Theoretical Development And Conceptual Frameworks


My definition of a phenomenon is an observable event, occurrence, or experience that is interesting and maybe researched. In the realm of study, they are the focus of research or inquiry. For instance, one occurrence I experience daily as a nurse is prescription errors. Prescription errors happen when a patient’s recommended prescription regimen is accidentally deviated from without the patient’s knowledge or consent. In orTo increase patient safety and prevent future mistakes, it is crucial to research and comprehend this occurrence.


Concepts are abstract notions or mental models that reflect broad classifications or groups of phenomena. They give us a way to categorize and arrange data, and they aid in comprehending and elucidating the world we live in. For instance, “medication reconciliation” is a related notion in the context of pharmaceutical errors. Drug reconciliation compares a patient’s current drug regimen with the prescriptions made during care transitions to find and correct differences. It is a theory that enhances medication safety and avoids mistakes when patients transfer between care facilities.


A proposition is a claim that expresses a connection between two ideas or variables. It is a testable claim that may be confirmed or denied by empirical data or other supporting information. Building on the previous illustration, a claim about medication mistakes and medication reconciliation would read something like this: “Implementation of medication reconciliation processes during transitions of care reduces the occurrence of medication errors.” This claim makes a causal claim that there is a link between medication reconciliation and a decrease in medication errors that can be verified through investigations.


Assumptions are underlying presuppositions or beliefs that are assumed true or accepted as accurate without needing factual proof. They act as guiding principles for conducting research and as a basis for developing theories. As an illustration, in the case of medication errors, it may be assumed that medical staff members intend to give patients safe and correct medication delivery. It also directs efforts to identify and resolve the root causes of pharmaceutical errors. This presumption acknowledges healthcare professionals’ dedication and ethical duty to promote patient safety.

Second nursing theory: Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing 

The importance of self-care in maintaining and enhancing people’s health and welfare is strongly emphasized by Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing (Taylor, 2021). This viewpoint holds that it is everyone’s duty and right to care for themselves to meet their basic needs. Nursing intervenes to give supportive care when a person cannot care for themselves independently (Hartweg & Metcalfe, 2022).

The Self-treatment Deficit Theory is used in my current clinical practice when treating individuals with chronic illnesses who need help managing their daily self-care chores. For instance, drawing illustrations from some of the diabetic patients I care for, they find it challenging to control their blood sugar levels and take their prescriptions as directed. With the knowledge obtained through conducting an assessment per Orem’s philosophy of my patients’ ability to self-care, I can equip them with the knowledge and support to help them enhance this capacity and collaborate with them to develop individualized care plans that support their independence and welfare.


Hartweg, D. L., & Metcalfe, S. A. (2022). Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory: relevance and Need for refinement. Nursing science quarterly35(1), 70-76.

Taylor, K. D. (2021). Reducing Hospital Readmissions Using the Self Care Deficit Theory.

Adolescent Literacy In English

The Current Status of Adolescent Literacy

The present state of literacy among adolescents is a significant concern within education. According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), approximately one-third of eighth-grade students in the United States are not performing at the expected reading level for their grade. This alarming statistic highlights the pressing necessity to tackle a crisis in adolescent literacy. In order to adequately tackle the crisis in adolescent literacy, it is imperative to possess a comprehensive understanding of the current state of adolescent literacy throughout the nation (Fisher et al., 2014). This understanding will ease the capability to help adolescents across the globe.

The challenges faced by adolescents in acquiring literacy skills are multifaceted. These challenges are supported by empirical research and statistical data. The difficulty level of academic texts and assignments that students must undertake increases progressively throughout their educational journey (Fisher et al., 2014). The attainment of success in any academic discipline necessitates the capacity to peruse, comprehend, and assess intricate written works. However, many students encounter difficulties acquiring this skill, negatively affecting their academic achievement.

Moreover, contemporary students necessitate novel forms of literacy that have emerged due to the advent of the digital era. The domains of technology, media, and information literacy are encompassed. Adolescents ought to acquire the skills of identifying, comprehending, and utilizing information from diverse sources, encompassing those available on the internet. Failure to address these emerging literacy demands may exacerbate the existing literacy predicament.

