If you want to save your right to refuse sex, you should not get married. Rape is not conceivable in a marriage. Stay single if you want to keep your ability to refuse sex. The Bahamian government should repent for “making a mockery of God” by proposing criminalizing marital rape. Rape should never be spoken in the same breath as marriage, because married women are expected to submit to their husbands, and married men are expected to wait for their wives. Rape should only be considered when an individual in a marriage has been beaten and injured before having intercourse with the other person. When a woman marries a guy, she loses the right to change her mind at any time. It is her obligation to submit gladly when the time for loving calls, and he must submit to the partnership in the same way. Having sex with one’s legal partner whether willingly or unwillingly is not a breach of the partner’s rights. In fact, there is very few studies that have reported that this partner would suffer any physical or mental consequences as a result of the incident. It is abusive and humiliating if a married partner refuses to have sex with their spouse without good cause. Many parts of the world used to consider rape to be a crime or a tort of stealing property from a man in the family (usually the father or husband). Property damage in this case did not pertain to the victim’s property, but to the property’s rightful owners, her father or husband. A husband cannot rape his wife by definition. In his posthumously released piece, Sir Matthew Hale (1609–1676) claimed that a husband cannot be convicted of raping his lawful wife since his wife had emancipated herself in this fashion unto her husband, which she cannot repudiate (Freeman, 2018). In addition, both American and English law accepted the theory of coverture, which states that when a woman marries, her legal rights are incorporated into those of her husband (Bailey, 2019). This paper has highlighted some reasons why a husband cannot be convicted of raping his wife. Some of the reasons include; Bahamas is a majority Christian country and there’s is no marital rape in Christian marriage, legal marriage legitimizes conjugal rights, and Bahamas has set clear grounds for divorce hence if a spouse is not comfortable having sex with their partner, they can file for a divorce.
Firstly, Bahamas is a majority Christian country and Christian values on marriage dispute the existence of marital rape. Although the Bahamas does not have a state religion, they do adhere to Christian principles and the rule of law. The majority of Bahamians see this as a declaration that the Bahamas is a Christian nation. Bahamians, according to the 1990 census, are 88 percent Christian, which is in line with this statement (Laing, 2020). Religious arguments are common in the Bahamas, and Biblical arguments and Scripture citations play a significant role in the debate over the legislation prohibiting marital rape given the country’s large Christian population. The Christian Council of the Bahamas (BCC) is one of the most vocal opponents of the legislation (Munnings, 2020). There are many churches and denominations represented by the BCC. The BCC’s opposition to the bill is therefore significant. Marital rape has been denied by the Bible in several places. According to verse four of Corinthians 7:4, a wife is expected to cede authority over her body to her husband (Chimoga, 2019). Furthermore, as the verse continues, the husband too doesn’t hold right over his body, but rather gives it over to his wife. According to the Bible, unless one is fasting, a couple shouldn’t deny each other sex during their marriage. Wives ought to submit to spouses as unto the Lord, as indicated by Ephesians 5:22. Considering sexual urges as one of a man’s needs, women should always submit to their husbands’ authority, just as Christ did for the church. According to 1 Corinthians 7:1–5, a husband should satisfy his wife sexually, and a wife should satisfy her husband sexually. As a general rule, wives and husbands have no authority over their own bodies. They are a part of one another. Can a husband use this as an excuse to impose his will on his wife? Yes, without a doubt. These bible verses teach us that each spouse should willingly submit to each other’s sexual needs hence no such thing as marital rape.
Secondly, Bahamas culture consists of legal marriage that legitimizes the conjugal right. An interesting blend of African and British and American influences have formed the foundation of the Bahamas’ culture over the years (Nevins et al., 2019). This has resulted in a distinctive and colorful way for Bahamians to display their culture and identity. It’s common practice in the Bahamas to have legal marriages. It is a contradiction in terminology that “marital rape” can exist in a marriage that is legally recognized. A spouse can be accused of assault, but the delegitimization of marriage as rape is not permitted in law. As a result, marriage should not be viewed as a “exemption” from rape, but rather as a “contradiction.” Only a private Act of Parliament can dissolve a marriage, hence a spouse cannot cancel their conjugal rights as a result of their marriage, and so no rape occurred between them. Even the minority Islam marriages in the country do not recognise marital rape. It is unlawful for women to abstain from their marital duties in Islam unless they have a compelling health reason (Myrne, 2018). However, the man should also be kind to his wife when she is exhausted. One Imam recently stated that criminalization of marital rape is something been advocated by westernized individuals. According to him, if a woman refuses to sleep with her husband, she is a cursed woman, and her husband has the authority to discipline [punish] her for it after advising and divorcing her. She should give him his dowry and divorce him if she doesn’t want to sleep with him. All this evidence shows that the institution of marriage contradicts with the statement that there is such thing as marital rape.
