The War Prayer Mark Twain Free Sample

The War Prayer Analysis: Essay Introduction

Mark Twain, officially known as Samuel Langhorne Clemens, is a celebrated American author whose work and practice both in academic and political fields contributed immensely to shaping American literary history, socio-political environment, and global academic development. The author, a critic of American discriminative leadership, is a central figure in the development of American literature through his writing style, wits, appeal, and vibrant social experience (Tarnoff 866). After dropping out of school in his early years, Mark Twain pursued his academic and gained substantial work experience in American literature, journalism, politics, and war. His writing skills focused on tangible facts affecting Americans and society, which has made him relevant in American literary development history. As Mark Twain is a famous author in the United States, this essay discusses how one of his works, The War Prayer, has influenced and shaped American literary history.

The War Prayer

In his prose poem, The War Prayer, Mark Twain, accuses Americans of being blind patriots and Christians of using prayer in encouraging war. Mark Twain uses the various elements of literature adopted in modern writing practices to portray the evil practices in society. These elements communicate the relevant mood, beliefs, and realities affecting society using theme, tone, point of view, plot, and setting. Moreover, the author employs literary styles such as satire, irony, humor, and imagery in portraying societal elements and pictures. The outstanding message in the poem is the author’s theme that condemns human suffering and blames it on unfair social policies and bad governance. Particularly, his ability to adopt an explicit sense of space, which cuts across time and society and gives criticism and inspiration to the youth and leaders, has significantly influenced American literature.

Comprehensive Literary Elements

In his literary work, the adoption of comprehensive and specific literary elements enriches the nature and message of The War Prayer. Pons argues that in addition to enhancing understanding and discussion of literary work, the use of different elements in modern literature aids to develop better forms of communication (23). Elements of literature are essential in deepening readers’ understanding of the story through the actualization of events and the diverse functions and contributions of characters. Mark Twain adopted various characters in his work to depict the tangible element of the presence of diverse personalities in society. The use of different characters enables readers to categorize individuals based on their social contribution to social cohesion and development. In character representation, big figures threaten the existence and contribution of small figures in social development. This element of social representation on a written work has a significant relationship to the American society, and thus, it influences the social and academic perception of individuals’ moral accountability. Therefore, one can infer that the use of multiple character representations in The War Prayer significantly shapes the advancement of American literary work as an important tool for identifying the facilitators of events in an environment.

By using a polite topic representing a religious dedication to supreme intervention in challenging times as an approach of relaying his message, the author hides his main theme. However, the writer’s intention aims to create consciousness in the horror of war. Thus, this approach helps to disguise the intended message from the reader, which appears within the body of the text and creates complexity in literary work. The adoption of this writing style improves the standards of literature that significantly creates interest in individuals on the academic work while promoting readers’ understanding of the intended message. Thus, the onward appreciation of concealing the intended communication inside the body of a written work has influenced new authors’ contributions to the development of a robust framework of writing and conveying information in American literature.

In enhancing understanding, Mark Twain utilizes a description of the context by employing painted words to facilitate readers’ actualization of the circumstances central to the theme. The setting provides a cultural and historical context of characters. In the literary work, the author shows a sequence of events relating to the occurrence of war through ‘the servant of God” intervention (Twain), and the social perception of his mental condition, which builds a backdrop of events and creates the desired mood for the conceptualization of the work. The crumbling and aging stranger reflects the decaying and none reparable state of both the social values and cohesion. In this view, the author considerably contributes to the advancement of American literature by scaling the perfect model for the creation of invaluable work.

The literary work provides a causal sequence of events that happen in the social setup of the story. Twain narrates, “Sunday morning came-next day the battalions would leave for the front…” (Twain). Utilization of plot draws the reader into characters’ lives and enhances understanding of the possible choices at their disposal over a given event. The plot elements used by the author include exposition, complication, and climax. In the literature, the author utilized compilation at the start of the story in communicating social conflict. However, the entry of the servant of God acted as the expected turning point in the story for the characters to resolve the complication.

