The Twentieth Century As The “Century Of ‘isms’” Homework Essay Sample

The 20th century is the century that saw a remarkable shift in many spheres of human life. Technological, medical, social, ideological, and political innovations became a peculiar feature of the Common Era. In the current paper, we are going to consider some of the most important forces in the political and economic history that the twentieth century has generated. Imperialism, nationalism, Marxism, liberalism, capitalism, ideological totalitarianism, and globalism are just a few “isms” that the 20th century witnessed.

The early Common Era saw the breakup of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Through the peace treaties ending World War I many independent nations was established. The principle of national self-determination originates from the Paris Peace Conference upheld by the League of Nations and later by the United Nations. This principle recognizes the basic equality of all nations, large or small. The problems arise when this principle goes so far so that a nation claims superiority for itself.

Nazi Germany serves as an example of extreme nationalism. The superiority of the so-called Aryan race caused thousands of deaths of those who did not belong to this race. The Asian and the African continent also witnessed nationalist movements. The Indian National Congress struggled for the independence of India for over 60 years. Colonial territorial buildings were transformed into dozens of new nations after World War II. The growth of nationalism is observed after the fall of the Soviet Empire, the growth of Muslim fundamentalism, and the collapse of Yugoslavia. It is the concern of the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization of American States, and the Organization for African Unity to control the development of nationalism so that it does not grow into its extreme form.

Returning to the beginning of the 20th century we should speak of capitalism that different countries throughout the world experienced. After the years of the Great Depression in 1930 in the United States, capitalism existed in the form of subsidies, tax credits, incentives, and other types of exemptions. In Germany and Japan, the idea of centrally-planned industrial policies in which bankers, industrialists, and labor unions meet and seek to agree to wage policies and interest rates prevailed. These countries reject the idea of letting the market wholly determine the economy. Nowadays, some countries follow the principles of small-scale capitalism within a strictly Communist political framework, for example, China, but their future remains uncertain.

The antithesis of capitalism is Marxism. This economic and social system based on Marx and Engels’s theories has undergone several stages during the 20th century. The 1917 October Revolution led by Lenin was the first considerable attempt to implement Marxist ideas into practice. The initiators of the Revolution wanted to see the international spread of the Marxist ideas and the development of Communist parties did take place but without success in the advanced capitalist countries of Western Europe. After World War II there was a rise of the revolutionary communist parties around the world. Vietnam, East Germany, Albania, Ethiopia, Cambodia, Yugoslavia were the countries where the communist parties gained power and established their own version of a Marxist state. The year 1991 symbolizes the collapse of Marxism ideas in a number of states. In global politics, radical Marxism ideas were replaced by neoliberal capitalism.

The impact of World War II on world development in the twentieth century can hardly be underestimated. The expansion of liberal ideas is one of the spheres which the War influenced. Britain, Scandinavia, and the USA saw the expansion of social welfare programs. After the economic stagnation that began in the late 1970s classical liberal positions revived. This presupposed the domination of free markets that is especially true when speaking of the political conservatives in Britain and the USA. Liberalism existing in the contemporary world is aimed at reducing inequality and expanding individual rights. Social reforms remain to be of first priority.

When we speak of the 20th century we think of the globalism ideas that stand to denote the network of connections that span multi-continental distances. Globalism is a phenomenon of ancient roots. The most obvious example of globalism is the Silk Road that served as an economic and cultural link between the two ancient continents: Europe and Asia. The 20th century saw the emergence of the four distinct dimensions of globalism: economic, military, environmental, and social. The economic dimension of globalism implies long-distance transport of materials or biological substances in the atmosphere or oceans that affect human health and well-being. The “balance of terror” between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War years serves as an example of the military dimension of 20th-century globalism. This was a network, a long one, in which constant threat of force was deployed. If we consider social and cultural dimensions of globalism we will see that in the 20th century it became less dependent on military and economic spheres. Movements of ideas, images, and people in the century under consideration are impossible without the spread of information. The current use of the Internet makes communication possible and facilitates the exchange of ideas and enhances globalism as a whole (Nye).