Thirdly, Bahamas has set clear grounds for divorce hence if a spouse is not comfortable having sex with their partner, they can file for a divorce. The Bahamas Matrimonial Causes Act lays forth the reasons for divorce in the Bahamas (Shavanya, 2019). The husband or wife may file for divorce if he or she has been cruelly treated by the spouse since marriage was consummated, as specified in Section 16 of the Act. A marriage can be characterized as cruel when a partner engages in voluntary conduct that is reprehensible in character or even when he or she departs from the standard conduct of conjugal kindness. The other spouse could suffer an injury to their health as a result of cruelty or be reasonably fearful of it as a result. If all the circumstances of the case are considered, cruelty might be regarded as being of a grave and weighty nature that could lead to conviction of the other spouse. These grounds protect the spouses against cruel or violent partners. If one has not filed for divorce, then it means that they consent to having sex with their spouses. It means that they are comfortable hence saying that ‘marital rape’ exists within marriages is hilarious.
Media attention has recently focused on marital rape. It has been urged again and again that a public “discussion” be held on the subject. Despite the media’s seeming anger over rape, many Bahamian adults do not believe the notion that rape may happen within marriage. In an Internet survey performed by the University of Bahamas in the Fall of 2021, responses from roughly 1,500 adult Bahamians revealed that the majority believed marital rape could not occur (Fielding, 2021). A total of 46.2 percent strongly disagreed, with another 19.3 percent disagreeing that a man could rape his wife (Fielding, 2021). This result was in line with earlier research. Although marital rape doesn’t exist in marriages, there are situations when a husband should understand her wife’s situation and refrain from coercing her into having sex with him. These situations may include but not limited to: when the wife is unwell, when she is menstruating, and when she is heavily pregnant. This paper has highlighted why there is no such thing as ‘marital rape’. Some of the reasons include; Bahamas is a majority Christian country and there’s is no marital rape in Christian marriage, legal marriage legitimizes conjugal rights, and Bahamas has set clear grounds for divorce hence if a spouse is not comfortable having sex with their partner, they can file for a divorce.
Bailey, J. (2019). Favoured or oppressed? Married women, property and ‘coverture’in England, 1660–1800. Continuity and Change, 17(3), 351-372.
Chimoga, F. V. (2019). Sexuality in Marriage: A Case Study of 1 Corintians 7: 1-9. Journal of Health and Medical Sciences, 2(2).
Fielding, W. (2021). Attitudes towards marital rape in The Bahamas.
Freeman, M. D. (2018). ” But If You Can’t Rape Your Wife, Who [m] Can You Rape?”: The Marital Rape Exemption Re-examined. Family Law Quarterly, 1-29.
Laing, A. N. (2020). Exploring the Relationship Between Loss of Resources and Posttraumatic Growth When Moderated by Religious Coping in West Grand Bahamians Three Years Following Hurricane Matthew.
Munnings, J. (2020). “Smile For Me, Sweetie!”: An Analysis of Contemporary Gender Based Violence and Discrimination in The Bahamas.
Myrne, P. (2021). GENDER AND SEXUAL RIGHTS IN EARLY ISLAM. Islamology, 11(1), 24-37.
Nevins, D., Barlas, R., & Yong, J. L. (2019). Bahamas. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC.
Shavanya, E. R. (2019). What are the GAPS in the current matrimonial laws of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas?. In Право, общество, государство: проблемы теории и истории (pp. 226-228).