Mark Twain employed tonal variation throughout his work by adopting an appeal to senses, facts, and choices of language that catapult the actualization of events in society. Variation in character dialogue evokes emotions with each character’s language being consistent, realistic, and natural. Twain says that“…then in a deep voice he said…” (Twain). The tonal variation expresses the writer’s attitude on the subject matter and contribution of the characters. Mark Twain employed a hopeful and optimistic tone to instill a sense of pride in soldiers and Americans who romanticized and praised war (Tarnoff 866). The change in tone creates the author’s desired effect on readers while communicating his/her feelings towards the subject (Pons 25). Additionally, tonal variation aids to communicate the struggle between various forces and the contradictory stance of characters. Writers deliberately employ this approach of communicating the author’s attitude to convey individual perception on themes that contribute immensely to the development of American literature over time.

Literary Styles

Literary styles reflect the way authors present their literary work and enable understanding among readers. According to Pons, literary styles are essential in constructing a unique perception of events through the creation of unlimited imaginations, interpretation of meanings, and the establishment of unique knowledge (38). Literary styles involve the use of figurative language, word choice, and proper sentence formation to create means through which authors deliver a message, conceal intended meaning, add depth to literary work, criticize, and induce amusement.


In The War Prayer, Mark Twain has employed irony throughout his piece of work to conceal the actual meaning of the words. The author says “…in the spirit of love, of him who is the source of love…” (Twain). The reality of the written phrase differs from the perspective created among readers. This style of literature builds interest, creates tension, and sustains the reader’s interest. Additionally, irony helps readers gain insight into the characters’ personalities. In The War Prayer, Mark Twain successfully uses irony to draw out the flaws of the characters and show the difference between what they say and the expected actions making readers conceptualize the central ideas surrounding social vices. In the development of American literature, Mark Twain has significantly contributed to the continuous adoption of this technique to attract readers’ attention while moving the story forward and deepening understanding.


Imagery refers to the use of descriptive language to add depth to a literary work through the appeal to human senses. Mark Twain contributed to the use of imagery in American literature through a successful combination of words to create a vivid experience for readers through imaginations. In prayer to praise soldiers and pray for victory, Twain says that “…in every breast burned the holy fire of patriotism…” to express the degree of patriotism expressed by Americans (Twain). As this concept of patriotism is relevant in American society, it has remained significantly important to the development of literature. Therefore, the use of the imagery in The War Prayer has influenced the continuous development and the adoption of imagery in American literature in generating a graphical presentation of scenes and enhancing readers’ understanding.


The use of satire in The War Prayer comprises irony, sarcasm, and ridicule. Satire effectively communicates the element of criticism of foolish behaviors exhibited by characters, their leaders, and society. The author uses satire in the written work to depict the hypocrisies of the church and religious leaders who preach love and mercy while supporting social vices such as war and destruction. As these social ideologies exist in every setup of society, they make the application of satire in literature work relevant. Therefore, in American literature, authors have adopted the use of satire as a technique to criticize and expose corrupt and foolish acts of individuals and society. Thus, authors of literary works in American literature have notably utilized this concept to improve humanity, bring attention to specific ideologies, and promote change.


In The War Prayer, the writer vividly uses humor in depicting the most important aspect of a failed social misconception. Twain uses humor to induce amusement and create a surprising occurrence of events. The use of humor in the context eases tension and creates a feeling of hope among readers. The author uses humor to demonstrate the surprising turn of events in human needs that depicts social hypocrisy and develops a platform of individual judgment on events. The use of humor in The War Prayer strengthens the comparative judging of events on the expected and the misdirected outcome. Despite the logical argument and the wisdom espoused, the failure to convince the patriotic citizens led to his description as a lunatic. Therefore, the skillful utilization of humor in this literature has boosted the continuous adoption of this technique by most American authors in providing a comic platform, driving sense, and improving the quality of their work.