The challenge of low teenage reading levels can be addressed. Educators must implement evidence-based strategies and policies. These strategies and policies entail instructing individuals on the fundamentals and l skills of reading, enhancing their lexicon, and fostering their ability to engage in analytical thinking. Establishing a reading culture and promoting a passion for books can significantly impact students’ inclination and motivation to enhance their reading abilities (Fisher et al., 2014). This culture will make the students love reading as they make notes because they now understand what they are reading and can use these skills in Graphics.

The Importance of Being Literate in English

The acquisition of literacy skills in the English language is of paramount importance. The acquisition is a foundation for students to access, comprehend, and assess subject-specific knowledge. The domain of English literacy encompasses beyond the mere aptitude to comprehend and inscribe language, as it also encompasses the procurement of specialized knowledge and the cultivation of suitable attitudes and spirituality (Bible, 2018). Acquiring disciplinary literacy skills is imperative for English language learners to effectively comprehend and apply the distinct language, customs, and cognitive frameworks specific to diverse academic fields (Fisher & Frey, 2023). Proficiency in comprehending and deciphering scientific literature, scrutinizing data, and conveying findings are crucial proficiencies in scientific inquiry. These competencies are imperative for carrying out scientific investigations, tackling scientific predicaments, and engaging in the scientific sphere on a broader scale.

A correlation exists between English language proficiency and the ability to utilize practical literacy competencies effectively. Students’ possession of proficient reading skills is likely to enhance their capacity to make meaningful contributions to society as engaged participants. Acquiring English literacy skills enables students to think critically about contentious issues (Alvermann, 2022). English also aids students in developing logical and persuasive arguments and effectively communicating their ideas. Students can easily apply what they can read and take notes on areas like graphics.

Literacy and English

Acquiring proficiency in English literacy poses distinctive challenges. The complexity of the English language presents a challenge, in part. The intricate language, technical terminology, and specialized lexicon frequently utilized in English literature may challenge adolescents attempting to comprehend it (Fisher & Frey, 2023). It is imperative to guide students in subject-specific terminology and reading comprehension abilities to facilitate their comprehension and interpretation of these materials. Furthermore, the inherent conceptual complexities of the English language necessitate that students develop skills in profound comprehension and analytical evaluation. Developing skills such as analysis and synthesis of complex ideas, establishing conceptual connections, and applying knowledge to problem-solving are imperative for students.

Cultivating literacy practices such as focused reading, annotation, and contemplation is imperative for attaining academic success in English. Literary practices facilitate the enhancement of cognitive abilities. Additionally, English may entail substantial lexical demands. Students may encounter challenges comprehending and expressing themselves due to inadequate exposure to technical terminology, abstract ideas, and language specific to a particular field. Mills & Unsworth (2018) recommend that educators assist learners in cultivating a diverse array of scholastic lexicons through explicit teaching, application in pertinent settings, and practical utilization of the English language in authentic situations.

Implementing targeted literacy instruction with subject-specific content is imperative in addressing these challenges directly. Educators can facilitate the enhancement of students’ disciplinary literacy skills by providing ample occasions for students to engage in reading, writing, speaking, and listening activities in the English language. Educators have diverse techniques to assist learners in surmounting obstacles related to English language literacy (Mills & Unsworth, 2018). Explicit instruction on reading practices specific to English texts, such as analyzing text structures, identifying key concepts, and making inferences, can enhance students’ ability to comprehend and interpret these texts. Assignments that require students to apply and elucidate English principles in practical settings foster profound comprehension and augment the cultivation of disciplinary literacy.

Engaging in collaborative learning activities, such as small group discussions, debates, and presentations, can allow students to enhance their speaking and listening skills within an academic context. Such activities can enhance students’ writing abilities, critical thinking aptitude, and English argumentation skills. Using technology and digital resources by educators in areas like graphics can enhance student engagement and foster English literacy development (Fisher & Frey, 2023). The provision of practical learning experiences that are both realistic and immersive can be facilitated by bridging the divide between abstract concepts and their practical applications, which can be achieved through the utilization of online tools, multimedia resources, and simulations. English information literacy can be enhanced by using digital tools for research, evaluation, and synthesis.

