A partial autobiography The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian follows Junior, a young Indian, as he navigates life. He experiences problems with the residents of his reserve because he attends school there, and they bully him and treat him even worse whenever he departs. They torment him and see him as a race traitor. At Junior’s new school, his white students are not particularly kind to him because they see him as an outsider. Since its publication, the book has faced numerous inquiries about its suitability for young readers. Due to its use of violence and bullying, some of the intended readers are turned off, while some older adults find the entire plot to be too obscene for any reader. But what makes the entire story so potent and significant is how honest it is. Sherman appeals to teenagers by giving things that teenagers do that are considered inappropriate by society a humorous spin. This argument makes the case that the tale should not be banned from the curriculum since it teaches young readers valuable life lessons, promotes love, and offers new perspectives.
The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian provides children with new perspectives of the world, which is the first justification for keeping it on the school curriculum. One of its perspectives is an insight into the underprivileged. On the Spokane Indian Reservation, tragedy frequently occurred as a result of poverty. However, many kids nowadays have never even known poverty. As a result, their understanding of what it is to be poor is limited. The author has used humor to lighten the tone of the subject while still highlighting the tragedy of poverty. As an illustration, “Poverty = empty refrigerator + empty stomach” (Alexie and Forney 7). School children learn more about poverty and develop a greater sense of empathy for the disadvantaged because of this hilarious and imaginative approach.
Another significant perspective presented in the book is that of the Indian identity and its relation to others. The author acknowledges the disadvantage that Indians face on a social and institutional level but avoids generalizing about other races by remaining objective. Junior comes to the realization that even White people have a positive side, “If you let people into your life a little bit, they can be pretty damn amazing” (Alexie and Forney 108). This basically teaches the kids that when they get to know each other better, they realize that people of different races are not that different.
The second reason the book should not be banned is that it instills in children a strong sense of the importance of love. The most significant kind is between Junior and his family. Junior’s parents were alcoholics and destitute, yet they never once beat him. Even though this would seem insignificant to the average reader, when it is considered in the context of the reservation where parent drinking and child abuse were major issues, readers start to understand the great love that Junior’s parents portrayed. For instance, “He could have spent that five bucks and stayed drunk for another day or two. But he saved it for me” (Alexie and Forney 125). Although Junior’s parents were far from perfect, the readers can still feel their love and pride for him, which is the key factor in his success in the new school and his ability to leave the reserve.
The friendship between Junior and Rowdy, which is about two lonely people finding solace in one another, is another kind of love. Friendship provided Junior the strength to forgive at the book’s conclusion, “For a second, I thought about saying no. I thought about telling him to bite my ass. I thought about making him apologize. But I couldn’t. He was never going to change” (Alexie and Forney 190). The lessons learned through the stories of friendship and forgiveness will have a significant positive impact on readers’ lives.
The fact that the book acts as a source of motivation for kids who are perceived as underdogs in their own lives is a justification for why it should not be banned. Junior’s story starts out with little promise, “we reservation Indians don’t get to realize our dreams. We don’t get those chances. Or choices. We’re just poor. That’s all we are” (Alexie and Forney 11). Even though Junior’s existence seemed to make it impossible for him to leave the reserve, he persisted. He explained to his parents instead, “No, if I don’t go now, I never will. I have to do it now” (Alexie and Forney 39). This teaches the readers that the best course of action is to act right away if they want to achieve something in their lives. Today’s school children are in dire need of such a lesson because they are frequently so overloaded with chances and options that they are unaware of the value of commitment.
Additionally, because it introduces school children to the important topic of pain, the book is also motivational for them. After attending 42 funerals, Junior came to the realization that everyone is susceptible to pain “We all have pain. And we all look for ways to make the pain go away. In the middle of a crazy and drunk life, you have to hang on to the good and sober moments tightly” (Alexie and Forney 178). One of the most crucial lessons the book may provide to its readers is how to cope with sorrow by trying to look on the bright side of things. The earlier children learn about pain, the better they are equipped to deal with it, thus they should not be kept out of such a lesson. The book is simply too significant to be banned due to its inspiration for positive change and action.