Writing Style

The literary work of The War Prayer relates to tangible facts of American society and cultural history important in communicating critical social issues. The religious phrase “be thou near them” in the prayer (Twain) utilizes the American dialect to create a sense of familiarity and social connection to the public and the author. This writing style convinces and modifies people’s lives for it reflects publication, composition, critical views, and popular responses. The writing approach that focuses on the real issues of human existence makes the publication important in its contribution to the development of American literature as it encompasses the exact nature of issues that have perennially affected the society.

The War Prayer Analysis: Essay Conclusion

Mark Twain is one of the popular authors of all time and a critic of American discriminative leadership who has made a significant contribution to the development of literary work in academic history. Twain has contributed to the development of literature through his wits, appeal, knowledge, and rich social life. His expertise in literature breathes life to characters in the poem and gives personality through the choice of words and writing style. These writing skills focused on tangible facts affecting American people and society that has since made him relevant to American literary history. In The War Prayer, Mark Twain uses various elements of literature and literary styles adopted in contemporary writing practices to portray evil activities in the society. The elements communicate mood, beliefs, and realities that affect society using theme, tone, point of view, plot, and setting. On the contrary, literary styles such as satire, irony, humor, and imagery relay the picture and pillars of social unity. However, of importance is the author’s theme, which condemns and blames social policies and rules of governance for causing human suffering. The ability to adopt an explicit sense of space gives criticism and inspiration to the youth and leaders, and thus, shapes American literature.

Works Cited

Pons, Margalida. “Mobility and Fusion in the Literary Field: The Maverick Poetry of Dolors Miquel.” Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies, vol. 23, no. 1, 2017, pp. 21-43. Web.

Tarnoff, Ben. “The Bohemians: Mark Twain and the San Francisco Writers Who Reinvented American Literature.” Journal of American History, vol. 102, no. 3, 2015, pp. 866-866. Web.

Twain, Mark. “The War Prayer.” War Prayer, Web.

Canada Preparing For The Trump Presidency

Economic, Environmental, and Safety Threats Associated with a Trump Presidency

Within the past six decades, Canada has enjoyed a strong economic and political bond with the United States. The US has remained one of Canada’s most important trading allies. However, experts have argued that the victory of Donald Trump to become the 45th president of the United States might have numerous implications for the nation. The first threat that a Trump presidency might bring to Canada is economic. To begin with, Trump believes strongly that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been a disaster and should be renegotiated or scrapped (Perez-Pena & Austen, 2017). Mr. Trump has also vowed to persuade different American multinational companies to return their businesses home. This move can hurt the “country’s economy because U.S. corporations have over $28 billion in Canadian banks” (Perez-Pena & Austen, 2017, para. 3). Some analysts believe that a Trump presidency will result in the death of the TPP. The end of the TPP will diminish the influence of the United States in Asia. This move will have disastrous impacts on Canada’s economic performance.

As the president of the United States, Trump might decide to repudiate the existing greenhouse gas reduction targets that were accepted as “part of the 2015 Paris climate change agreement” (Business Council of British Columbia, 2016, para. 3). Trump’s government is expected to boost gas and oil production. Oil exploration activities might also be embraced within the next few years. Trump has also assured his people that he is going to approve the infamous Keystone Pipeline program. The program will definitely result in environmental degradation. A Trump presidency might fail to implement or sign any carbon pricing law shortly (Business Council of British Columbia, 2016). These measures will have significant implications for the environment of Canada. This is the case because the environmental interests of Canada cannot be realized by working together with the United States on every issue focusing on energy security and climate change.

Some analysts have argued that the United States might encounter numerous safety concerns and unrest due to the tensions experienced in the nation. Any form of unrest arising from the proposed immigration policies might force Canada to deal with a wide range of safety issues. With the potential changes in the economic position of Canada, chances are high that the country might encounter numerous safety concerns. The presidency has also become a wakeup call for many conservatives in Canada (Perez-Pena & Austen, 2017). This means that the country might have to deal with a revolt in the coming days. The construction of a physical boundary between Mexico and the United States can result in an increased number of immigrants in Canada. This kind of development will affect the level of security in the country.

