The White Paper Assessment On The National Resilience State In The Transportation Sector Essay Sample For College

Executive Summary

The white paper assesses the national resilience state, particularly in the transportation sector, by emphasizing the existing approaches and their efficiency in enabling homeland security. As the “senior non-political member of the Department of Homeland Security” for 15 years, the paper identifies the issues experienced by the transportation sector and proposes strategies or approaches to address gaps, thus improving resilience.


National resilience is a vital homeland security component, encompassing the ability to recover, anticipate, absorb, and adapt to different threats. The transportation sector often plays a vital role in maintaining the movement of goods, services, and people across the country. This white paper explores the national resilience state with a particular aim on transportation by evaluating the strategies or approaches to enable its resilience.

Strategies in Place to Enable National Resilience in The Transportation Sector

Different strategies have been implemented to enable national resilience in the transportation sector. The strategies include: First, the “Department of Homeland Security” carries out comprehensive risk assessments to identify potential threats and vulnerabilities to the transportation area (Argyroudis et al., 2019). This involves evaluating important transportation assets, carrying out an analysis of the physical infrastructure, and an assessment of the various hazards’ potential impact. Second, local, federal, and state agencies should collaborate to develop “comprehensive emergency response plans,” particularly tailored to transportation disruptions. Such outline procedures, roles, and responsibilities for different stakeholders who will ensure an efficient and coordinated response during the crises.

Third, enhancing public-private partnerships. Collaborative efforts between the stakeholders of the private sector and the government entities should be established to enable transportation resilience. This involves sharing expertise, information, and resources to collectively address its challenges and improve recovery capabilities, preparedness, and response (Laspidou et al., 2020). Fourth, the government should allocate funding, especially for projects of transportation infrastructure, which prioritize resilience. This involves incorporating resilience principles, upgrading the aging infrastructure, and implementing advanced technologies into modern transportation systems’ design and construction.

Nevertheless, federal agencies, like the “Department of Transportation and the Department of Homeland Security,” work harmoniously to enhance transportation resilience. This harmonious collaboration enables common standards and practices development, information sharing, and joint exercises across different means of transportation (Renne et al., 2020). Moreover, efforts are being made to strengthen the transportation systems’ cybersecurity. This includes conducting vulnerability assessments, implementing robust cybersecurity protocols, and enabling awareness and training programs for transportation personnel to mitigate cyber risks. Also, investments in development and research support innovative technologies’ advancement and strategies or approaches to improving transportation resilience. This involves examining new processes, systems, and materials, enhancing the transportation infrastructure’s ability to recover and withstand disruptions. Finally, strategies are also in place to improve interoperability and coordination among various means of transportation. This enhances the easy movement of people and goods across different transportation networks, thus decreasing vulnerabilities and enabling overall resilience. Therefore, by implementing and regularly improving such strategies or approaches, the transportation sector may enable its resilience, thus contributing to national resilience. However, ongoing collaboration, evaluation, and adaptation are important in efficiently addressing emerging challenges and threats.

The Gaps in Transportation on National Resilience

Various gaps exist in assessing the national resilience state, especially in transportation. One of the significant gaps is the issue of aging or old transportation infrastructure. Most ports, roads, airports, bridges, and railways nationwide need upgrades and modernization because they are deteriorating quickly (Koc et al., 2020). These aging infrastructures often lead to a rise in vulnerability to disruptions by limiting the ability of the sector to recover and withstand various threats. Second, the transportation field is highly interconnected, with various transportation means which rely on each other to enhance efficient functioning. However, this interdependency may also pose vulnerability. This is because disruptions in one transportation mode, like the closure of a major airport or a bridge collapse, may have cascading impacts on other means of transportation by disrupting the general transportation network.

Also, while significant efforts have been put in place to allocate funding for infrastructural transportation, there still needs to be a gap in resource availability, mainly dedicated to enabling resilience. Decreased financial resources may prevent the needed resilience measures implementation by impeding the sector’s ability to address the vulnerabilities proactively. Nevertheless, the ever-rising reliance on technology and digitization in transportation systems have often exposed the field to cybersecurity dangers or threats (Buinevich et al., 2019). The cyberattacks, especially on transportation infrastructure, may result in compromised safety and disruptions, thus leading to significant adverse economic effects. Therefore, addressing the cybersecurity vulnerabilities by ensuring the transportation systems’ resilience against cyber threats is vital to address this critical gap.