The pressing issue of inadequate literacy levels among adolescents necessitates prompt attention and resolution. If educators possess knowledge of the current state of adolescent literacy, prioritize English literacy, and tackle the unique challenges associated with English literacy, they can equip their students with the necessary reading skills to excel academically and in contemporary society. Implementing evidence-based strategies, explicit instruction, practical experiences, and technological integration can effectively bridge the gap in adolescent literacy and foster the emergence of a proficient and autonomous cohort of English language learners.


Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2023). Improving Adolescent Literacy, pp. 105–141.

Fisher, D., Brozo, W. G., Frey, N., & Ivey, G. (2014). Fifty instructional routines to develop content literacy. Pearson Higher Ed.

Bible, H. O. L. M. A. N. (2018). The holy bible. Cambridge University Press.

Mills, K. A., & Unsworth, L. (2018). IP ad animations: powerful multimodal practices for adolescent literacy and emotional language. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy61(6), 609–620.

Alvermann, D. E. (2022). Best practices in adolescent literacy instruction. Guilford Publications.

Aviation Sustainability In Airline Market Operations: A Comprehensive Study


Aviation sustainability has emerged as a vital concern in the airline industry, driven by the need to address environmental impact and societal expectations. This dissertation proposal explores the concept of aviation sustainability in the context of airline market operations. The research will investigate the current practices, challenges, and potential strategies for improving sustainability in the airline industry.


Aviation sustainability has emerged as a crucial concern in the airline industry, driven by the need to address environmental impact and societal expectations (Zieba & Johansson, 2022). This dissertation proposal explores the concept of aviation sustainability in the context of airline market operations. The research seeks to investigate the current practices, challenges, and potential strategies for improving sustainability in the airline industry. The study will examine sustainability’s environmental, social, and economic dimensions, focusing on their integration into airline market operations. The findings of this research will contribute to a deeper understanding of aviation sustainability by addressing the following key questions: What are the current practices and challenges related to sustainability in the airline industry? How can airlines improve their environmental, social, and economic performance to achieve long-term sustainability? The study will also explore the potential benefits of sustainable practices for airlines, passengers, communities, and the whole environment (Pinheiro et al., 2020).

Keywords: Aviation sustainability, airline market operations, environmental impact, social responsibility, economic viability


The aviation industry plays a significant role in global transportation and economic development. However, it also contributes to environmental degradation and social challenges. In recent years, there has been increasing awareness and concern about the sustainability of aviation operations. It is crucial to explore sustainable practices and strategies that airlines can adopt to mitigate environmental impact, promote social responsibility, and ensure economic viability(Köves & Bajmócy, 2022). This research aims to provide insights into the current practices, challenges, and opportunities for achieving aviation sustainability in airline market operations.

Aims and Objectives

i). To assess aviation sustainability’s current practices and challenges in airline market operations.

ii). To identify strategies for improving airlines’ environmental, social, and economic performance in the pursuit of sustainability.

iii). To evaluate the benefits and impacts of sustainable practices on airlines, passengers, communities, and the environment.

iv). To recommend implementing sustainable practices in airline market operations to enhance overall sustainability.

Literature – Theoretical Relevance

Several potential academic theories and concepts can be utilized in framing the research on aviation sustainability in airline market operations. These theories and concepts provide a theoretical foundation for understanding and analyzing sustainability issues within the airline industry. Some relevant theories and concepts include;

First is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) theory, which emphasizes the relationship between three pillars of sustainability; environmental, social, and economic. This theory will provide a framework for airlines to evaluate their performance and make decisions that balance environmental responsibility, social equity, and economic viability (Shou et al., 2019). The second theory is the Stakeholder Theory, which focuses on the interests and influence of various stakeholders in an organization, including airlines. By considering the perspectives of stakeholders such as passengers, communities, employees, regulators, and environmental organizations, airlines can develop sustainable practices that meet the expectations and needs of multiple stakeholders (Freeman et al., 2021). The third theory that can be employed is Environmental Management theory; this concept encompasses strategies and practices to reduce airline operations’ environmental impact. It involves initiatives such as fuel efficiency, waste management, emissions reduction, and adopting renewable energy sources (Greer et al., 2021). The last theory that will be employed is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR); this will illustrate and analyze the commitment of airlines to integrate social and environmental concerns into their business practices by involving initiatives like community engagement, philanthropy, employee welfare, and ethical decision-making (Han et al., 2019).

