The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement Benefits Homework Essay Sample

In the present day, regional trading agreements may be defined as a treaty signed by several countries in order to encourage trade and the movement of products and services across its members’ borders. In general, international tariffs, quotas, and other trade barriers limit the transportation of goods and services across states. In this case, regional trading agreements are introduced as they come with specific internal rules followed by members. That is why a considerable number of countries currently aim to sign regional trading agreements to ensure their continued economic growth. Thus, in 2020, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which substituted the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), entered into force (Office of the United States Trade Representative, n.d.). This paper aims to evaluate USMCA in order to support the statement that this agreement benefits the economies of all member countries.

First of all, it is necessary to mention that the creation of USMCA for mutual economic benefits was presupposed by several factors. Being the parts of North America, the United States, Canada, and Mexico are the main trade partners of each other (The White House, n.d.). Moreover, they have already built an integrated platform for manufacturing in multiple industries, including machinery, automobiles, medical devices, electronics, equipment, household appliances, and agriculture. At the same time, economic challenges that were caused by the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the necessity for integration and close cooperation to avoid more substantial economic decline.

Besides, USMCA is highly beneficial for small and medium-sized businesses as it establishes investment and trade opportunities for them. Thus, the agreement facilitates cross-border transactions and transportation. For instance, USMCA’s Customs and Trade Facilitation Chapter helps businesses ease international trade by reducing transportation costs, the online publication of documents required for a trade, customs clearance, and procedures of error correction (Office of the United States Trade Representative, n.d.). Moreover, in USMCA, the regulations of online trade were introduced for the first time, prohibiting customs duties on the distribution of digital products and protecting cross-border data flow.

In addition, USMCA guarantees access to members’ inner markets, especially agricultural ones, stimulating export and international trade. For instance, it “provides the U.S. with greater access to Canada’s dairy, poultry, and egg markets” (The White House, n.d., para. 4). In turn, Canada and Mexico increase access to each other’s markets as well. Moreover, the agreement stimulates regional manufacturing – thus, according to it, at least 75% of vehicle parts should be produced in North America with zero tariffs and increased wages for workers (The White House, n.d.). Therefore, USMCA leads to the creation of new job positions and the enforcement of labor rights. In particular, new rules focus on the regulation of payment in order to provide appropriate working conditions for citizens.

To conclude, the notion related to the benefits of regional trading agreements for countries’ economic growth is supported by the example of USMCA, the agreement between North American states. It was signed for the prosperity of the regional economy through balanced and fair trade, support for small and medium-sized businesses, and cooperative manufacturing. Moreover, USMCA is beneficial for countries’ citizens, especially for those ones who operate in the automobile industry and agriculture, as it stimulates employment and contributes to the creation of high-paying jobs. Finally, the agreement emphasizes the importance of working rights enforcing industries’ commitments to prioritize them.

References

Office of the United States Trade Representative. (n.d.). United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement fact sheet. Supporting America’s small and medium-sized businesses. Web.

The White House (n.d.). 2019 WH statement on USMCA benefits [PDF document]. Web.

Perspectives On Muslim Women’s Rights And Feminism

In order to determine the validity of specific issues, it is essential to review and analyze existing sources. At the same time, Muslim society, women’s rights, and religion can be interpreted by different authors through the prism of their own considerations, not supported by evidence. Therefore, it is crucial to analyze the existing different types of literature and establish certain limitations and advantages that affect the value and relevance of the writings.

The purpose of the chapter written by Nash is to identify the problems associated with feminism in the context of the Middle East. Fatima Mernissi’s argues that common conceptions of women in Islam cannot always be correlated with Islamic ideals. Therefore, it is valuable to engage in the study of the Qur’an, rather than the viewing of it. This is because reinterpreting the Qur’an enables the creation of a feminist position that will not be completely analogous to the Western one. Nikki Keddie observed that women’s absence of rights results from religious considerations from a Western perspective. It is important to note how Leila Ahmed, who lived in the United States, perceived feminism. She distinguishes between two kinds of patriarchy; the first official is based on the texts of sacred books because the people who interpreted the scriptures did not have a sufficient understanding of Islam.