The field of transportation is vulnerable to climate change impacts, involving more intense and frequent changing precipitation patterns, extreme weather events, and sea-level rise. Therefore, climate resilience must be integrated into operational practices, transportation planning, and infrastructural design. It is crucial to address this gap to ensure the ability of the sector to adapt and withstand climate-related disruptions (Feofilovs et al., 2021). Nonetheless, empowering and engaging communities in response efforts and preparedness is vital for efficient national resilience. Therefore, there needs to be more in the transportation sector to ensure that the societies residing near the transportation infrastructure are involved in decision-making processes and resilience planning, adequately informed, and prepared. Therefore, addressing such gaps in enhancing the transportation sector’s resilience and the general national resilience is vital.

Targeted investments and strategies should be implemented to allocate dedicated resources for resilience, address aging infrastructure, enhance cybersecurity measures, strengthen interagency coordination, promote community preparedness and engagement, and integrate climate resilience considerations (Hyman et al., 2019). The mentioned above actions will significantly contribute to a more resilient and robust transportation sector better equipped to withstand and recover from disruptions.

Addressing the Gaps

In addressing the gaps found in national resilience, especially within the transportation field, the following measures may be taken: first is prioritizing funding for the modernization of transportation infrastructure and resilience upgrades (Sadatsafavi et al., 2019). This involves investing in upgrading and repairing aging ports, roads, airports, bridges, and railways. This can be done by incorporating resilience principles into the infrastructure design to enable construction that may withstand potential threats. Also enhancing collaboration and coordination among local, state, and federal transportation agencies. Sharing best practices, establishing clear communication lines, and conducting joint training and exercises will improve coordination, especially during emergencies. Therefore, developing integrated plans addressing interdependencies ensures a unified response across various transportation modes.

Third, allocating dedicated resources, particularly for enabling transportation resilience, and increasing funding for research and development initiatives aimed at resilient infrastructure design, resilience technologies, and innovative materials. This can be done by providing financial support to transportation agencies that can implement resilience measures and incorporate resilience considerations into their planning and operations. Fourth, implementing quality cybersecurity measures to protect transportation systems from external cyber threats (Hyman et al., 2019). This involves creating incident response protocols, carrying out frequent vulnerability assessments, and enhancing network security. This can be done through collaborating with the private sector and cybersecurity experts to stay ahead of ever-changing cyber risks and ensure efficient cyber resilience.

Nevertheless, integrating considerations of climate resilience into transportation sector planning, design, and operations should be embraced. Vulnerability assessments should be carried out to enable the identification of climate-related risks and the development of adaptation approaches for mitigating their effects. Projections and climate data should be incorporated into decision-making processes to ensure long-term resilience, especially against climate change effects (Singh et al., 2023). Finally, investing in innovation and research to develop advanced strategies, technologies, and materials will enable transportation resilience. Therefore, encouraging collaboration between government, academia, and industrial agencies is vital in driving innovation and developing advanced solutions for resilient transportation systems. Therefore, addressing such measures requires a multi-level strategy involving local, state, federal, private, and public sector collaboration.


Enabling national resilience, especially within the transportation field important for homeland security. While the existing strategies or approaches have often made progress, challenges like the climate change effects persist, aging infrastructure, interdependencies, and cybersecurity threats. The transportation field may improve its general resilience by investing in infrastructure, fostering interagency collaboration, strengthening cybersecurity measures, and integrating climate resilience into planning processes. The efforts also will contribute to a more resilient and secure nation.


Renne, J., Wolshon, B., Murray-Tuite, P., & Pande, A. (2020). Emergence of resilience as a framework for state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment82, 102178.

Feofilovs, M., & Romagnoli, F. (2021). Dynamic assessment of urban resilience to natural hazards. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction62, 102328.

Sadatsafavi, H., Kim, A. A., Anderson, S. D., & Bishop, P. (2019). Scenario planning application in the US highway transportation industry. Journal of Infrastructure Systems25(2), 05019002.

Laspidou, C. S., Mellios, N. K., Spyropoulou, A. E., Kofinas, D. T., & Papadopoulou, M. P. (2020). Systems thinking on the resource nexus: Modeling and visualization tools to identify critical interlinkages for resilient and sustainable societies and institutions. Science of the Total Environment717, 137264.

Koc, E., Cetiner, B., Rose, A., Soibelman, L., Taciroglu, E., & Wei, D. (2020). CRAFT: Comprehensive resilience assessment framework for transportation systems in urban areas. Advanced Engineering Informatics46, 101159.

