The Term “Economy”: Problematic Definition And Current Implications Sample Assignment

The Term “Economy”

Christopher Dodd once quoted “economic growth and environmental protection can and should go hand in hand”. Societies, governments, and countries rely on the concept of the economy to control the nature and processes of production and consumption. The formal definition of this term is the state of a region or state when it comes to the nature of consumption and production of services, goods, and the overall supply of financial resources. Other people and scholars go further to identify the economy as the coordinated management of the major resources available in a particular society. Within the realm of economy, humans and leaders can analyze a wide range of concerns that impact the human population directly, such as business ethics, production, and sustainability (Vukovic and Shams 181). Economists can rely on the concept to understand how communities can make money and distribute services and products.

Problematic Definition

The definition outlined above revolves around the process of guiding the production of a wide range of services and goods and their overall consumption. This model fails to appreciate the fact that the issue of resource allocation is missed. For instance, many underdeveloped regions and societies associated with scarce raw materials find it impossible to support the relevant processes of production. This challenge worsens when the existing policies and models do not support the overall economic performance and development of the targeted population. This kind of problem goes further to integrate the challenge of environmental degradation. Over the centuries, models of economic production have remained insensitive to the realities of the natural environment (McGregor and Pouw 1129). The end result is that humans have gone further to create numerous challenges that arise from unethical business procedures, pollution, and failure to manage scarce resources. This analysis shows conclusively that both individuals and corporations have focused on the current definition of the economy which is misleading and incapable of helping the global community achieve meaningful sustainability. They focus on the best approaches to maximize production without analyzing the major impacts of their activities and engagements. Additionally, the implemented economic models are only intended to meet the demands of the current generation while ignoring the possible consequences on posterity (Cantiani et al. 807). This problematic definition explains why numerous challenges continue to be experienced in different parts of the world. It is also notable that many scholars and analysts have been concerned about this problematic definition since it fails to address most of the challenges the global community is grappling with today. All stakeholders should, therefore, be keen to consider the current definition and present evidence-based approaches to address the situation.

Current Implications

Presently, the global society has encountered numerous events that affect the selected term and its problematic nature. First, the issue of production has been pursued blindly without focusing on the possible impacts on the sustainability of the natural environment. This malpractice has affected the integrity of many natural resources and bio-systems. Such challenges have emerged since more people have been pursuing capitalistic models that have little or no attention to the sustainability of the environment (Grigoropoulos 171). Second, the corporate world continues to take the lead role in the manner in which communities produce and distribute a wide range of goods. This malpractice has resulted in unethical business practices whereby companies fail to provide for the surrounding communities and engage in activities that might promote the integrity of the natural environment (Uribe-Toril et al. 1125). Third, the nature of these predicaments has triggered unprecedented weather and climatic events in different parts of the world. Specifically, the global community has been compelled to deal with tsunamis, typhoons, and other adverse weather patterns. Consequently, these outcomes are associated with climatic changes and global warming and continue to worsen the situation for more communities. The end result is that all forces of economic production have been affected negatively, thereby undermining the definition of the identified term (Vukovic and Shams 181). With these issues in place, it becomes necessary for the global community to consider evidence-based and sustainable approaches to get a new definition of the economy that takes into consideration these key issues.

The Solution

The concept of economy guides companies, governments, and individuals to focus on the available resources to create new processes of production. The ultimate goal is to produce services and goods that might meet the ever-changing demands of the targeted consumers. In most cases, most of the practices in pursued in such a way that they can maximize both personal and corporate wealth (McGregor and Pouw 1132). With these pursuits, it becomes clear that the natural environment remains ignored, thereby creating chances for overuse of natural resources. Unethical business practices are also integrated into the current economic definition or model. The possible outcome is that most of the companies involved in different forms of production only pollute and leave the natural environment more obliterated than ever before. These malpractices continue to create numerous challenges or strain the environment. The possible outcome is that future generations will not be supported by the current definition of the word “economy”. With this reality, it becomes necessary for the global society to find a new solution that is sustainable and capable of helping future generations achieve their maximum potential (Wignaraja et al. 134). The most plausible solution to improve the current state of affairs could be to present a new definition for the term. The new definition should be presented in such a way that it puts Christopher Dodd’s quote into consideration. Such an approach will make it possible for more people and companies to start taking the notions of business ethics and environmental sustainability more seriously (Uribe-Toril et al. 1127). In the recent past, many scholars and analysts have presented a similar solution to this problematic definition. Finding them favorable, it becomes necessary to support the debate and encourage policymakers and professionals to integrate environmental sustainability and economic performance.


