, they would be scored based on the number of errors they made and the time they spent on each task. This information would be stored and transferred to the company for further analysis. By analyzing the data, the company would be able to determine which elements of their products are the most successful at teaching and which may need to be improved. Based on this data, the company would be able to improve their existing materials, as well as develop new ones for the application. New installments would become available at an additional cost to the user, but updates to the already purchased material would be free. The solution would implement best practices, innovative technologies and would adhere to all the educational standards. Interactive learning applications have shown to be effective educational tools (Liu & Chen, 2015; Kao, Tsai, Liu, & Yang, 2016) and by integrating continuous improvement into the application, it would ensure that the information is being comprehended.

Examples of Previous Implementations

One of the most successful companies who implemented a similar solution is Duolingo. Their iOS and Android applications are some of the most popular tools for learning foreign languages including French, Spanish, Italian, and a variety of others. While the application is free to download, it provides additional features and learning topics as in-app purchases for its users. Similarly to the proposed application, it evaluates the results of each lesson and keeps track of them for the user. While the way the Duolingo Company analyzes the information they receive is unknown and confidential, it is not unreasonable to assume that it informs the upgrades they implement into the application and the learning materials. While these applications are not the primary product of the company, they became highly lucrative and allowed for much wider exposure of the company. Through the accessible interface of the application, people of all ages are capable of learning a variety of languages that previously required much less portable solutions.

Another popular application on the mobile markets is iTooch Middle School by eduPad Inc. The program utilizes similar technical solutions of presenting learning information in the form of lessons and exercises in mathematics, language arts, music, and sciences. The information is focused on the middle school curriculum and is presented in both text and visual forms. In addition, the company provides more advanced and less advanced packages in the form of other applications. The application is provided for free, but the various subjects are required to be purchased as in-app purchases. As with the previous example, the application evaluates the work of the student and tracks their results across all the lessons.

Pearson Education, Inc. produces a series of desktop and mobile applications that connect under the brand “MyLab.” This is one of the most commonly used learning applications due to its proliferation in universities across the United States. Its functionality is similar to the previous app, but its scope is much larger. Depending on the student’s curriculum, the material available in the application changes from the simplest task to the most complex. The flexibility of the app allowed it to be implemented into a variety of teaching programs, but its functionality is lacking. Users often leave negative reviews of the product, and it has a poor reputation because of it. However, this issue does not relate to the aspects of the proposal. Elements such as automatic evaluation and results tracking function correctly and are some of the reasons behind the application’s popularity among educational institutions.

Accomplishing the Goals

The primary goals of the proposal are to create a mobile application that would add to the Seamus Company catalog of products and introduce its brand to a wider audience through it. There are multiple elements to the completion of this goal. The first is the need to create the application itself. It may be done from within the company by organizing a programming and support team, or by hiring an outside organization. Then the supporting objective of creating an analysis group would need to be addressed. It is expected that the information that would be provided by the users could be used to improve not only the application but also other products of the company. This is why the analysis group should operate from within the Seamus Company. Preferably, it would be organized from within, but new employees may also be hired as analysts. Subsequently, the existing creative staff would be tasked with the creation of new modules based on the feedback provided by the users. The deliverable of the project is the application itself, and in its final product form, it should be released on both iOS and Android mobile operating systems.

Projected Timeline

It is expected that the project would take approximately six months to complete. The first testing version of the product is expected to be released in June 2018. It would serve to find any possible issues with the application and its data delivery. At the beginning of July 2018, the first full version of the application should be released on iOS. Before the end of July 2018, the Android version should also be released. Then, the application would be used to collect data for the next two months. During this time, the creative team would be working on new modules for the application. By October 2018, the company would release the first new module for the application. Subsequently, this cycle would continue until further changes become required.

List of Required Resources

For the completion of the project and its implementation, a team of programmers would be required. It is estimated that the development would take around $70,000 for the full project, iOS and Android versions and the data delivery system. The cost of the data analysis team would depend on whether the company is capable of creating an internal department without hiring new employees. The base price, however, would be within the limits of $15,000 for equipment such as servers for data storage and analysis.

Evaluation of the Project

Due to the built-in analytics systems of iOS and Android application stores, the process of evaluation would be relatively simple. Statistics such as the number of downloads, star rating left by the users, and the number of purchases would be used to track how the project is being received by the public. Additionally, the content presented in the application would be evaluated based on the results achieved by its users. If people who use the application are having too much difficulty when completing a certain task, then perhaps the lesson contents need to be improved. This way evaluation would be done on both effectiveness and the success of the product.