The book’s content may make some people uneasy, and they may claim that it ought to be banned because of its profanity, sexual allusions, or bullying. These characteristics in the context, nonetheless, contribute to the book’s authenticity. For instance, the claim “I am really just a poor-ass reservation kid living with his poor-ass family on the poor-ass Spokane Indian Reservation” (Alexie and Forney 7). The phrase is possibly more in line with the way the Spokane reservation children speak. A significantly richer context for the story is created by using poor-ass rather than just poor. The book only offers the readers a fresh viewpoint so they can understand various ways of thinking. The book’s major themes are family love, race, friendship, and overcoming hardships and suffering. Teenage masturbation, verbal or physical bullying, or religions are not even close to being the main focus.
In conclusion, the book presents a fair view of race without making negative assumptions, enabling young readers of all races to grasp the notions of racial equality, poverty, and reservations as abstract ideas. Additionally, it encourages readers of all ages to love and be positive in their outlook on life, which is an important life lesson. Even though there have been complaints about the book’s language and obscenity, the majority of it really adds to its genuineness. Young readers are wise enough not to take up or emulate the negativity based on the book’s core themes and principles because the positive qualities far outweigh the negative ones.
Alexie, Sherman, and Ellen Forney. The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. Recorded Books, 2008.
Oil And Natural Gas Industry And Its Effect On The European Economy
For European nations’ economies to expand consistently and steadily, access to energy resources is essential. Power consumption is continuously increasing; hence a long-term strategy for unified European policy is required. However, European countries now rely significantly on imported natural gas and oil while gradually converting to renewable energy sources. The findings show that a high reliance on oil and natural gas imports causes inflation to rise, which weakens the economy. As a result, authorities must quicken their efforts to control gas use, get ready to transfer resources around the Eurozone in times of need, and secure supply from alternative suppliers and global LNG markets. In subsequent years, it would be vital to transition from natural resources, such as oil and gas, to renewable energy in order to mitigate geopolitical risks and maintain economic growth.
Presently, the European Union nations’ top issues are energy independence and environmental sustainability. The accessibility of energy resources is crucial for European countries’ sustained and steady growth and economic growth. The continual rise in power consumption necessitates a long-term strategy for shared European policy. As of now, European nations are heavily dependent on importing natural gas and oil while slowly shifting toward renewable energy approaches. However, as will be shown further, dependence on these energy resources leads to less flexibility due to geopolitical and economic risks.
In this sense, there is a necessity for research on the oil and natural gas industry, its predominance in the European economy, and its effects, which helps gain insight into the scope of the issue for further problem-solving. The research questions are as follows: To what extent does European production depend on energy sources, and what are the risks of oil and natural gas imports? Therefore, the objective of the research is to see the dependence on economic resources of European countries and the extent to which the European economy can be paralyzed in case of energy shocks. The findings indicate that heavy reliance on oil and natural gas imports leads to increased inflation, which damages the economy.
An integrative notion, the issue of energy stability brings together the energy, economic, and environmental aspects. Since energy imports and exports might have a significant influence on the equilibrium of payments, the stability of energy production is intimately tied to micro- and macroeconomic dynamics (Degiannakis et al., 2018). The government budget may be significantly impacted by subsidies, taxes, and the expenses or earnings of state-owned businesses (Bluszcz, 2017). Energy prices also have a significant role in the rate of inflation and the economic competitiveness of a nation on the global stage.
Following petroleum-based goods, natural gas ranks as one of the most significant fuel sources in the Eurozone. In the industrial sector, it serves as the most potent source of energy, and almost 90% of the gas used in the eurozone countries is imported from other countries (Bluszcz, 2017). the part gas plays in the industrial process. Natural gas is a crucial production source for some industries, such as industrial chemicals and glass manufacturers (Di Bella et al., 2022). Yet, it is less so for other industries or is only used indirectly, like when it is used to generate electricity.