Argyroudis, S. A., Mitoulis, S. Α., Winter, M. G., & Kaynia, A. M. (2019). Fragility of transport assets exposed to multiple hazards: State-of-the-art review toward infrastructural resilience. Reliability Engineering & System Safety191, 106567.

Singh, P., Amekudzi-Kennedy, A., Ashuri, B., Chester, M., Labi, S., & Wall, T. A. (2023). Developing adaptive resilience in infrastructure systems: an approach to quantify long-term benefits. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure8(sup1), 26-47.

Buinevich, M., & Vladyko, A. (2019). Forecasting issues of wireless communication networks’ cyber resilience for an intelligent transportation system: An overview of cyber attacks. Information10(1), 27.

Hyman, B. T., Alisha, Z., & Gordon, S. (2019). Secure controls for smart cities; applications in intelligent transportation systems and smart buildings. International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications8(6), 167-171.

Singh, P., Amekudzi-Kennedy, A., Ashuri, B., Chester, M., Labi, S., & Wall, T. A. (2023). Developing adaptive resilience in infrastructure systems: an approach to quantify long-term benefits. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure8(sup1), 26-47.

Theoretical Analysis And Application Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Sample Essay

Well-studied CBT. It defines mental health as thoughts, feelings, and actions. This essay discusses CBT’s origins, core ideas, compatibility with individual values, efficacy, and relevance to different demographics.

Beck created CBT in the 1960s by rejecting psychoanalysis and introducing cognitive distortions. Beck says false ideas generate psychological anguish. Beck’s therapy changed bad habits. Cognition, behaviourism, and others shaped it.

CBT emphasizes how beliefs and interpretations affect emotions and behaviour. CBT says recognizing and addressing negative and illogical ideas improves emotional health and behaviour. Collaborative, goal-oriented CBT helps clients develop adaptive coping skills.

CBT aligns with my ethics and therapy. Knowing the brain may influence thoughts, feelings, and actions. CBT’s client goal-setting is good. Widespread CBT efficacy studies. Meta-analyses alleviate anxiety, depression, and PTSD (Hofmann, 2019). A multilevel dynamic structural equation modelling study confirmed CBT’s basic premise that interpersonal cognitions alter in CBT for generalized anxiety disorder.

Theoretical Analysis

The psychotherapy approach known as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) includes several guidelines and methods for managing psychological suffering and fostering positive change. We will examine CBT’s philosophical foundations, perspective on human nature, theory of change, perception of psychopathology, and counsellor function.

Origin and Development

Aaron T. Beck’s research on the cognitive mechanisms causing depression in the 1960s served as the foundation for CBT. Beck argued against the prevalent psychoanalytic view and suggested that people’s faulty thoughts and beliefs are a part of their emotional and behavioural problems. Through empirical study and clinical observation, Aaron Beck created the Cognitive treatment, a systematic and outcome-focused treatment. The creation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), as it was known for decades, resulted from the evolution and integration of behavioural strategies in Cognitive Therapy over time (Beck, 2020). And then the knowledge has expanded theoretically with time.

View of Human Nature

CBT is known based on the idea that people can control their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours and actively participate in their experiences. It acknowledges the cognitive processes that influence human nature and emphasizes how people’s interpretations and ideas influence their emotional reactions and behavioural tendencies (Otte, 2022). CBT assumes that people can learn and develop new cognitive and behavioural abilities to increase well-being and overcome psychological obstacles.

Theory of Change

The core tenet of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is that our ideas, emotions, and behaviours are intertwined and mutually influencing. According to CBT, people can alter their emotional reactions and maladaptive behaviours by recognizing and questioning their unfavourable and unreasonable thoughts (Nota, Chu, Beard, & Björgvinsson, 2020). To replace dysfunctional beliefs and behaviours with more adaptive ones, clients are assisted in the therapeutic process of developing cognitive restructuring strategies, behavioural trials, and coping mechanisms. Through this approach, people can better understand their thought processes, think more clearly and rationally, and feel better emotionally (Beck, 2020).

View of Psychopathology

CBT holds that learned behavioural reactions and dysfunctional thought patterns are the root causes of psychopathology. It contends that people experience cognitive distortions that exacerbate psychological suffering, including negative self-perceptions, exaggerations, and catastrophizing (Otte, 2022). These incorrect thoughts become automatic and ingrained, resulting in unfavourable feelings and dysfunctional actions. CBT tries to recognize and challenge these cognitive distortions to reduce psychiatric symptoms and replace them with more reasonable and realistic thought processes.