The selected terminology remains critical since it encompasses all key areas of production and human consumption. These processes have continued to remain unsustainable and incapable of meeting the demands of future generations. Human beings should, therefore, begin to care since most of the unprecedented events experienced in the world today are damaging and capable of worsening the situation for all people. A new definition is, therefore, needed that will ensure that all participants in the processes of production take note of the environment while promoting ethical practices. The ultimate aim, therefore, is to make this planet more sustainable and ensure that those who produce and consume consider the best ways to meet the demands of all future generations. These gains are possible with the term getting an informed meaning or definition.


Cantiani, Maria G., et al. “Balancing Economic Development and Environmental Conservation for a New Governance of Alpine Areas.” Sustainability, vol. 8, no. 8, 2016, pp. 802-820.

Grigoropoulos, Jenny E. “The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations.” International Journal of Progressive Education, vol. 15, no. 2, 2019, pp. 167-175.

McGregor, Allister J., and Nicky Pouw. “Towards an Economics of Wellbeing.” Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol. 41, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1123-1142.

Uribe-Toril, Juan, et al. “Energy, Economy, and Environment: A Worldwide Research Update.” Energies, vol. 12, no. 6, 2019, pp. 1120-1138.

Vukovic, Darko B., and Riad Shams. “Economy and Ecology: Encounters and Interweaving.” Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 1, 2020, pp. 179-183.

Wignaraja, Ganeshan, et al. “Opportunities and Challenges for Regional Economic Integration in the Indian Ocean.” Journal of Asian Economic Integration, vol. 1, no. 1, 2019, pp. 129-151.

The History Of Mental Health Legislation In England And Wales


Madness and insanity challenge people at different times in their lives. Early civilisations did not have enough knowledge about mental health but related these disorders with something supernatural. Mental health services in England and Wales are determined by many social, cultural, political, and medical events between the 18th and 20th centuries. At the end of the 19th century, the Lunacy Act was introduced to legalise asylums for the insane. In the middle of the 20th century, legalism was replaced with medicalism (the Mental Health Act). The struggle between legalism and medicalism of mental health services defines their legalisation in England and Wales today.

The Historical Development of Mental Health Practice

In the first half of the 18th century, the first social concerns about mental health were noticed in the countries. Trade expanded, and the desire to increase estates and solve agricultural issues, taking into account the achievements of science, intensified. The Industrial Revolution was accompanied by changes in the structure of society through self-consciousness growth. People experienced negative emotions associated with planning and motivation and the intentions to achieve success. Transformations were associated with social problems, human behaviours, and health complications’ explanations. One of the first laws to meet the interests of English society was the Vagrancy Act 1714 and 1774 to punish vagrants who begged on streets. The Madhouses Act 1774 was created to address mental health specifically, protect wealthy patients, and underline asylum importance. In 1845, the Lunacy Act was signed to create the necessary local funds for asylums in England.

Each act had its specific restrictions, goals, benefits, and shortages. The purposes of most legislation processes were the same –to regulate madhouses and manage care and employment. The conditions for madness diagnosis were private for rich or paupers for poor, and the admission depended on the Lunacy Commission. In the middle of the 1800s, the Commission was responsible for new institutions and controlling the work of asylums. The regulations were based on information offered by the current philosophers, economists, and politicians.

Societal Perceptions of the Mentally Disordered in Media

The socio-economic formation of capitalism in England and Wales was accompanied by the gradual growth of society’s culture. Localising the person’s spiritual capabilities and brain abilities, a materialistic standpoint of mental disorders was developed. In 1751, St. Luke’s Hospital was opened in London, where regular medical rounds and occupational therapy were introduced. However, in 1774, according to the new act, inspections were required to check the conditions for services and the staff qualification. Mental health services legalism was slowly replaced with medicalism to enhance responsibility of the medical employees.

