The War Ends, The Reconstruction Begins. USA After The Civil War Free Sample

The present paper is focused on the issues of Reconstruction that took place in the USA after the Civil War and different approaches different government bodies took to it. At the beginning of beginning of analyzing Restoration plans it is necessary to define what in fact Restoration was – what it was caused by and what it was necessary for.

Restoration was a measure taken by the government after the devastating war between the North and the South that caused the splitting of the nation, huge losses of manpower, resources, destroyed infrastructure etc. The country was lying in ruins, people were either killed on the battlefields or starved to death because of lack of resources the war absorbed from the nation.

Reconstruction encompassed three major initiatives: restoration of the Union, transformation of southern society, and enactment of progressive legislation favoring the rights of freed slaves (Reconstruction).

The President of the United States at that time was Abraham Lincoln who stipulated the main points that had to be taken into consideration in the course of the Restoration process. The main issue he was focused at was the restoration of political stability within the country – the reasons for the war, as everyone knows, were complex and included much political incongruence between the regions of the country. So there was a clear necessity to unite the nation again under homogeneous government, pursuing a homogeneous goal in the state’s functioning.

In the course of implementation of Restoration in the state’s policy there appeared a discrepancy in opinions between the President and the Congress – Lincoln adopted his ten-percent plan that consisted in re-including the rebellious states into the United States in exchange of the expression of loyalty towards the US by 10% of the state’s electorate (Restoration). Lincoln realized that there should be some loyalty towards the defeated states in order not to cause strong resistance, so he was for softer measures.

The Congress, on the contrary, insisted on increasing the percentage of people who had to express their loyalty up to 50% stating that only this way the country would be able to ensure its security from a potential threat of a new war:

The Radicals therefore attempted to reshape the South by enfranchising blacks, putting Unionist and pro-Republican governments in southern legislatures, and punishing southern planter elites, whom many politicians held responsible for the Civil War (Reconstruction).

However, the point in which both the President and the Congress achieved full consensus was the need for the Southern states to abolish slavery and to ensure the provision of civil rights to black people, seeing the future of progress and democracy in this measure. A set of laws were adopted in order to fix the abolition of slavery constitutionally, to ensure the provision and protection of the fundamental human rights to blacks and to protect them against discrimination (Reconstruction).

From the point of view of efficiency it seems that the Congress’s plan is more successful in the provision of safety and stability within the nation because of the overall moods in the South that were not soothed by the victory of the North and only forced the states to obey, but did not bring the change in the Southerners’ moral perception of blacks and their place in the American society. However, Lincoln’s loyalty ensured that there would be no protest within the Southern states in response to such indisputably radical demands, thus ensuring the peaceful solution to the conflict that still existed between the South and the North. Thus, the plan of Lincoln seems more successful and appropriate for the time of the Reconstruction when the moods were still hostile and the risk to unleash another conflict existed.

Works Cited

Reconstruction, 2009. Web.

Classroom Environment: Vision, Mission, And Philosophy

The importance of the classroom environment for the early childhood education cannot be overestimated. The learning environment in itself can be a powerful learning tool, where an efficient setup of the environment, with knowledge of the main theories of learning and development, can facilitate the learning experience as well as support teaching. In that regard, the present paper will describe a classroom environment, aligned with the vision, mission, and philosophy of the early childhood program that was described in week 1.

First of all, describing the classroom environment, a suitable definition should be given to what such environment constitutes. A classroom environment can be defined as the “space where young children have opportunities to interact with each other and adults and engage in meaningful activities that nurture aspects of a child’s development” (New & Cochran, 2007, p. 140).

One of the points of the vision of the educational program is ensuring a protected and nurturing environment that stimulates growth. In terms of protection, the setup of the environment should focus on safety, which should be reflected in the furniture and learning materials. Such reflection might include aspects such as “easy-to-clean plastic furniture and easy-to-store commercial learning materials and displays” (New & Cochran, 2007, p. 144). Other elements related to safety shall be represented through 10% percent of the square footage of the class should be devoted to storage areas that are “not accessible to children” (Decker, 2009, p. 130). The nurturing aspect can be also seen through the regulation that indicates the minimum required space for children in the classroom. The latter implies such points as different zones for different kinds of activities, between 50 and 75 sq ft per child. The licensing regulations of many states indicate the minimum space per child to be at least 35 sq ft (Decker, 2009, p. 131).