Canada can embrace various strategies to protect itself from most of these threats. For instance, the government can renegotiate some of its trade agreements with the United States to promote economic performance. It is also the high time when Canada identified new trade partners in an attempt to support its future economy (Austen, 2017). The projected threat to Canada’s natural environment might have negative implications on the country’s economy. However, Canada’s policymakers should work harder to create a powerful strategy to deal with the problem of climate change. This goal can be achieved by putting a sustainable price on greenhouse and carbon emissions (Tandt, 2017). New policies aimed at minimizing human ecological footprints can deliver positive results in the country. The federal government of Canada should take security concerns seriously than ever before. New laws dictating the nature of immigration should be proposed to ensure the country’s citizens are safe. With these measures in place, Canada stands the chance to support its economic position in the world.

Economic, Environmental, Safety Benefits of a Trump Presidency

Canada has increased the chances of benefiting from a Trump presidency. The first economic benefit arises from the Keystone XL Pipeline project. This project will support the economy of Alberta and the livelihoods of more citizens. Trump has promised to revive the United States-Canada free trade agreement. This new partnership will boost the country’s trade operations and support its key sectors. A Trump presidency is also expected to promote and support many Canadian industries (Hendricks, 2017). That being the case, many Canadian suppliers and corporations will find it easier to export their products to the United States. This new development will support most of the domestic industries such as manufacturing and engineers. Since President Trump appears to embrace the use of coal as a major source of energy, the government of Canada can consider this emerging issue in an attempt to support its economy.

A Trump presidency will create the best environment for Canada to move forward with its environmental policies and agendas (Business Council of British Columbia, 2016). The anticipated changes under President Trump will encourage Canada to focus on sustainable measures that can safeguard the natural environment. The country stands a better chance to partner with other countries to achieve its sustainability goals (Austen, 2017).

Canada has always collaborated with countries such as the United States to defeat global terrorism. Donald Trump has outlined several objectives for his administration such as defeating the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). If this goal is realized, the number of Syrian refugees in the country will reduce significantly and promote safety. Additionally, the Canadian soldiers involved in the fight against ISL will be brought back home (Tandt, 2017). Increased border security and protectionism policies will support the safety experienced in Canada.

This discussion explains why Canada should consider the benefits that might arise from Trump’s leadership. The government of Canada can identify specific industries to export different materials to the United States. The nation can also come up with new sectors and economic activities that can support the lives of more Canadians. New policies aimed at supporting environmental conservation should be designed and implemented in the country. This approach will make it possible for “Canada to have a strong alignment for climate change action” (Tandt, 2017, para. 6). Canada should also collaborate with the U.S. to deal with the problem of global terrorism. By so doing, Canada will be able “to steal the limelight as the leader of the modern free world” (Tandt, 2017, para. 11).

Why Canada’s Approach to Trump should be Proactive

The election of Donald Trump as the president of the United States is something that should be taken seriously as Canada plans to pursue its economic goals. Canada’s privileged access and interaction with the largest market in the world appear to be threatened by a Trump presidency. To be prepared against the challenges and economic disruptions that might occur shortly, Canada should begin by implementing a proactive strategy (Hendricks, 2017). The goal of this strategy is to minimize the unique threats that might emerge due to the policies targeted by Donald Trump.

President Trump might impose duties and tariffs on goods imported from China or Mexico. This kind of strategy will definitely threaten the region’s economic stability (Goldfarb, 2016). That being the case, Canada should consider specific alignments with different trade partners across the globe. The country should also address the issue of the U.S. labor force. This is the case because Trump is expected to return to the American corporation’s homes (Perez-Pena & Austen, 2017). Canada can use the proposed proactive strategy to implement new policies that have the potential to support its interests in the global market (Goldfarb, 2016). By setting a positive standard, Canada will attract new products, technologies, people, and ideas that can drive economic performance. Perez-Pena and Austen (2017) encourage Canada to explore new opportunities in different countries such as Japan, China, Indonesia, and South Korea.