Japan’s Unconventional Monetary Policy Free Writing Sample
Japan has had multiple phases of quantitative easing in the past 20 years. After the first round ended abruptly in 2006, the economy stayed stable for a few years and deflated again. The deflation gave cause for their second round of quantitative easing; however, it was a poor attempt and only lasted roughly two years. Other central banks began implementing these policies in the recession that shook the world economy, such as the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve. This paper will discuss methods of this short period of monetary easing and its effect on the Japanese economy and the other countries that began monetary easing.
Bank of Japan
The Bank of Japan has from 2008 adopted monetary policies to combat the effects of the great recession of 2007. The central policies that the bank of Japan used post-2007 or what is known is known as the second round of quantitative easing were (i) large scale purchase of the government bonds (ii) the use of forwarding guidance to imply a future monetary-loosening position and long-term conditional lending facility.
Purchase of government bonds
This instrument which is also known as “balance sheet policy” aimed to encourage holders of government bonds to sell them and invest in more risky assets such as foreign securiries, stocks,real estate, and corporate bonds. The facilitation of bonds purchase had affect on a wide range of markets as well as stimulating economic growth. Following the 2007 financial crisis, the Bank of Japan implemented a comprehensive balance-sheet policy, establishing an annual rate of monetary base expansion target. The Bank of Japan has been increasing the monetary base at an annual rate of approximately 80 trillion yen. It has also been purchasing Japanese government bonds (JGBs) at a rate of approximately 80 trillion yen per year in order to increase the amount of Japanese government bonds (JGBs) outstanding. The BOJ is purchasing JGBs of all maturities, including 40-year bonds, as part of its efforts to encourage a decline in interest rates across the entire yield curve. According to the BOJ, the average remaining maturity 2 of government bonds to be purchased is currently targeted in the range of seven to ten years.
In addition to government bonds, the BOJ purchased exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and Japan real estate investment trusts (JREITs) (J-REITs). This balance-sheet policy has contributed to an increase in corporate profits and employment, as well as an increase in the stock market’s value.
This approach was so important as it showed clearly where the direction for the ongoing monetary easing was headed. It is a tool that enabled the bank of Japan to maintain a low-interest rate for an extended period. The bank of Japan had switched to the use of monetary base from the uncollateralized overnight call rate; thus, it applied forward guidance to indicate how Q.E. would continue performing in the economy if no significant risks were happening. This form of continuance guidance was helpful because it raised inflation expectations expected to be 2%.
Conditional long-term lending facility
BOJ provided low-cost funding to financial institutions for an amount equal to twice the amount of net lending growth available to them(in 4 years)
Impact on the economy
The Bank of Japan’s easing actions had the potential to boost economic activity and inflation through various channels. For starters, maintaining a near-zero interest rate policy could anchor inflation expectations by increasing expectations about the duration of an accommodative monetary policy stance. Second, the asset purchase program lowers term and risk premia and a wide range of long-term interest rates due to the portfolio rebalancing effect. The acquisitions may also act as a “catalyst,” improving overall financing conditions by increasing investors’ appetite for high-risk assets. Finally, direct purchases may impact wealth by increasing asset prices.
According to an analysis, the Bank of Japan’s most recent policy decisions significantly impacted asset values. Monetary easing had a statistically significant impact on various financial market indicators. Sovereign yields, for example, had declined across maturities, whereas corporate yields had declined cumulatively. Following softening developments, the rate fell by around 20 basis points in the two days. The stock market rose in four of the five instances of easing. A 5–7 percent increase.
Quantitative Easing in the USA
Quantitative Easing (Q.E.) in the USA was used after all the other monetary policies had failed in the fight against the financial crisis. The Fed reserve launched Q.E. in 2008 and ended in 2014. (Hausken & Ncube, 2013) It was also used in 2020 when the Federal Reserve bought $500 billion in Treasuries after Covid 19 epidemic. The balance sheet improved from $1 trillion to $4.6 trillion in 2014. In the first Q.E., The Federal Reserve first bought $600 billion in Treasury notes, other securities like Mortgage-backed securities in 2008. By December 2013, the government announced it would stop buying securities as the unemployment had fallen to 7%. At the same time, GDP growth was between 2-3% and an inflation rate of 2%, its last purchase being on October 29, 2014.