Counsellor’s Role

In cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), the therapist participates actively and is aligned with the healing process. The therapist acts as a mentor, teacher, and change agent. They collaborate with the client to pinpoint and assess the attitudes, convictions, and actions that lead to psychological issues (Beck, 2020). The therapist may use Socratic questioning, cognitive restructuring, behavioural experiments, and homework assignments to assist clients in gaining understanding, acquiring skills, and making good changes in their life. The therapeutic partnership includes collaboration, empathy, and an emphasis on goal-setting and problem-solving.

Theoretical Application

To demonstrate how Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) may be utilized in real life, consider the following example: Generalized anxiety illness affects 35-year-old Sarah. Anxiety, restlessness, difficulty concentrating, and physical symptoms like muscle tightness and insomnia plague her. Anxiety drastically impacts Sarah’s daily life and relationships.


Sarah’s therapy will have goals consistent with CBT’s guiding principles. These aims comprise: Reducing extreme anxiety and its symptoms, determining negative and unreasonable thought habits and questioning them, creating efficient coping mechanisms to handle anxiety and enhancing Sarah’s general well-being and standard of living.


The following methods can be used to further Sarah’s objectives in keeping with the CBT treatment approach that has been selected:

The therapist will work with Sarah through cognitive restructuring to discover her unfavourable and unreasonable thoughts about her anxiety. Sarah will learn to replace these ideas with more logical and well-balanced ones through Socratic questioning and challenging them. For instance, if Sarah feels that “Everything always goes wrong,” the therapist can assist her in reframing this belief to a more realistic and balanced one, such as “Some things may not go as planned, but there are also positive outcomes.”

Techniques for Relaxation and Mindfulness

Deep breathing, gradual muscular relaxation, and mindfulness meditation will all be taught to Sarah. These methods can assist her in controlling her bodily symptoms of anxiety and cultivate calmness and awareness of the present moment.

Exposure therapy will be used since Sarah’s anxiety causes her to avoid events or stimuli, as a result of which she engages in avoidance behaviours. The therapist will guide Sarah as she creates a hierarchy of anxiety-inducing scenarios and undergoes systematic exposure, enabling her to confront and endure anxiety in a safe and encouraging setting.

Behavioural Activation

Despite her current worry, Sarah may partake in activities that provide her satisfaction and success. The therapist will help her set realistic goals and create a plan to increase her engagement and enjoyment in these activities gradually.

Cultural considerations

It’s important to consider cultural aspects that could affect people’s experiences and perceptions of anxiety while implementing CBT in varied populations. The therapist will consider Sarah’s cultural background, religious convictions, and personal values when using CBT techniques. Cultural sensitivity and awareness will be maintained throughout the therapeutic process to ensure that interventions suit and respect Sarah’s cultural context (Nota, Chu, Beard, & Björgvinsson, 2020).

Strengths and Weaknesses

CBT successfully improves anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (McGuire, Steele, & Singh, 2021). Structured and goal-oriented, it targets anxiety symptoms and teaches effective coping skills. CBT may not work for all people or ethnic groups, and some clients may need additional treatment. Therapists must adapt to client preferences and customize interventions.

Sarah’s CBT techniques include cognitive restructuring, relaxation and mindfulness, exposure treatment, and behavioural activation. These treatments aim to reduce anxiety, dispel irrational notions, build coping skills, and improve Sarah’s health. Culture and CBT’s pros and negatives are discussed. Culture-sensitive CBT can help Sarah manage her anxiety and enhance her quality of life.


To conclude, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) thoroughly and scientifically treats anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder. CBT can help therapists address the cognitive distortions and behavioural abnormalities that cause anxiety symptoms in hypothetical situations like Sarah’s. CBT’s collaborative and goal-oriented approach empowers clients to examine negative thoughts and develop adaptive coping mechanisms. CBT reduces anxiety and improves overall health, according to research. However, CBT must account for individual and cultural variances. Therapists must consider clients’ cultures, beliefs, and values. Therapists must consider clients’ cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values in therapy. Culturally sensitive CBT is respectful and effective for patients from different cultures. Despite CBT’s success, to be effective, it is crucial to recognize its limitations and the potential need for adaptations or alternate strategies for people who might not respond well to CBT tactics.