However, while having such a role in the Eurozone, natural gas and oil-based products are significantly reliant on imports in the European Union. Only renewable and nuclear energy is locally produced. Petroleum-based power is the most widely used in the economy, primarily due to its usage in the transportation industry (Gunnella et al., 2022). Contrarily, gas is the primary energy source that is used the most in industry, as well as by non-transportation businesses and residences (Gunnella et al., 2022). Given the adaptability of gas-run power stations and the total gas infrastructural facilities in adjusting to volatility in electricity consumption, gas further serves as the primary marginal fuel source in the production of electricity (Gunnella et al., 2022). This dependence has grown as countries move toward renewable energy sources, whose supply is based on erratic weather systems.
The fundamental reason why the European Union’s energy production system varies from that of the rest of the world is that far less coal and oil are used to generate power there. Currently, the Eurozone uses just 45.8% of them, or 41% less than the world’s other nations. Presently, the Union uses 12.5% nuclear energy, 20% hydroelectric power, and up to 21.7% of sources of renewable energy (Bluszcz, 2017). According to the European Union 2030 program, there will be a decrease in the proportion of gas and oil used to produce electricity to a standard of 39% (Bluszcz, 2017). There will additionally be an increase in the proportion of nuclear energy to a standard of 22%, a rise in the balance of renewable fuels to a standard of 26%, and a decrease in the proportion of hydro-energy to a level of 13% (Bluszcz, 2017).
In this sense, such heavy reliance on the oil and natural gas sectors affects the European economy. Due to imports, the Eurozone economy is heavily susceptible to geopolitical risks. For decades, Russia has been a major supplier of gas and oil to Europe. Two-fifths of the energy utilized by Europeans in 2021 comes from Russia (World Economic Forum, 2022). More than a quarter of the oil products that the EU imports originate from Russia. The EU purchased gas from Russia for $108 billion (€99 billion) in 2021, the world’s largest amount (World Economic Forum, 2022). Still, during the previous ten years, the EU’s imports have decreased dramatically in volume. The Eurozone purchased energy from Russia in 2012 for a total of $173 billion (€157 billion) (World Economic Forum, 2022). As a result, Eurozone’s economy will be affected by shocks in supply and demand.
Moreover, the degree to which shortages materialize and gas exchanges collapse will likely determine how a gas crisis affects GDP. The effect on GDP is determined by comparing the yield reduction over a period of 12 months to a benchmark scenario where the overall supply of gas in the Eurozone would be at average rates (Di Bella et al., 2022). In the event of a complete shutdown, there would probably be severe scarcity in some of the Central and Eastern European nations, and their GDPs would be negatively impacted by up to 6% (Di Bella et al., 2022). Therefore, in the face of unbalanced supply and demand, the Eurozone economy might experience inflation and decreased GDP.
The method that was chosen for this research is secondary data analysis. The secondary data included statistics provided by European authorities on official website platforms. The method was preferred in order to see the correlation between oil and gas consumption and the economic state of Eurozone representatives. With an emphasis on the official data retrieved from government data, it is possible to provide recommendations and see the effects on the economy.
Results and Discussion
As has been mentioned, Europe relies heavily on natural gas and oil imports due to the unavailability of one’s own sufficient storage of energy sources. However, as can be seen from the statistics provided by the Directorate-General of the European Commission, oil and natural gas imports damage the economy. In this sense, the prices of oil and natural gas play a significant role in influencing inflation, as can be seen from the correlation between Figure 1 and Figure 2. Rising inflation results from massive increases in oil and gas costs.