Thus, a lot of “isms” shaped world development in the 20th century. Different opinions can exist about this or that economic and political system that the century witnessed, but no debates arise concerning the significance that the systems had and continue to have for world history.

Works Cited

Diehl-Callaway, Linda. “Is Capitalism Kaput?.” American Economist 36.1 (1992): 71.

“Nationalism.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007.

Nye, J 2002, “Globalism Versus Globalization”, The Power of Global Ideas, 2008. Web. 

Leading A Virtuous-Spiral Organization

Outline

This essay discusses brand leadership. The importance of brand leadership and how to develop brand leadership are mentioned in this essay. It also discusses the leading brand which I wish to develop in the future.

Introduction

Leadership is very good quality. A good leader has his leadership style. Like product brand leadership also can be branded. The success of a leader mainly depends on the leadership style he/she uses and how his followers accept the style. A person can develop a good leadership style by learning from the books, watching the circumstances, and from previous experiences.

Leadership Brand

A firm or product brand indicates its culture and quality. Brand name influences the market values of the organization and its products. This branding is possible in the case of leadership also. A leadership brand is a kind of organization brand. A branded leadership can be defined as the “outcome of both attributes and results explains some of the causes of ineffective leadership and the challenges faced by effective leaders.” (Ulrich, Smallwood & Zenger 2000).

A branded leadership needs leaders who have the ability to effectively possess attributes and successfully deliver the result. A branded leader should have a clear understanding of the outcome of the desired work. Such a leader knows where he and his followers give moiré attention and how to assign the resource in the market and what type of method to be used for the success of the product or service in the market and how to use the followers for the success of the desired goal. A branded leader should focus on four major areas. They are employee results, organization results, customer results, and financial results. Here the employee result simply means the depth of commitment and competency of the employee. Organization result means how much time the organization takes to launch a product, how much time they take to collect ideas about a particular product or service etc. Customer result means identifying the critical clients, understand their needs and fulfilling those needs, and finding the method to keep a good relationship with those customers. The financial result means revenue growth, and how to reduce the expenses in an effective way. It also includes ways to keep a good value of the product or services and the organization before the shareholders. (Ulrich, Smallwood & Zenger 2000).

Developing a leadership brand:

  1. Develop a case for the significance of leadership.
  2. Define what leadership is or what the theory of leadership is. This definition or theory should clearly mention the expectations of leadership based on different aspects like customer point of view and investor expectations.
  3. Evaluate the current situation of the leadership based on the customer’s point of view and other external viewpoints.
  4. Conduct various programs like training for developing leadership.
  5. Evaluate the efficiency of the leaders in different phases like the ability in meeting the strategy and the investments as a leader.
  6. Determine the status of the leadership by analyzing the internal and external stakeholders. (Developing your leadership brand 2007).

The above-mentioned points deal with developing an organizational leadership brand. A personal leadership brand “bridges the firm’s identity in the mind of that outside (customers and outsiders) with the behavior of its employees.” (Your leadership brand 2007).

I am sure that I have a leadership style. But that has some limitations. My age and personal experience are some reasons for that. In this age itself, I am collaborative and deliberate. But I have some weaknesses. Fro creating a leadership brand I will focus on some areas. For developing a leadership brand in the future I will take care of the following things.

Some key points for developing a personal leadership brand are given below.

  1. Identify what is the desired outcome in the next year:-For considering the interest a branded leader should consider the above-mentioned four areas that are employees, customers, organization, and financial are or investors. For developing a personal leadership brand one should identify the methods to improve the values for the customers. A leader should identify the ways to meet the expectations of the investors. Identify the needs of the employees and how to increases the productivity of the employees. A branded leader should try to execute the strategy of the organization.
  2. Decide how you would be like to be screened by others:- There are six descriptions to improve or indicate one in his or her personal leadership brand. They are: a leader should be collaborative, deliberate, independent, innovative, result-oriented, and strategic. (Five steps to building your personal leadership brand 2009).
  3. Set a personal identity: – To develop a leadership brand a person should create a good identity. Good identity includes the above-mentioned six descriptions in a combined form, that is, to develop a leadership brand one should be “independently innovative, deliberately collaborative and strategically result-oriented.” (Five steps to building your personal leadership brand 2009).
  4. Develop a leadership brand statement: – This brand statement is prepared based on the interest of the organization and the stakeholders. The responsibilities taken by the leader should be based on the need of the organization and a leader should live within or based on this brand statement. So a person who wishes to develop a leadership brand must conform to these things.
  5. Formulate the brand identity as a reality:-After creating the brand identity a leader should make it real through his leadership. For that a self-evaluation is essential. (Five steps to building your personal leadership brand 2009).