Beck, J. S. (2020). Cognitive behaviour therapy: Basics and beyond. Guilford Publications.

Gómez Penedo, J. M., Hilpert, P., & Flückiger, C. (2021). Interpersonal cognitions as a mechanism of change in cognitive behavioural therapy for generalized anxiety disorder? A multilevel dynamic structural equation model approach. Journal of Consulting and clinical psychology89(11), 898.

Lebowitz, E. R., Marin, C., Martino, A., Shimshoni, Y., & Silverman, W. K. (2020). Parent-based treatment as efficacious as cognitive-behavioural therapy for childhood anxiety: A randomized noninferiority study of supportive parenting for anxious childhood emotions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry59(3), 362-372.

Mahdi, M., Jhawar, S., Bennett, S. D., & Shafran, R. (2019). Cognitive behavioural therapy for childhood anxiety disorders: What happens to comorbid mood and behavioural disorders? A systematic review. Journal of affective disorders251, 141-148.

McGuire, A., Steele, R. G., & Singh, M. N. (2021). A systematic review on applying trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT) for preschool-aged children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review24, 20-37.

Nota, J. A., Chu, C., Beard, C., & Björgvinsson, T. (2020). Temporal relations among sleep, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms during intensive cognitive–behavioural treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology88(11), 971.

Otte, C. (2022). Cognitive behavioural therapy in anxiety disorders: current state of the evidence. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience.

Thielemann, J. F. B., Kasparik, B., König, J., Unterhitzenberger, J., & Rosner, R. (2023). Stability of treatment effects and caregiver-reported outcomes: a meta-analysis of trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for children and adolescents. Child maltreatment, 10775595231167383.

To Change Or Not To Change: The Blue And Green Design Technology Company Sample Assignment


The case of Blue and Green, a Design Technology Company, illustrates the pressing need for organizational transformation. Neyla Bulut, serving as the Sales Manager, has been entrusted with introducing alterations to streamline business procedures and enhance productivity. Unfortunately, her change endeavours have encountered significant opposition, casting doubts on the efficacy of her initiatives. This report seeks to analyze the challenges confronted by Blue and Green, evaluate the proposed changes, and offer recommendations for progressing in the right direction (Almaaitah et al., 2021). By examining the issues faced by the company, this report will shed light on the underlying factors contributing to the resistance against change. Additionally, it will critically assess the feasibility and potential benefits of the proposed changes to ascertain their viability in addressing the organization’s challenges. Ultimately, the report aims to provide actionable recommendations to guide Blue and Green towards successfully implementing transformative measures, fostering a culture of adaptability, efficiency, and growth.

Company Background

Blue and Green is a design technology company established in 2005, primarily catering to the textile industry by providing design programs and digital printing software. The company operates with an entrepreneurial mindset, needing more well-defined divisions and structures. Responsibilities are distributed among the three founding managers and a small team of employees, resulting in a fluid organizational structure. In the highly competitive market, customer relationship management and technical services are pivotal for Blue and Green’s success (Losacker, 2022). The company faces robust competition, particularly from Blue Sky Technologies, further intensifying the need for strategic differentiation and efficient operations. Given its history and operational approach, Blue and Green are positioned to benefit from implementing changes that promote standardization and enhance efficiency. This would enable the company to address competition more effectively, improve customer satisfaction, and capitalize on growth opportunities within the design technology sector.


The primary challenge faced by Blue&Green revolves around the resistance to change within the organization. While the need for change has been acknowledged, employees, especially the salesforce, exhibit scepticism towards the proposed initiatives. Specifically, there is resistance towards standardizing customer meeting reports and personalizing customer emails, two key aspects of the proposed changes (Nakamura, 2022). The resistance can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, the need for clear guidance and communication regarding the purpose and benefits of these changes creates uncertainty among the employees. Scepticism prevails without a clear understanding of how these changes will improve their work processes or benefit the organization.

Additionally, concerns about time pressure and resource limitations contribute to the resistance. Employees may fear that implementing these changes will add additional burdens to their workload or require resources that are currently scarce. Such apprehensions discourage them from embracing the proposed changes (Oanta, 2022). Addressing these issues and effectively managing the resistance to change is crucial for Blue&Green to implement the desired improvements and drive organizational growth successfully.