The proactive initiative will ensure new policies capable of meeting the needs of every Canadian worker are implemented. The approach will also ensure the country is aware of the unique environmental changes that might emerge due to Trump’s presidency. Issues of national security should be taken seriously to address the major challenges arising from terrorism and immigration (Goldfarb, 2016). The unique benefits that might emerge due to a Trump presidency will also be embraced to promote economic development. A proactive policy should, therefore, be the best start for Canada in an attempt to minimize the threats that might emerge from Trump’s initiatives.

Why Business Managers Should be Aware of the Issues Raised by a Trump Presidency

The issues raised by a Trump presidency have the potential to disorient the nature of trade between the United States and its partners. According to Trump, some of the existing trade agreements such as NAFTA are disasters that must be changed. The relation between the country and its neighbors might change due to the proposed foreign policies by Donald Trump (Goldfarb, 2016). These issues will definitely have numerous implications on specific sectors of the economy. These new changes will definitely transform the business operations of many corporations and industries.

This situation explains why a business owner or manager should have at least a general understanding of the issues that might be raised by a Trump presidency (Perez-Pena & Austen, 2017). With this kind of knowledge, the business manager will come up with a proactive strategy to overcome the turbulent economic period that might be experienced within the next five years. The knowledge can make it easier for these managers to design new models that can overcome the challenges emerging from a Trump presidency.

When the above measures are embraced, the corporations will understand how to streamline their supply chain processes, identify new sources of raw materials, and implement powerful business models that can withstand the anticipated challenges (Goldfarb, 2016). Additionally, the knowledge can be used to come up with new ideas that have the potential to support business performance. Businesses and corporations that fail to consider most of the issues raised by President Trump’s era will have higher chances of becoming obsolete.


Austen, I. (2017). Justin Trudeau, facing pressure to oppose Donald Trump, opts to get along. The New York Times. Web.

Business Council of British Columbia. (2016). Trump’s energy, environmental policies threat to Canadian business. Troy Media. Web.

Goldfarb, D. (2016). What Canada’s trade strategy should look like under Trump. MacLeans. Web.

Hendricks, B. (2017). How the Trump presidency could impact Canada. CPRS Toronto. Web.

Perez-Pena, R., & Austen, I. (2017). Justin Trudeau and Donald try to bridge some gaps while avoiding others. The New York Times. Web.

Tandt, M. (2017). Michael Den Tandt: Here are five ways Canada could benefit from a Trump presidency. National Post. Web.

Keurig Coffee Machine Product Pricing

The evaluation of Keurig’s coffee machine must start from its estimated pricing range and product qualities as perceived by the market. When it comes to household appliances, customers are often looking for the fair price versus performance as a primary criterion of judgment (Kotler, Keller, Sivaramakrishnan, & Cunningham, 2013). Other factors, such as the location of distribution, premium status of the product, and distinctiveness among others are less prominent for a coffee machine, as there are large numbers of substitute products in direct competition. As a result, the number of pricing strategies available to Keurig was somewhat limited.

One of the strategies that the company is currently implementing for Keurig Green Mountain is the market penetration strategy. Such a strategy suggests reducing the price and lowering the profit derived from individual units to achieve an economy of scale, distributing a larger number of products, and claiming market share as well as brand exposure (Kotler et al., 2013). Such a strategy is appropriate for coffee machines and similar household appliances. As has already been mentioned, there is a high degree of competition among the producers in the sector. At the same time, the price/quality balance is the primary criterion for making a choice (Stephens, 2016).

By lowering the price of the product, Keurig effectively increases the customer’s perceptions of the product, as they get more for their dollar than with any other producer. Green Mountain is currently sold at 108 dollars apiece, although its functionality and quality correspond to that of a more premium segment of the coffee-making market, estimated at around 130 dollars (Treadway, 2015). This strategy managed to bring the company greater overall profits while reducing the profit on individual sales.