New donations favouring well-maintained boarding houses for the mentally ill were offered. Sensualist ideas were removed from definitions in the mental health sector, and insanity was interpreted as an incorrect connection of ideas caused by disturbances of perception, sensation, and representation. This phenomenon determined social priorities in the development of English psychiatry. Then, the diagnosis was free from ideological layers of spirits and approached the materialistic interpretation. Depression, self-destruction, anxiety, alcohol or substance abuse were revealed as additional elements of mentally disabled people. Mental disability was no longer just a personal problem but a public health concern.

People received treatment under the regulations of the Lunacy Act. In 1930, the Mental Treatment Act was signed to define mental illness as any other illness with voluntary admission and temporary treatment. Compared to previous legislations, this act lacked clarity and enough administrative decisions. Thus, it could be defined as a transition between legalism and medicalism in mental health practice, associated with the anti-psychiatry movement and the Mental Health Act implementation.

Anti-Psychiatry Movements

Boundaries and norms in mental health practice were discussed by Thomas Szasz and Michel Foucault in the 20th century. Szasz explored the symbolic nature of the concepts of “disease” and “patient” as applied to the human mind and incorrect interpretation consequences. Mental illness is not diagnosed using studies of cells, tissues, or organs but identified as conditional. Although people behaved inadequately, it did not mean they had a disease. Illness and disease were only medical metaphors for describing some behavioural disorders. Szasz was not against people being treated for mental problems that bothered them. He was against coercion to force people into treatment but fully supported voluntary treatment. Thus, he claimed that mental illness was a myth, but he did not mean that people could experience disorders in their emotional and cognitive systems.

The purpose was to underline that the mental health treatment system was designed for patients, which proved legalism. It was a method of controlling the population, which was politics. Although some mental health treatments were acceptable and patient-oriented, most mental health treatments were politically related. If a person is educated, they can access patient-centred therapy. If the patient has a lower socioeconomic status, they will most likely access only compulsory treatment organised to control the population.

Compared to Szasz, Foucault relied on the historical examination and ideas to be accepted as true. His goal was not to explain why madness did not exist but how it should be encountered in society. He did not introduce psychiatry as something wrong – its development shows that some elements of this practice were unnecessary. During the 1800s, the attitudes toward mental wellbeing and behavioural habits underwent many changes, and Foucault’s ideas helped to differentiate treatment from power and control.

Policy Issues and Mental Health Services: Legalism vs. Medicalism

Mental well-being is a state when a person is aware of capabilities, solves problems, and works productively to benefit society. Mental health practice represents a powerful potential for social development and prosperity. The attitude towards the mentally ill reflects the low cognitive level of public consciousness. People suffer from mental disorders and live in their unique world with a subtle sense of others, pronounced intuition, and insecurity. Social maladaptation, negativism and unwillingness to communicate emerge during an exacerbation, severe course, and disease progression. While about a quarter of all patients with schizophrenic disorders recover entirely and return to their previous lifestyle, others had mild defects of social functioning. Social support and communication are necessary for people to become full-fledged members of the community. Thus, society with a favourable and reasonable attitude towards mentally ill members can reduce the negative manifestations and consequences of the epidemic of mental disorders.

Mental health involves public, private and public sectors in solving behavioural problems. One of the first countries to build shelters, the United Kingdom was also the first one to abandon them as the primary method of treating the mentally ill. Currently, most mental health services are provided by the National Health Service with the support of the private and voluntary sectors. In 1959, the Mental Health Act was introduced with its major amendment in 1983 to define suitable care for mentally disordered people. According to this Act and the Mental Capacity Act 2005, mental disorder is any disability of mind that requires psychiatric care. Modern mental health practice is challenged by a shortage of beds for bed, leading to long delays in accessing treatment, receiving medically inadequate care, recognising conditions like depression or anxiety or solving problems like restriction in the population. People need professional help to improve their health, and the current legislation promotes medicalism where madness is a disease to be treated.