Justification of Technology

The technological solution of this proposal perfectly fits into the business priorities of the Seamus Company. While the mobile platform allows for accessible interactivity and widespread availability of the company product, the automatic data collection aspect allows the company to continuously expand and improve its catalog of products with modules based on user’s preferences. As it was previously noted, the use of mobile interactive applications have shown to be an effective method of additional education, and the presented examples of other companies on the market show that such applications are quite popular. It would also allow the company to expand its focus to other middle school subjects and diversify its output without the need to produce new physical products.

Letter of Transmittal

JoAnn Miller

Seamus Company

Supply Chain Department

650 N South Street

Dellberg, WI 99999

Dear Mr. Miller,

I submit this proposal for an interactive mobile educational application based on the previous projects of the Seamus Company, specifically series of books about grammar, to your attention. Its technological application should fulfill the needs of the company by enhancing its catalog with an interactive educational platform on mobile devices. The program would use best practices and should be able to attract a wide array of new customers and demographics. It is designed to allow for continuous improvement through the automatic gathering of user data and its analysis.

The project is expected to be in operation in six months after the approval of the proposal with the first public release of the application occurring in July 2018. Both iOS and Android mobile operating systems would receive the application. The expected budget for the project is $85,000, which would include the development of both the application and the analytics team within the company. The timeline and prices may shift after further discussion of the project, however.

I hope that you will find this project to be beneficial for the Seamus Company and that it would allow for its future development.


*insert name here*


Kao, G. Y.-M., Tsai, C., Liu, C.-Y., & Yang, C.-H. (2016). The effects of high/low interactive electronic storybooks on elementary school students’ reading motivation, story comprehension and chromatics concepts. Computers & Education, 100(9), 56–70.

Liu, P.-L., & Chen, C.-J. (2015). Learning English through actions: A study of mobile-assisted language learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 23(2), 158–171.

Democratization In El Salvador

Having improved its political and economic situation by becoming a popular tourist destination, El Salvador might seem like a fascinating place to a random visitor, yet its internal political and social processes have been very challenging for its residents. The state has also been affected by two civil wars to a considerable degree and has been experiencing economic and political difficulties (Montoya, 2018). During the decades of the military regime, El Salvador’s residents were fed with a false notion of democracy under the thin veneer of which the authoritarian government promoted rightist ideas (Montoya, 2018).

Therefore, even after the civil war, the first elections that were supposed to hold a truly democratic value could not be seen as entirely liberating due to the social constraints that El Salvador’s residents refused to abandon. The shift toward democracy has been rather difficult for El Salvador as its citizens faced a range of impediments rooted in not only the political choices made by the ruling party but also due to the lack of readiness among the citizens themselves.

Herein lies the necessity to introduce the principles of democracy into every domain of the life of El Salvador’s citizens. The resulting change in the perception of democracy and the acceptance of the relevant values are expected to be observed in the specified society. Specifically, it is critical to address the internal conflicts within the state that have led to the two civil wars and the unceasing confrontation between the residents of the country.

The resulting reconciliation will pave the way to the gradual acceptance of democratic values and ideas. Although the process of democratization in El Salvador can be described as incomplete so far to explain the inconsistencies regarding people’s rights within the state, El Salvador also needs to align political democratization with the social one in order to encourage change.

Exploring the political context of the current democratization process, one has to mention the years of political repression that its citizens have witnessed, as well as the staggeringly high levels of poverty, which aggravate the current situation. El Salvador has been suffering from a dictatorship regime for several decades, after which two civil wars destroyed the very foundation of its social, financial, and economic security (Lakitsch, 2014).

Herein lies the stumbling block for the future democratization process; it is critical to ensure that people recognize the need for change and are willing to participate actively to create a new society based on the idea of equality. However, with the years of oppression, El Salvador’s citizens may be reluctant to challenge the status quo.

The problems described above are no longer a part of El Salvador and its policies, yet the aftermath of the specified events is still largely in its scale and predominantly negative. For instance, according to the recent statistical data, the levels of non-political violence in the state have been on the increase recently (“El Salvador’s politics of perpetual violence,” 2017). The lack of effort from the state officials to curb the violence rates indicates that the process of democratization in El Salvador is yet to have potentially promising effects on political, legal, and social justice. Indeed, the lack of security that has become an inseparable part of the citizens’ existence proves that the democratization process will need to include not only political changes but also shifts in the social justice system and the improved legal framework.