As a result, while the literature review mentioned that the economy of Europe requires a significant amount of energy resources to maintain its infrastructure, it does not mention the correlation between inflation and imports of energy products. The higher inflation started along with higher imports in 2021, spurred by the coronavirus virus. However, the situation has been exacerbated due to the Ukrainian conflict in 2022, which led to more considerable imports and greater inflation that resulted from the accumulation of other factors, such as supply and demand distortion and consumer confidence. Therefore, the economy of the Eurozone is affected by reliance on gas and oil imports, their prices, and the geopolitical risks that come with such dependence.
Conclusion and Policy Recommendations
Hence, the oil and natural gas sectors play an integral part in the growth of Eurozone infrastructure and yet destabilize its economy with geopolitical risks. However, the financial consequences of being heavily reliant on natural gas and oil may be significantly reduced. Efforts should concentrate on crisis readiness and risk management. Authorities must accelerate their measures to regulate gas consumption, prepare to distribute resources in crises throughout the Eurozone, and secure supplies from other suppliers and international LNG marketplaces. As the geopolitical and overall economic situations stabilize, there is a need for authorities to concentrate on the promotion of alternative sources of energy and provide incentives, implementing taxation incentives to reduce reliance on gas and oil.
Bluszcz, A. (2017). European economies in terms of energy dependence. Quality & Quantity, 51(4), 1531-1548.
Degiannakis, S., Filis, G., & Arora, V. (2018). Oil prices and stock markets: a review of the theory and empirical evidence. The Energy Journal, 39(5), 85-130.
Di Bella, G., Flanagan, M. J., Foda, K., Maslova, S., Pienkowski, A., Stuermer, M., & Toscani, F. G. (2022). Natural gas in Europe: The potential impact of disruptions to supply. IMF Working Papers, 2022(145), 1-48.
Eurostat. (2022-a). EU imports of energy products.
Eurostat. (2022-b). Inflation in the Euro area.
Gunnella, V., Jarvis, V., Morris r., & and Tóth, M. (2022). Natural gas dependence and risks to euro area activity. European Central Bank.
World Economic Forum. (2022). How much energy does the EU import from Russia?
Genius And Digital Legacy: A Social Media Post
We live in an age of rapid consumption, and this phenomenon is very accurately reflected in modern music. The effect of rapid consumption is associated with obtaining instant gratification. If earlier some people needed to get together in gangs, go out on the streets at night, and commit crimes in order to somehow satisfy the animal craving for dominance, now you can easily limit yourself to a computer game, which presents a full range, albeit virtual, but still, violence. A person plays a “shooter” online and, defeating an opponent, instantly gets the illusion of life luck and dominance, and in the physical world, this action complements the instant release of dopamine, the hormone responsible for pleasure and satisfaction.
Actually, all media is now tied to speed and accessibility. The younger generation, who grew up on an iPad, will see the world around them entirely differently. Dopamine is a kind of built-in drug, a dose produced by the brain whenever a person receives the slightest satisfaction, so all the “electric pleasures” quickly become an addiction (Wise & Robble, 2020). What’s going on now? Is human civilization moving towards a bright future or vice versa? Is it gradually approaching its decline? There is no exact answer to this question yet, so guess for yourself.
Now there is a feeling in the air that we should not expect real geniuses like Mozart, Goethe, and Nietzsche because Drake and K-pop seem to have come to replace them. But still, science and art do not stand still, and in the world, there are people worthy of attention who work with something long-lasting and important. Somewhere on planet Earth, work is underway to create quantum computers, spaceships are being built, and the same drug series contains not only “pleasure” but also, sometimes, serious philosophical judgments. My point is that geniuses are also present in the modern world, and perhaps we vastly underestimate their number.
Geniuses of the past centuries wrote letters and diaries; now, many years later, these artifacts can somehow get closer to the proper understanding of their personality. Nevertheless, there is one catch — in those old days, letters were almost always written too formally. No one can be sure that our chats on social networks will not be disclosed after our death. That is why it is interesting to wait for the moment when modern geniuses will face this.
Wise, R. A., & Robble, M. A. (2020). Dopamine and addiction. Annual Review of Psychology, 71(1), 79–106.