The struggle between legalism and medicalism in mental health practice is evident from what was offered in the 18th century and what occurs today. Psychiatric problems are increased by 50% between 2011 and 2016, explained by new definitions, laws, and attitudes of the population. Some mental health services have changed because of the Mental Health Act of 1983, and inspections and control helped to remove unreliable and poorly trained institutions. The budgets of 40% of psychiatric funds have been reduced. Restrictive means in psychiatric institutions in the UK are increasing.


The first significant achievements in mental health practice were observed at the end of the 18th century. The mentally ill were treated as outcasts because they could not explain their problems. The transition from legalism to medicalism was proved through the analysis of legal acts in the 18th-20th centuries to cover the needs of sick people. This battle includes the interests and knowledge of politicians, policymakers, medical workers, and community members. Mental disorders were not created as a part of mental health practice but as human health. This practice is critical for promoting definitions and explaining situations that change human behaviours through the prism of historical development and legislation.

Reference List

Attard C, Chaplin R, and Barrera-Herrera A, Oxford Textbook of Inpatient Psychiatry (Oxford University Press 2019)

Baker D and Pillinger C, ‘These People Are Vulnerable, They Aren’t Criminals’: Mental Health, the Use of Force and Deaths after Police Contact in England” (2019) 93 The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles 65

Barber P, Brown R, and Martin D, Mental Health Law in England and Wales: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals (Learning Matters 2017)

Botchway S and Fazel S, ‘Determining Rates of Death in Custody in England and Wales’ (2021) The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology. Web.

Bould H and others, ‘Rising Suicide Rates among Adolescents in England and Wales’ (2019) 394(10193) The Lancet 116

Bouras N, Reflections on the Challenges of Psychiatry in the UK and Beyond: A Psychiatrist’s Chronicle from Deinstitutionalisation to Community Care (Pavilion Publishing and Media Ltd 2017)

Bracken P and Thomas P, ‘From Szasz to Foucault: On the Role of Critical Psychiatry’ (2010) 17(3) Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 219

Brassington I, ‘Actions, Causes and Psychiatry: A Reply to Szasz’, (2002) 28(2) Journal of Medical Ethics 120

Burki T, ‘England and Wales See 20 000 Excess Deaths in Care Homes’ (2020) 395(10237) The Lancet 1602

Carr S and Spandler H, ‘Hidden from History? A Brief Modern History of the Psychiatric ‘Treatment’ of Lesbian and Bisexual Women in England’ (2019) 6(4) The Lancet Psychiatry 289

Chadwick P, Schizophrenia: The Positive Perspective (Routledge 1997)

Chapman A, ‘The British Anti-Psychiatrists: From Institutional Psychiatry to the Counterculture, 1960-1971’ (2018) 11(2) The Sixties 264

Crane L and others, ‘Something Needs to Change’: Mental Health Experiences of Young Autistic Adults in England’ (2019) 23(2) Autism 477

Cummins I, ‘Narratives of Reform: The Mental Health Act (MHA) in England and Wales from the 1983 MHA to the Wessley Review (2018)’ (2020) 22(4) The Journal of Adult Protection 217

Dixon J, Laing J, and Valentine C, ‘A Human Rights Approach to Advocacy for People with Dementia: A Review of Current Provision in England and Wales’ (2018) 19(2) Dementia 221

Duke LH and others, ‘Long-Stay in Forensic-Psychiatric Care in the UK’ (2018) 53(3) Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 313

Eastman N and others, Forensic Psychiatry (Oxford University Press 2019)

Eastman N and Peay J, Law Without Enforcement (Hart 1999)

Fennell P, Treatment Without Consent: Law, Psychiatry and the Treatment of Mentally Disordered People Since 1845 (Routledge 1996)

Forrester A and others, ‘Mental Illness and the Provision of Mental Health Services in Prisons’ (2018) 127(1) British Medical Bulletin 101