The second type, which accounted for the reduction of women’s rights, explained precisely the perception of women and the transmission of information to the next generations. One should remember Nawal El-Saadawi, who, in contrast to previous feminists, attempted to assert women’s identity by directly confronting patriarchal norms. However, the chapter notes that the feminists’ critique of their society demonstrates a lower level of Islamic women than that of American women. At the same time, feminist scholars’ critique of Muslim men undoubtedly captures a bifurcation of cultural meanings.

The chapter also mentions Azar Nafisi’s book, which argues that the author did not sufficiently study the literature in Afghanistan and Iran during and before the revolution. Hence, her views on the absence of rights for Muslims resulted from Western influence rather than a thorough analysis. It should be noted Seierstad’s narrative, which claims that the lives of women in Afghanistan have substantially benefited since the victory against the Taliban. She does not mention that women were not empowered with the customary rights inherent in Western society. Consequently, one can deduce that a section of the book highlights the opinions of females who have attempted to describe the lives of women in Muslim states. Many thinkers believe that religious norms are not the reason for restricting their rights, but they point to a misinterpretation of them. It should also be observed that the source presents a critique of feminist considerations and identifies the outdated data. Accordingly, it does not comprehensively understand Muslim women’s feminist discourse.

It is crucial, that Morey describes the fight against terrorism and urges the U.S. that the regime in Afghanistan negatively influences the lives of females. That is what distinguishes this source from the previous one, which focused on the internal aspects of Islam. However, the two chapters share a common criticism of the event’s influence and their misinterpretation of Islamic principles. Thus, this section analyzes feminist literature and is subject to considerable criticism because Nafisi used not only autobiography but also fiction.

Accordingly, critics find it challenging to differentiate between truth and fiction in his writing. Dabashi argues that Nafisi did not adhere to historical events in his work and omitted the Iranian context. For instance, there is no mention of why millions of people protested and died to depose one of the most brutal military dictatorships in modern history. Instead, Nikki Keddie describes the Iranian revolution as a desire to adopt Ataturk’s model of power and improve living standards. However, she also notes that one of the decisive moments was the conspiracy of external states to depose the regime. Nafisi’s criticisms include that the author does not describe the Western influence and desire for Iranian oil, which made the state’s leadership addicted to the Western world. It should also be noted that Nafisi considers the hijab and women’s clothing as oppressing their rights and creating stronger rules and lowering the age of marriage. Accordingly, this source addresses significant and still relevant issues of Muslims, although, as in the previous one, a criticism is provided. Hence, the author assesses the creations of feminists as influenced by Western thought, which is not fair and does not permit the discourse to continue.

Judith concentrates on biographical sources and their significance for the illuminated histories of the Muslim region. The author examines the description of the Prophet’s life as a fundamental base of knowledge that the present generation obtains about the lives of men and women in antiquity. Ibn al-Athir, Baha al-Din, and ‘Imad al-Din described the organization of the lives of leading people in society. This provides historical evidence for specific orders, which cannot be criticized because of artistic fiction. The writer remarks that there are two ways of describing biography: factual and interpretations. Arab literary writers adopted the first method, which the West has criticized. However, the author believes that the primary purpose of a biography is to provide historical events, not interpretations of the views of a particular person

It is essential to emphasize that Muhammad al-Muhibbi indicates the source of information in his papers, even if it refers to another. Thus, modern readers can assume that his narrative is truthful and structured. Accordingly, it is a valuable source for the lives of particular persons or patterns of society at the time. The author notes that Khayr al-Din’s biography shows the most critical stages of his life illuminated chronologically. At the same time, despite the criticism of Western writers, it can be said that the biography also illuminates emotional connections through relationships with others. Thus, biography has extremely valuable and relevant for contemporary research. It is crucial to remark that the confirmation of information and highlighting of the most significant events in the life of an extraordinary person enables one to assert the usefulness of this source for modern explorers. The previously mentioned authors who wrote pieces of fiction were criticized precisely because of the impossibility of evidencing their opinions with proof, which is why their sources do not appear to be sufficiently reliable.