Another strategy used by Keurig involved in bundle sales. This technique involves selling several thematic goods in a bundle at a lower price per each item (Kotler et al., 2013). Many Keurig machines are sold with a pack of high-quality coffee and a coffee cup in tow so that upon completing a purchase the customer has the opportunity to immediately experience the benefits that the company can provide. The company takes advantage of the fact that it sells not only coffee machines but also the beverages and the cups/accessories to it, something that many other producers in the market cannot do (Treadway, 2015).

Thus, the customer is exposed to the whole list of Keurig products, which has the potential to bolster sales in other sectors of the coffee market. This method also affects the price/quality balance, as the customers get more items per purchase than they would otherwise. However, this kind of strategy also had a negative side effect, as it did reduce the number of coffee machines sold without bundles.

Other pricing strategies have been considered but not utilized by Keurig in the promotion of their latest products. One of these strategies is the price skimming strategy. It is typically utilized in high-tech industries, such as the smartphone and computer/laptop sectors (Kotler et al., 2013). However, high-tech products generate plenty of hype around themselves, as each addition to the product line offers distinct advantages over other models, such as better functionality, increased quality of video and photography, better CPU performance, faster Internet, and other parameters (Stephens, 2016).

Coffee machines constitute a more conservative industry, where innovation is slow, and any improvements usually result in a marginally better quality of service (Fournier & Srinivasan, 2018). Thus, Keurig had no reason for demanding a higher price at the start of the sales, as the hype built around the model did not justify losing potential customers due to a high starting price. Research shows that new products make the most impact during the entry month, meaning that a price-skimming strategy would lose its initial momentum and result in subpar results further down the line (Samper & Quiñones-Ruiz, 2017).

Lastly, economy pricing does not seem to fit into Keurig’s overall strategy for the brand. Economy pricing strategy is useful for cheap mass-produced products that could be used to cater to all segments of the market, aiming mainly for the poor and the lower-middle class (Kotler et al., 2013).

The products of the company revolve around the use of K-cups, which contain portions of coffee to be used by customers in their machines. Keurig coffee-makers are not suited to using different brands of coffee. At the same time, the K-cups are expensive, costing roughly 0.58 dollars per 12 ounces of coffee, whereas the average price for 12 ounces in the economy coffee sector is around 0.08 dollars (Anderson, 2017). Thus, the economy pricing strategy would not be effective when applied to Keurig products.

To summarize, Keurig’s pricing strategies revolve around market penetration and bundle sales. The former is motivated by the fact that introducing a new coffee-maker without giving the product a significant value/price advantage is very hard due to a large number of potential competitors. The bundle sales pricing method is motivated by the fact that Keurig’s primary product is coffee, while cups and coffee-making machines are considered add-ons. Price-skimming and economy pricing strategies, on the other hand, have been proven ineffective due to the nature of the industry and the premium-leaning quality of the coffee used in Keurig machines.


Anderson, E. T. (2017). Keurig at home: Managing a new product launch. Kellogg School of Management Cases, 1-19.

Fournier, S., & Srinivasan, S. (2018). The frontlines of brand risk. GfK Marketing Intelligence Review, 10(1), 52-57.

Kotler, P., Keller, K. M., Sivaramakrishnan, S., & Cunningham, P. H. (2013). Marketing management (14th ed.). Don Mills, Canada: Pearson.

Samper, L., & Quiñones-Ruiz, X. (2017). Towards a balanced sustainability vision for the coffee industry. Resources, 6(2), 17.

Stephens, D. L. (2016). Essentials of Consumer Behavior. New York, NY: Routledge.

Treadway, R. B. (2015). Keurig Green Mountain 2015: Dynamic capabilities and sustainable strategic positioning. American Journal of Management, 15(3), 43.

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