The mission of the early childhood program indicated such aspects as the focus on the development of societal, rational, creative and emotional skills as well as fulfilling diverse needs of children. The latter can be achieved through arranging and organizing the classroom in ways that promote communication and “foster exploration with learning materials” (Oklahoma State Department of Education, n.d.). An environment that facilitates interaction among parents, teachers and children’s collaborative exploration is also encouraged (New & Cochran, 2007, p. 144).

The focus on the family and its role is also a part of the philosophy of the early education program. In that regard, the facilitation of family involvement and the reinforcement of family values might be also represented in the design of the learning environment. Including elements of children’s culture and/or the community is an example of such representation, e.g. photos, pictures, drawings on the walls. Additionally, such representation can be seen through considering additional areas within the classroom where members of the family can be present and interact with their children. Such area might be seen through a separate area for separate interaction or a larger area where group learning might occur.

In conclusion, the present paper provided a brief description of a learning classroom environment. Such an environment conformed to the vision, mission, and philosophy of an early education program as well as educational theories outlined in the literature. It should be mentioned that the mentioned aspects are not inclusive, serving merely as guidelines of a possible classroom setup.


Decker, C. A. (2009). Planning and administering early childhood programs (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill/Pearson Education.

New, R. S., & Cochran, M. (2007). Early childhood education : an international encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers.

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (n.d.). Early Childhood/Family Education Programs. Oklahoma State Department of Education. Web.

Computer Use And Dangerous Computer Addiction

The society has changed a lot with the technological developments that have come up in the world. This technology has had many advantages to the contemporary world. However, there are a number of disadvantages for excessively depending on the computer. Individuals should watch out not to use computers excessively since it can pose a lot of harm to them. People should use computers effectively and wisely when it is necessary.

Information technology has made communication easier but it has also come with the price of privacy issues. Today cell phone signals are interrupted, email hacking is happening all over and this has compromised the security of information. Many people are worried that the information that is meant to be private can become public. “Tricia Ellis-Christensen states that, the definition of what constitutes computers fraud becomes ever more complex with the ingenuity of people who intend to deceive, misrepresent, destroy, steal information are some causes of where people are able to steal private information and use it to harm others”. (Ellis-Christensen)This is widespread among the young people especially those still in school where someone hacks into someone else’s emails, takes the information and uses it against the other person. Others use dirty language and abuses that they send to innocent teenagers making them lose their self-esteem. This trend has caused a lot of harm to many while others have ended up committing suicide.

The issue of communication has been hampered by over dependent on computers. Since there is no face to face interaction, communication skills are neglected and one is not able to speak when they are in public. This is because computers do not allow people to think for themselves thus they are left with decreased literacy levels. This has greatly affected many young children who are not able to communicate more than a few words when they interact with others. This culture of over dependency on the computer breaks the personal bond that has always kept people together. Many people no longer socialize with their peers leading to the breaking of cultural bonds that develops among people. This threatens to disintegrate society values in many areas.

Over dependency on computers has also led to the tendency of people copying what others are doing universally. Through the various internet sites, young people are able to see the culture of the other society, which is believed to be better, thus they imitate another culture. This includes the way people dress; the language and behavior have dominated many young people all over the world. This has created issues in other societies with different customs and do not view the new culture as good. Teenagers who spend time on the computer end up neglecting their studies achieving low grades in school.

“Antony states, there are certain risks involved with prolonged computer use. These health problems include Eye disease, Bad posture, Hurting hands, and Computer stress injuries”. (Antony) Other problems include repetitive strain injury (RSI) from repeated hand movements, those who use until late at night may suffer drowsiness, depression, and difficulty in concentrating. One has no time for body exercises leading to overall poor physical health. There are also the problems caused by radiations that are emitted by the computer that are not good for one’s health.

When one uses a computer too much, they can suffer emotional instability. This is because one withdraws slowly from the real world and is caught up in his/her own world. Those who do many computer games end up putting more value that is emotional on the activities of the game and forgets all about things that matter. In most cases, computer over dependency does more harm than good. It is important to limit how much you spend on the computer in order to ensure that other important matters are not neglected.

Works Cited

Antony.Top 4 health problems caused by computers use. 2008.Web.

Ellis-Christensen, Tricia. What is Computer Fraud? 2003. Web.

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