Significantly, Chambers wrote an article about the autobiographical memoirs “The Making of Mr. Hai’s Daughter” and “Love in a Headscarf”. They are written in the traditional Muslim style, as is the previous biography of Khayr al-Din, although their predominant theme concerns their education and adolescence as British Muslim women (78). The author believes that an analysis of their memoirs allows us to assess the women’s authentic emotions and opinions about Muslim religion and identity. Yasmin Hai’s memoir describes her father’s migration, her Pakistani relatives, and their journey. Thus, even when attributed to an artistic style, this source enables the modern reader to appreciate the views of a Muslim female who values her culture regardless of her secular upbringing. In contrast to Seierstad and Nafisi, the value of this resource is that it demonstrates society’s reaction to Muslims being granted the right to work.

It is essential to specify the difference between Janmohamed and Hai because she is a devout Muslim of Trans-Asian roots. She attended the mosque frequently and wore the hijab in exile (79). This dedication of a female to her faith suggests that she is both a feminist and a Muslim. Accordingly, her memoir serves as a significant source of information confirming Hai’s oppression. The biographies of the two women are valuable sources of information because they point to their life experiences and the social processes of society.

Thus, it may be noted that the life of Muslims has been described by many writers, and their writings have different character and evaluation. For example, the value for the modern reader is biographies and memoirs, referring to the sources of data. At the same time, the works of fiction written by Nafis, Keddie, Nawal El-Saadawi, and others demonstrate information depending on the authors’ perception of it. Hence, they are often criticized and reevaluated; consequently, it is difficult to claim their reflections on Muslim females are truthful. Accordingly, their papers do not provide a complete understanding of feminist discourse and therefore are less valuable than biographies and memoirs.

Reference List

Chambers, Claire, “Countering the ‘Oppressed, Kidnapped Genre’of Muslim Life Writing: Yasmin Hai’s the Making of Mr Hai’s Daughter and Shelina Zahra Janmohamed’s Love in A Headscarf”, Life Writing, 10(2013), 77-96.

Judith, Tucker, “Biography as History. The Exemplary Life of Khayr al-Din al-Ramli” in Readings in Auto/Biography and the Construction of Identity and Community in the Middle East., ed. by Mary Ann Fay (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001), pp. 9–17.

Nash, Geoffrey, “Fixing Muslim Masculinity, Saving Muslim Women”, in Readings in Writing Muslim Identity, ed. by Geoffrey Nash (London: Continuum, 2012), pp. 50–69.

Morey, Peter, “Muslim Misery Memoirs: The Truth Claims of Exotic Suffering in Azar Nafisi and Khaled Hosseini” in Readings in Islamophobia and the Novel, ed. by Peter Morey (New York: Columbia University Press, 2018), pp. 96–125.

The Effectiveness Of Psychodrama In Reducing Irrational Behavior

Introduction

Psychodrama is a form of therapy that helps people control their activities through dynamic actions. This approach incorporates group dynamics and role-playing to help people who do not understand their emotions like anger, happiness, and fear. Individuals who undergo this form of therapy want to clearly understand their roles in life. The use of these action methods helps people acknowledge the past, present, and future occurrences in their lives. Students who have irrational behavior are confused and they need guidance when decision-making is concerned.

Psychodrama Therapy

Psychodrama therapy has its strengths in helping students with irrational behavior. In the beginning phase, these students have a clear and defined set of their environments. In the middle stage, the students’ confusion and self-doubt grow actively and build their character (Azoulay & Orkibi, 2018). The final stage is when a student gets a more realistic view of their languages and interaction. This whole process helps these students interact more freely with other students during school activities. Every program has its drawbacks that slow it down or cause other inconveniences. One of the drawbacks of using this program is role confusion, which occurs in the first stage. The students in the participant-observer role are often identified with the teen’s issues and do not have clinical experience to manage the problem (Azoulay & Orkibi, 2018). In the culminating phase, the hindering factor manifests during the end-of-year activities. Students mainly take this end-of-year activities as a distraction from the program. The school’s end-of-year activity means that they have to discontinue the training and resume when school reopens. Students, they think that it encourages rule-breaking (Azoulay & Orkibi, 2018). This program should be a continuous activity where students do not have to stop the therapy.