The internal contradictions of El Salvador, which have been fuelling its political instability and prevented the democratization process, can be explained by the presence of deeply seated conflicts between the Right and the Left. Specifically, the competition between Nationalist Republic Alliance (ARENA), which represents the Right, and FMLN, which promotes the Left-wing agenda, can be seen as the foundation for the problems associated with the promotion of democracy within the state (Montoya, 2018). Because of the unceasing confrontations between the two parties and their proponents, as opposed to the search for a compromise for the benefit of El Salvador’s residents, the authorities have been failing to introduce the principles of democracy into the state.

In retrospect, the current conflicts can be explained by years of the totalitarian regime, which was foisted on the people of El Salvador by General Hernandez Martínez. Martínez established a military regime that suppressed any hint of democracy and freedom within the state, thus creating a politically, economically, and culturally stifling environment. Despite the fact that Martínez attempted to create the semblance of democracy within the state, the specified endeavors could only be considered as laughably dishonest. The situation was aggravated by the introduction of local puppet authorities with the help of fraudulent elections held in the 1970ies (Mainwaring & Pérez-Liñán, 2014).

The creation of the leftist movement, which took place roughly on the specified time slot, can be attributed to building social and political tension within El Salvador society. On the one hand, the specified change could be seen as a chance of enhancing the process of social democratization since it implied a shift in national thinking. On the other hand, the further steps taken by FMLN could be described as rather violent and, therefore, also being directly opposed to the traditional principles of democracy.

Moreover, the shift that occurred after Martínez’s government had been overthrown could not be described as intrinsically democratic, either. For instance, the fact that FMLN preferred to distance itself from the election process under the assumption that the specified change was introduced with the help of the American government could be seen as the reason for concern. Due to the previous history of political submission and the experience of freethinking being suppressed, El Salvador citizens, in general, and the members of FMLN, in particular, could not differentiate between the introduction of culturally alien values and the promotion of democratic principles that are universal in their nature (Montoya, 2018).

Thus, the resulting tension between the Right and the Left, which can be observed in El Salvador’s political arena, should be seen as the side effect of the deeply rooted societal issues within the state (Ramos, López, & Quinteros, 2015). The democratization process has been stalled, and the levels of crime within the state have risen due to the absence of a clear vector for further political and social growth.

The specified change can be implemented by enhancing the financial security of the population and introducing opportunities for citizens to receive proper education and employment chances. Therefore, it is critical for the democratization process to be supported by external help, in general, and funding for societal change, in particular. In addition, alterations on a legal level will have to take place in order to prompt further democratization.

Regulations that entitle all citizens to irrefutable rights and freedoms will have to be created in order to establish legal and social security for El Salvador’s residents. At present, democratization is hindered to a significant extent due to the increasingly high crime levels within the state (Mainwaring & Pérez-Liñán, 2014). Therefore, policies for curbing the rates of crime in the state are an essential addition to the current set of principles by which the state is regulated.

In addition, a shift in the social perspective will be needed. When considering the failure of the initial phase of democratization in El Salvador, one should mention the fact that a range of its citizens was convinced about the phenomenon being administered entirely by the United States, which pursued their mercenary goals. While the identified statement is debatable, it is crucial to provide El Salvador citizens with independence and create an environment in which democratization will occur on their behalf (Mainwaring & Pérez-Liñán, 2014). As a result, a change in the social system and the political framework of the state will occur.

Although El Salvador has undergone profound changes over the past decade in the attempt to promote democratization, further changes on legal and social levels should be made in order to plant democratic ideas into the local society. Specifically, the very foundation for state governance will have to be reconsidered for the state to move from the current situation to the traditional democratic principles.

Specifically, it will be crucial to improve the levels of legal and social security within the state so that people could feel safe. The identified process has to be accompanied by a gradual shift in people’s perception of social, economic, political, and cultural interactions. Specifically, it will be critical to introduce the strategies that will allow for building the confidence of El Salvador’s residents. As a result, the democratization process will continue and is most likely to result in the eventual shift toward complete democracy interwoven into the cultural beliefs and political system of the state.


El Salvador’s politics of perpetual violence. (2017). Web.

Lakitsch, M. (2014). Political Power reconsidered: State power and civic activism between legitimacy and violence. Peace report 2013. Münster, Germany: LIT Verlag Münster.

Mainwaring, S., & Pérez-Liñán, A. (2014). Democracies and dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, survival, and fall. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Montoya, A. (2018). The violence of democracy: Political life in postwar El Salvador. New York, NY: Springer, 2018.

Ramos, C. G., López, R. O., & Quinteros, A. C. (2015). The FMLN and post-war politics in El Salvador. Web.

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