Frances A, ‘The Myth and Reality of Mental Illness’ in C.V. Haldipur, James L. Knoll IV, and Eric v.d. Luft (eds), Thomas Szasz: An Appraisal of His Legacy (Oxford University Press 2019) 169-176

Glorney E, Ullah H, and Brooker C, ‘Standards of Mental Health Care in Prisons in England and Wales: A Qualitative Study of Reports from Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons’ (2020) 19(3) International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 283

Glover-Thomas N, Reconstructing Mental Health Law and Policy (Butterworths 2002)

Henderson C and Gronholm P, ‘Mental Health Related Stigma as a ‘Wicked Problem’: The Need to Address Stigma and Consider the Consequences’ (2018) 15(6) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 1158

Hill S, Riordan-Eva E, and Hosking A, ‘Trends in the Number of Restricted Patients in England and Wales 2003–2016: Implications for Forensic Psychiatry Services,’ (2019) 59(1) Medicine, Science and the Law 42

Hines D and others, ‘Evaluation of Paediatric Liaison Psychiatry Services in England 2015-2019,’ (2021) 7(1) BJPsych Open 325

Holley J, Weaver T, and Völlm B, ‘The Experience of Long Stay in High and Medium Secure Psychiatric Hospitals in England: Qualitative Study of the Patient Perspective’ (2020) 14(1) International Journal of Mental Health Systems. Web.

Ikkos G and Bouras N, Mind, State and Society: Social History of Psychiatry and Mental Health in Britain 1960-2010 (Cambridge University Press 2021)

Karp D, The Burden of Sympathy: How Families Cope with Mental Illness (Oxford University Press 2001)

Keeble J and others, ‘Integrated Liaison Psychiatry Services in England: A Qualitative Study of the Views of Liaison Practitioners and Acute Hospital Staffs from four Distinctly Different Kinds of Liaison Service,’ (2019) 19(522) BMC Health Services Research. Web.

Latham R and Williams HK, ‘Community Forensic Psychiatric Services in England and Wales’ (2020) 25(5) CNS Spectrums 604

Lemke T, Foucault’s Analysis of Modern Governmentality: A Critique of Political Reason (Verso 2019)

Meyns C, Information and the History of Philosophy (Routledge 2021)

Owen GS and others, ‘Advance Decision-Making in Mental Health – Suggestions for Legal Reform in England and Wales’ (2019) 64 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 162

Pickering N, The Metaphor of Mental Illness (Oxford University Press 2006)

Plessis RD, Pathways of Patients at the Grahamstown Lunatic Asylum, 1890 to 1907 (Pretoria University Law Press 2020)

Porter R, Madness: A Brief history (Oxford University Press 2004)

Rychner G, ‘A Public Claim to Madness: Restoring Context to Forensic Psychiatry in Late Nineteenth-Century Victoria’ in Thomas J. Kehoe and Jeffrey E. Pfeifer (eds), History & Crime (Emerald Advances in Historical Criminology) (Emerald Publishing Limited 2021) 31-45

Skowron P, ‘The Relationship between Autonomy and Adult Mental Capacity in the Law of England and Wales’ (2018) 27(1) Medical Law Review 32

Spandler H, ‘Asylum: A Magazine for Democratic Psychiatry in England’ in Tom Burns and John Foot (eds), Basaglia’s International Legacy: From Asylum to Community (Oxford University Press 2020) Web.

Stevens M and others, ‘An Exploration of Why Health Professionals Seek to Hold Statutory Powers in Mental Health Services in England: Considerations of the Approved Mental Health Professional Role’ (2019) 30(5) Journal of Mental Health 571

Straub C and Annison H, ‘The Mental Health Impact of Parole on Families of Indeterminate‐Sentenced Prisoners in England and Wales’ (2020) 30(6) Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 341

Styron W, Darkness Visible (Random House Publishing Group 2010)

Szasz T, ‘Mental Illness: Psychiatry’s Phlogiston’, (2001) 27(5) Journal of Medical Ethics 297

Szasz T, ‘Reply to Brassington’, (2002) 28 Journal of Medical Ethics 124.