Psychodrama is mostly group therapy, which also applies to individuals. For example, site seeing helps students who are suffering from stress. It will help them clear their head and get a change of scenery. In this form of treatment, the therapist is an active participant. One of the techniques used by trainers is role-playing. Students have to perform an impromptu situation that causes them trauma (Maya & Maraver, 2020). This form of therapy has brought a positive outcome in students. Another technique is role reversal; a group member reenacts the student’s feelings and performs when the student is present. It helps students think from a different point of view and develop comprehensive ideas in specific subjects. It also helps students understand issues differently (Nolte 2018). Teachers require proper planning to make this work and see the changes in students.

The program employs five principal elements to conduct the work. A protagonist plays different roles that are similar in personality. They are also authors of their work because they portray someone’s personal life situation. It encourages people to be tolerant and learn to listen to one another. The second principle is auxiliary egos which portrays someone in the protagonist’s life. They direct the protagonist and play complementary roles (Lopez et al., 2021). The third principle is the director, who orchestrates the therapist and monitors the progress. They are also responsible for choosing the most suitable strategy during therapy. The fourth principle is the audience, the other members of the group (Lopez et al., 2021). They pay attention to what the rest of the members are doing and their observation is of great benefit to them. The last principle is the stage, where the whole scene takes place. The stage allows the protagonist to represent their inner world and illustrate their dream and fantasies (Lopez et al., 2021). Every group member has a part to play and express their emotions and learn at the same time.

However, both tutors and students will benefit from this therapy. By using this program, teachers will understand students’ emotions (Hashim & Bakar, 2020). Trainers need to know these programs, procedures, and strategies so they can be able to deal with any student misbehavior. The psychodrama techniques mainly aim at real-life problem-solving skills for their teaching practice. Teachers familiar with this psychodrama therapy can evaluate students’ strengths and weaknesses (Maya & Maraver, 2020). Motivation from teachers helps greatly in students’ behavior and development. Teachers need to think effectively to notice behavioral changes in some students. Tutors also need to plan workshops for students to reflect on coursework materials while discussing them with other students (Giacomucci & Skolnik, 2021). This form of the platform helps them relate well with others and improve how they communicate with others.

Conclusion

In conclusion, in every education sector, the psychodrama program has been proven to work in students with irrational behavior. This therapy helps students better understand their characters and handle real-life situations differently. Using this program at school in discipline will reduce and create a warm environment for students to learn. In addition, students who cannot relate with others will be friendlier and have a diverse attitude toward other students. Students will enhance teamwork and correlate well with other learners. It will create a pleasant platform for their learning environment.

References

Azoulay, B., & Orkibi, H. (2018). Helpful and hindering factors in psychodrama field training: A longitudinal mixed methods study of student development. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 196.

Giacomucci, S., & Skolnik, S. (2021). The experiential social work educator: Integrating sociometry into the classroom environment. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 41(2), 192-202.

Hashim, S. K., & Bakar, A. Y. A. (2020). Psychodrama technique in enhancing communications skills among Special Education Integration Program (SEIP) students in Malaysia: A case study. Education and Social Sciences Review, 1(1), 13-15.

López-González, M., Morales-Landazábal, P., & Topa, G. (2021). Psychodrama group therapy for social issues: A systematic review of controlled clinical trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9), 4442.

Maya, J., & Maraver, J. (2020). Teaching-learning processes: Application of educational psychodrama in the University setting. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 3922.

Nolte J. (2018). Psychodrama and creativity in education. In: Burgoyne S. (eds) Creativity in theatre. Springer.

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