Other key journals and other sources can be relevant to the research on aviation sustainability, such as the Journal of Air Transport Management, International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, Transport and Environment Journal, Journal of Transport Geography, and Journal of the Transportation Research Board. Researchers and authors are important in this field of Aviation sustainability. They will provide sources and authors provide a foundation of knowledge and research that can inform the theoretical framework and understanding of aviation sustainability in airline market operations (Tanrıverdi et al., 2019).

Research Design and Methods

A mixed-methods research approach will be employed to answer the research questions and achieve the objectives of exploring aviation sustainability in airline market operations. This approach combines both quantitative and qualitative methods to provide a comprehensive understanding. First, quantitative data will be collected through surveys distributed to airline representatives, industry professionals, and passengers. The surveys will gather information on sustainability practices, performance indicators, and stakeholders’ perspectives on aviation sustainability. The survey data will be analyzed using statistical techniques to identify trends, patterns, and correlations. Second, the qualitative data will be collected through semi-structured interviews with key industry stakeholders, including airline executives, sustainability managers, regulators, and environmental experts. These interviews will provide in-depth insights into the challenges, opportunities, and best practices related to aviation sustainability. The qualitative data will be analyzed thematically to identify recurring themes, perspectives, and emerging issues.

Key texts and literature will inform the research design on aviation sustainability, airline market operations, and sustainable practices. Some key texts and sources that will inform the research design include Sustainable Aviation Futures Journal: Transport and Sustainability, Air Transport and the Environment Journal, Aviation and Climate Change Journal, and Sustainable Development of Air Transport. These key texts will provide theoretical frameworks, industry insights, and best practices to guide the research design and data collection methods, ensuring a robust and comprehensive analysis of aviation sustainability in airline market operations.


When collecting data for the research on aviation sustainability in airline market operations, several ethical challenges and objections may arise (Andersen et al., 2021). Considering these challenges and developing strategies to address them effectively is important. Some potential challenges and their corresponding considerations are;

First is the willingness of Respondents, such as industry professionals, airline representatives, and passengers, who may be reluctant to share sensitive information or participate in the research due to various reasons, such as concerns about confidentiality, time constraints, or the perceived value of the research. In Considering this challenge, the research will emphasize the significance and potential benefits of the study to the participants and the industry as a whole. Communicating the purpose of the research, assuring confidentiality and anonymity, and highlighting the voluntary nature of participation can increase the willingness of respondents to contribute.

Second is the ability to Provide Required Data, especially regarding proprietary or confidential information. Data availability or access to specific sustainability practices and performance metrics may be restricted. Considering this challenge, the research will aim for transparency in data collection requirements and communicate the specific information needed without compromising sensitive or confidential data. Alternative data sources, such as publicly available reports, aggregated data, or industry publications, can complement any limitations in participant data.

Third is Preserving Confidentiality by Maintaining participants’ confidentiality and anonymity; the data they provide is vital to uphold ethical standards. Protecting participants’ personal information and responses is essential for trust and compliance. In consideration of these challenges, the research will employ several strategies. Participants’ identities will be anonymized, and any personally identifiable information will be kept confidential and stored securely. Data will be coded or aggregated, and access to sensitive data will be limited only to authorized researchers involved in the study. By considering these potential ethical challenges and objections, the research can protect participants’ rights, maintain confidentiality, and uphold ethical standards throughout the data collection process. Adhering to these considerations will contribute to the overall integrity and credibility of the research on aviation sustainability in airline market operations.


Several factors may hinder or slow the progress of the research on aviation sustainability in airline market operations. Since it is important, this research will identify and develop strategies to mitigate these risks (Dube et al., 2019). Some potential risks and their corresponding responses may include the following: limited Access to Industry Professionals such as airline executives and key decision-makers, which may pose a challenge. They may be reluctant to participate in research or share sensitive information. This risk may be solved by establishing relationships and networking within the industry. This will build trust and rapport with industry professionals through effective communication, attending industry events, and leveraging existing contacts to increase the chances of obtaining access to relevant stakeholders. Additionally, emphasizing the potential benefits of the research findings for the industry and emphasizing confidentiality and anonymity can help obtain cooperation.