Szasz T, ‘The Myth of Mental Illness’ (1960) 15 American Psychologist 113

Szmukler G and Gostin LO, ‘Mental Health Law: ‘Legalism’ and ‘Medicalism’ – ‘Old’ and ‘New’’ in George Ikkos and Nick Bouras (eds), Mind, State and Society Social History of Psychiatry and Mental Health in Britain 1960–2010 (Cambridge University Press 2021) 69 – 83

Taylor JL, ‘Transforming Care for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism in England’ (2021) 8(11) The Lancet Psychiatry 942

Tylee A, Cohen A and Thurston L, ‘Closing the Circle: A Key Collaborative Opportunity for General Practice and Psychiatry’ (2021) BJPsych Bulletin. Web.

Völlm BA and others, ‘Characteristics and Pathways of Long-Stay Patients in High and Medium Secure Settings in England; a Secondary Publication from a Large Mixed-Methods Study’ (2018) 9 Frontiers in Psychiatry. Web.

Völlm BA and others, ‘European Psychiatric Association (EPA) Guidance on Forensic Psychiatry: Evidence Based Assessment and Treatment of Mentally Disordered Offenders’ (2018) 51 European Psychiatry 58

Walusinski O, ‘Yawning in the History of Psychiatry’ (2021) 32(4) History of Psychiatry 449

Wolf A, Whiting D and Fazel S, ‘Violence Prevention in Psychiatry: An Umbrella Review of Interventions in General and Forensic Psychiatry’ (2017) 28(5) The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology 659

Woods L, Craster L and Forrester A, ‘Mental Health Act Transfers from Prison to Psychiatric Hospital over a Six-Year Period in a Region of England’ (2020) 10(3) Journal of Criminal Psychology 219

Wright D and Digby A (eds), From Idiocy to Mental Deficiency: historical perspectives on people with learning disabilities (Routledge 1996)

Prostitution: The Non-Deviant Social Phenomenon

Prostitution is one of the significant social problems that cause multiple debates and arguments over its acceptance or suppression in the culture. Prostitution might be considered deviant behavior because of the historical patriarchial roots where the exploitation of women has been practiced all along in different variations (Benoit et al., 2109). From the historical point of view, when the elite and bourgeois classes dominated the society, the poor population had to perform complex and damaging jobs, and sex work was no exception. Since the poorness was associated with the lack of manners, education, and vice, especially women selling their bodies were dehumanized and portrayed as immoral and indecent. Nowadays, women who do prostitution are always being penalized, charged with law violations, and receive disapproval and judgment from society. However, the cause for the perception of prostitution as a deviant behavior might be the conditions and consequences that women have to face during their work. In addition, the act of sex workers selling themselves can be viewed as a human right. The key reason why prostitution should be reclassified as non-deviant is to provide people involved in the job with protection, equality and reduce social injustice and discrimination towards minorities.

Prostitution is one of the oldest professions ever existed n the world. As centuries passed, the attitude towards women practicing this hardy became better, and it was time to take measures (McKinley, 2019). Thus, the position of women is not in the best possible place because their mental and physical health, well-being, reputation, and safety are in danger. While some significant part of the population experiences unpleasant conditions, the society cannot flourish and develop properly (Pruitt, 2108). For instance, in a survey conducted in 2003 in New Your City, 80% of the female participants claimed that they have regularly faced violent actions against them, and the police did not show any initiative to help (North, 2019). Considering the possible implementations of policies to protect the sex workers and charging the clients, there still might be unpredictable outcomes (The Economist, 2021). Instead of reducing prostitution as a job, there can be an increase in sex work due to its social acceptance and legalization. Therefore, erasing the existing problem might cause the new one, which negatively influences society and women.


Benoit, C., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2019). “The prostitution problem”: Claims, evidence, and policy outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1905-1923. Web.

Pruitt, M. (2018). The social implications of prostitution. Sociology Class Publications. Web.

McKinley, J. (2019). Could prostitution be next to be decriminalized? The New York Times. Web.

Prostitution in America: How to bring sex work out of the shadows. (2021). The Economist. Web.

North, A. (2019). The movement to decriminalize sex work, explained. Vox. Web.