Conclusion

From the above discussion it is clear that as companies, brand leadership is also an important factor. A branded leader has the ability to understand and work based on the need of the customers and the stakeholders. Also, they can produce the outcome based on the strategy of the company or team or another thing which he/she leads. From the words of Anu Shukla, we can understand how a branded leader works or what is the qualification of a branded leader. According to her words, her style is “I am tenacious and optimistic, and like any good entrepreneur, I am fueled by the thrill of picking off the impossible and making it happen.” (You are your brand: defining a personal leadership style 2005).

Her words and leadership brand have influenced me very much. I wish to develop this kind of leadership brand for me.

References

Developing your leadership brand 2007, Business Week, Web.

Five steps to building your personal leadership brand: you have a personal leadership brand. But do you have the right one 2009, Aiim, Web.

Five steps to building your personal leadership brand: you have a personal leadership brand. But do you have the right one: define your identity, Aiim, Web.

Ulrich, Dave, Smallwood, Norm & Zenger, Jack 2000, Leadership brand: internal brand, Articles.

Ulrich, Dave, Smallwood, Norm & Zenger, Jack 2000, Leadership brand, Articles, Web.

Your leadership brand 2007, Leading Blog: Building a Community of Leaders.

You are your brand: defining a personal leadership style: brand you: does it change the way you work 2005, Knowledge Wharton.

“Fighting Auschwitz” By Josef Garlinski

In the 1940s, the Nazi regime started an international program aimed at “purifying” the racial profile of the European population and establishing the rule of the so-called Aryan race. The powerful instruments of such correction were concentration camps, which combined the functions of labor utilization, development of science and technology, and extermination of the prisoners. The book “Fighting Auschwitz”, written by the former member of Armija Krajova, the Polish Underground, who also became a victim of the Nazi regime and spent several years as an inmate of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The present paper is aimed at analyzing the book from a sociological perspective.

Firstly, it needs to be noted that in his work “Religion in Sociological Perspective” Keith Roberts employs the so-called open systems theory, which is also applicable informing the approach to the structure of Auschwitz-Birkenau. In particular, this paradigm implies that as opposed to the thermodynamic systems, which strive for greater chaos, human institutions and organizations tend to become more differentiated and elaborated over time. In this sense, the internal environment of Auschwitz was extremely diverse. The initial division was based upon the racial background of prisoners and the rank and occupation of SS staff. For instance, in the beginning, Jewish, Polish, and Russian inmates voluntarily segregated from each other, probably because of the language barrier and the historically determined hostility between the three groups.

The two main groups of personnel included military guards and scientists who performed unethical medical experiments with the inmates. As the system was developing, there appeared two subsystems in the group of prisoners, which included the Underground (resistance group), composed predominantly of Poles and the Sonderkommandos (Garlinski, p.245), a predominantly Jewish subdivision, formed by the guard, whose function was assistance in gassing. Interestingly, due to the fact that the Sonderkommandos assumed the responsibilities of the guard, they received additional privileges and their living conditions were similar to those of the low-ranking SS soldiers. For instance, they received much more nutritive food, had an opportunity to skip the exhausting work given to all inmates, and often slept in cleaner beds. However, the term of their service was not longer than six months, afterwards, they were exterminated by the prison guard.