The second risk is Data Availability, which may be limited, especially specific sustainability-related metrics or airline performance indicators. Access to proprietary data or detailed internal reports may be challenging. In response to limited data availability, the research can explore alternative data sources that are publicly available such as reports, industry publications, and databases, as well as aggregated data from regulatory bodies or industry associations, which can be used as valuable secondary data sources. Additionally, qualitative data collection methods, such as interviews and surveys, can provide valuable insights and complement quantitative data limitations.

The third risk is Time Constraints. Completing the comprehensive research project within the given time frame may be challenging. For instance, conducting thorough literature reviews, collecting primary data, and analyzing the findings require sufficient time and resources. Developing a realistic research timeline and adhering to a well-structured plan is important to manage time constraints effectively. Breaking down the research tasks into smaller, manageable milestones and allocating sufficient time for each phase of the research process help ensure progress. Reviewing and adjusting the timeline, as necessary, can help accommodate any unforeseen delays or challenges.

The fourth challenge is ethical considerations, such as obtaining informed consent, ensuring participant confidentiality, and handling sensitive data, which can impact the research progress. In response to addressing ethical considerations, a comprehensive ethical framework will be followed through obtaining informed consent from participants, ensuring confidentiality and anonymity, and adhering to ethical guidelines and institutional regulations will be of utmost importance. Consultation with the university’s ethics committee or research supervisor can guide ethical practices and protocols (Xu et al., 2021).


In conclusion, this dissertation proposal highlights the importance of addressing aviation sustainability within airline market operations. The expansion of the airline industry has raised concerns about its environmental impacts, necessitating the implementation of sustainable practices to mitigate these effects. By exploring the factors influencing sustainability, analyzing environmental impacts, and understanding the challenges airlines face, this research aims to contribute to developing strategies and practices that promote sustainable growth in the aviation industry.


Pinheiro Melo, S., Barke, A., Cerdas, F., Thies, C., Mennenga, M., Spengler, T. S., & Herrmann, C. (2020). Sustainability assessment and engineering of emerging aircraft technologies—Challenges, methods, and tools. Sustainability, 12(14), 5663,+driven+by+the+need+to+address+environmental+impact+and+societal+expectations&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&as_ylo=2019.

Zieba, M., & Johansson, E. (2022). Sustainability reporting in the airline industry: Current literature and future research avenues. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 102, 103133.,5&hl=en

Köves, A., & Bajmócy, Z. (2022). The end of business-as-usual?–A critical review of the air transport industry’s climate strategy for 2050 from the perspectives of Degrowth. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 29, 228-238.,5&hl=en

Shou, Y., Shao, J., Lai, K. H., Kang, M., & Park, Y. (2019). The impact of sustainability and operations orientations on sustainable supply management and the triple bottom line. Journal of Cleaner Production, 240, 118280.,5&hl=en

Freeman, R. E., Dmytriyev, S. D., & Phillips, R. A. (2021). Stakeholder theory and the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 47(7), 1757-1770.,5&hl=en

Greer, F., Rakas, J., & Horvath, A. (2020). Airports and environmental sustainability: A comprehensive review. Environmental Research Letters, 15(10), 103007.,5&hl=en

Han, H., Yu, J., & Kim, W. (2019). Environmental corporate social responsibility and the strategy to boost the airline’s image and customer loyalty intentions. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 36(3), 371-383.,5&hl=en

Tanrıverdi, G., Bakır, M., & Merkert, R. (2020). What can we learn from the JATM literature for the future of aviation post-Covid-19?-A bibliometric and visualization analysis. Journal of air transport management, 89, 101916.,5&hl=en

Andersen, I. V. (2022). (Don’t) be ashamed during take-off and landing: negotiations of flight shame in the Norwegian public debate. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-21.,5&hl=en

Dube, K., Nhamo, G., & Chikodzi, D. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic and prospects for recovery of the global aviation industry. Journal of Air Transport Management, 92, 102022.,5&hl=en

Xu, Y., Park, Y. S., Park, J. D., & Cho, W. (2021). Evaluating the environmental efficiency of the US airline industry using a directional distance function DEA approach. Journal of Management Analytics, 8(1), 1-18.,5&hl=en