Evaluation of Issues

The resistance to change within Blue&Green can be attributed to several key factors that require evaluation. Firstly, there needs to be more understanding among employees regarding the proposed changes. More communication and clarity about the changes’ purpose, benefits, and expected outcomes contribute to scepticism and resistance. It’s crucial for the organization to easily communicate the explanation behind the changes and how they align with the company’s goals and objectives (Perkol-Finkel & Sella, 2019). Likewise, concerns about the impact on workload and productivity are significant in the resistance. Employees may fear that standardizing customer meeting reports and personalizing customer emails will increase their workload or lead to inefficiencies. Addressing these concerns by providing support, training, and resources to manage the transition is essential in gaining employee buy-in.

Moreover, the absence of a clear organizational structure and divisions within Blue&Green creates ambiguity and hampers the change process. Establishing clear roles, responsibilities, and reporting lines will enable smoother implementation of changes and facilitate effective communication. In the competitive market, effective customer relationship management and training programs are crucial for success. Blue&Green should prioritize these areas to enhance customer satisfaction, gain a competitive edge, and address the challenges posed by rivals like Blue Sky Technologies (Suleiman, 2021). By evaluating these issues and addressing them strategically, Blue&Green can overcome resistance to change, foster a culture of adaptability, and successfully implement the necessary improvements to thrive in the competitive design technology industry.

Suggested Alternatives

Several alternative approaches can be considered to enhance the implementation of the proposed changes. First, giving workers clear and detailed explanations of the changes and their benefits is crucial. This will help them understand the purpose and impact of the changes, fostering their buy-in and cooperation. Comprehensive training programs should also be developed to ensure workers have the knowledge and skills to effectively apply the changes (Almaaitah et al., 2021). These programs should cover the specific aspects of the changes and give practical exemplifications and guidance. Additional resources could be allocated to address client training requirements, such as hiring devoted trainers or reassigning staff.

This would ensure guests admit the necessary support and assistance during the transition period. Establishing a supportive and collaborative work culture is essential. This can be achieved by encouraging feedback, innovation, and continuous improvement. Employees should feel comfortable sharing their ideas and suggestions, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment to the changes (Losacker, 2022). Finally, developing a clear organizational structure with well-defined roles and responsibilities will facilitate smoother operations and decision-making. This clarity will help avoid confusion and ensure everyone effectively understands their roles in implementing the proposed changes.


The resistance to change at Blue&Green poses a significant challenge to implementing the necessary improvements. However, it is crucial for the company’s survival and competitiveness in the market. Clear communication, comprehensive training, and resource allocation are essential for overcoming resistance and successfully implementing the proposed changes (Nakamura, 2022). Developing a positive workplace culture and a transparent organizational structure will also help the business’s long-term success.


Giving personnel thorough training and assistance is essential to successfully implementing the suggested changes, considering their businesses and increasing their understanding. Allocating resources, like hiring devoted trainers, will improve client training programs and enhance support services. Fostering a collaborative work culture that encourages open communication, invention, and continuous literacy will boost hand engagement and productivity (Oanta, 2022). Establishing a clear organizational structure with well-defined roles and responsibilities will streamline operations and decision-making processes. Incipiently, regularly covering and assessing the effectiveness of the enforced changes, and making adaptations as demanded, will help achieve the desired issues.


Almaaitah, T. et al. (2021) ‘The potential of blue-green infrastructure as a climate change adaptation strategy: A systematic literature review’, Blue-Green Systems, 3(1), pp. 223–248. doi:10.2166/bgs.2021.016.

Losacker, S. (2022) ‘“license to green”: Regional patent licensing networks and green technology diffusion in China’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 175, p. 121336. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2021.121336.

Nakamura, F. (2022) ‘Riparian forests and climate change: Interactive zone of Green and Blue Infrastructure’, Ecological Research Monographs, pp. 73–91. doi:10.1007/978-981-16-6791-6_6.

Oanta, G.A. (2022) ‘Blue Dimensions of the European Green Deal’, Routledge Handbook of Marine Governance and Global Environmental Change, pp. 64–74. doi:10.4324/9781315149745-8.

Perkol-Finkel, S. and Sella, I. (2019) ‘Blue is the new green: Eco-engineering for climate change’, Marine Technology Society Journal, 53(4), pp. 7–10. doi:10.4031/mtsj.53.4.13.

Suleiman, L. (2021) ‘Blue Green Infrastructure, from niche to mainstream: Challenges and opportunities for planning in Stockholm’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 166, p. 120528. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120528.