The open systems approach states that the internal structures belonging to the system have a tendency to becoming more complex and elaborate. This principle is particularly workable in the case of AK, the Underground, whose members managed to struggle using the limited resources they had. For instance, they created a small bacteriological warfare laboratory and cultured the species of typhus-bearing lice, which they used to infect the SS guards. (Garlinski, p.54). In addition, the Auschwitz AK was responsible for the flight of two Slovak Jews, who were further safely transported to Slovakia and successfully gave their testimonies to the Jewish officials of Slovakia which seemed to have a critical attitude towards the possibility of mass murders of Jews in the camps (Garlinski, p.233).

At the same time, it needs to be admitted that with respect to the functions of the concentration camps in contemporary Nazi society, the Auschwitz administration sought to prevent the further elaboration of its subsystems in order to avoid diversions and disobediences. For instance, a number of previously loyal Poles and Jews were tortured and subsequently persuaded to become the Gestapo informers. Such practice can be explained by the fact that in such highly hierarchical structures as Auschwitz, inmates were not viewed as individuals’ human beings or “workers”, but rather as livestock, or the resource which can be disposed of without any ethical principles and norms. Therefore, the administrators were interested in maintaining the “homeostasis” of the specified group and prevent its progress. One can also suppose that the formation of the Sonderkommandos subdivision was aimed at excluding the most able-bodied inmates from resistance and isolate this large group of prisoners. Therefore, when the Sonderkommandos started a revolt, they were not supported by the Underground and peer inmates (Garlinski, p.248). The Sonderkommandos were perceived by the prison “livestock” as supporters of the SS guard, as it has been noted above, they performed the regular duties of the lower-ranking soldiers (gassing and cremation).

Furthermore, according to the open systems approach, each system demarks its boundaries and filters the input and output of information and resources. In this sense, the Auschwitz policy was simple and consisted in blocking the penetration of any information which might support its inmates; again, it was useful to keep the “livestock” in the state of homeostasis; one of the elements of this static state was information vacuum. However, news from the world war leaked into the prison cells; for instance, the Sonderkommandos organized the revolt, encouraged by the forthcoming invasion of the red Army in 1943.

Despite the status of the “secret organization”, Auschwitz remained an open system, expected to use the information from the external environment for its good. For instance, when it became clear that German troops were driven away from Russia and additional resources were needed for a successful counterattack, the Auschwitz administration ordered that the labor of each unit was utilized at maximum and stopped the reckless murders inside the camp (Garlinski, p.101). In addition, due to the need for technological advancement, Mengele expanded the scope of his genetic studies, trying to artificially culture the highest race. In the year 1943, when the threat of the Red Army was becoming a reality, as the USSR was approaching, the camp administration responded to this piece of news by resuming the systematic slaughters of the inmates. Therefore, the system to great extent depended upon the specific features and aspects of the external environment, one of which was the success of Hitler’s military effort.

In his book, Roberts also addresses the concept of racism, which is actually close-knit to the establishment of Nazi rule and the creation of concentration camps. In fact, the idea of the contemporary German officials was the spread of the Aryan rule, as Aryans were viewed as supreme humans. The distinctive features of Aryans included athletic building, good physical and mental health, short and direct nose, fair hair, white skin, and blue eyes. These external attributes were associated with intellectual and moral perfectness as well as with outstanding managerial and leadership abilities. At the same time, the appearance of Slavs and Jews did not comply with this norm, as the former had darker hair and eyes and were generally shorter by height, whereas the latter had such Semitic features as long nose, black hair, and dark eyes, which were not tolerated by the Nazi ideology and considered to be associated with mercantile and petty nature. Jews were also accused of the global conspiracy against Europeans and Americans and charged with the economic recession of the early 1930s. Therefore, the divergence from the Nazi norms of beauty and fitness were viewed as a deviation; again, certain physical characteristics were equated by Nazis to the potential undesired personality traits and behaviors. As Garlinski writes, “Some nations, such as the Jews, and later the Poles and other Slavs, were to be completely, or almost completely, eliminated…”( Garlinski, p.137). Finally, the purpose of concentration camps can be logically derived from their name, i.e. these structures were responsible for gathering the “deviants”, i.e. they served as penitentiary institutions under Nazi social control.

References

Garlinski, J. Fighting Auschwitz. Fawcett, 1975.

Roberts, K. Religion in Sociological Perspective. Cengage Learning, 2003.

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