Bank of England
As of the end of November 2020, the Bank of England has reported buying £895 billion of bonds about quantitative easing, as shown below
The majority of the money used to buy government bonds was £875 billion, and about £20 billion was used to buy corporate bonds in the United Kingdom. (Bank of England, 2020) Over the years since the financial crisis of 2009, the Bank of England has continued purchasing bonds, with its last purchase being in November 2020
Does Quantitative Easing work?
From the case studies above Japan, USA U.K, I can boldly say that Q.E does work. In the USA, it came after exhaustion of other monetary policies that never seemed to work, as in Japan. Both USA and U.K started using Q.E after it had already worked in Japan, and it brought in results that helped respective economies.
Advantages of Quantitative Easing
The main advantages include lower interest rates brought about by a higher money supply in the economy. A high money supply makes the lenders compete with each to lead money with competitive rates. The other advantage is the lower unemployment rate when the government buys cooperate bonds during the recession, meaning the company will not be affected because the government has channeled in money. The other advantage is it brings almost instant results, as in the case of Japan, making it a financial tool that any other government can implement in its country. Another advantage is it affects inflation when used to effectively example, in Japan. It was able to bring inflation to a negative number. Once the government achieved inflation of 2% in the USA, it stopped Q.E. The last and vital advantage is that the government can control the economy. By buying government bonds or corporate bonds, the government can know if it will increase or decrease the purchase depending on the purchase results.
Before using Q.E., Japan tried different monetary policies after the first Recession of 1991. The different monetary policies tried only worked for some time, which affected Japan until its third recession. Only after using Q.E. can we see that Japan achieved negative inflation. After the success in Japan USA tried Q.E. and was able to control the purchase of bonds very effectively, even using it when covid hit the USA successfully. The U.K. has also used very effectively from 2019 to November 2020. From these three case studies, one major takeaway is that if the government can know when to increase the purchase and stop the purchase of either government or corporate bonds effectively, it will control inflation and the country’s employment rate to a more significant effect. In addition, other governments can learn from the three governments in our study and apply the same in their countries.
Bank Of England. (2020, November 5). Quantitative easing. Bankofengland.co.uk. https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/monetary-policy/quantitative-easing
F.Cargill, T. (2001). Monetary Policy, Deflation, and Economic History: Lessons for the Bank of Japan.
Fasano-Filho, U., Wang, Q., & Berkmen, P. (2012). Bank of Japan’s Quantitative and Credit Easing: Are they Now More Effective. IMF Working Papers, 12(2), 1. https://doi.org/10.5089/9781475502473.001
Hausken, K., & Ncube, M. (2013). Quantitative Easing and Its Impact in the U.S., Japan, the U.K. and Europe. In SpringerBriefs in Economics. Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9646-5
Miyao, R. (2002). The Effects of Monetary Policy in Japan. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 34(2), 376–392. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3270693
Schenkelberg, H., & Watzka, S. (2013). Real effects of quantitative easing at the zero lower bound: Structural VAR-based evidence from Japan. Journal of International Money and Finance, 33, 327–357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jimonfin.2012.11.020
Job Posting Websites Sample Paper
Linkedin is a job posting website and URL https://www.linkedin.com/jobs
Linkedin is for professionals looking to further their careers by networking, finding jobs, and learning new skills. It is an international website that allows people worldwide to connect and utilize resources from each other’s experiences and hire others (LinkedIn, 2022).
LinkedIn is a professional network designed with business users in mind. The site members must be professionals and are not supposed to use the site for personal use. As a result, it is a great place for businesses to find new employees and customers already accustomed to this networking environment. (LinkedIn)
If you are not a paid member of LinkedIn, posting jobs is free. The cost for posting a job if you are a paid member ranges from $295-495 per job for the first 30 days, depending on whether you want the job to appear on LinkedIn only or other job boards. The cost is reduced after 30 days.
LinkedIn website is very user-friendly. This website has a good reputation. It is very useful because they have a lot of resources to help you find what you are looking for and can reach a wide range of people
Indeed is a job posting website and URL https://www.indeed.com/
A majority of the users on the site are either actively looking for new jobs or passively browsing to see what opportunities are out there. The site is available in 28 different languages so anyone worldwide can see what jobs are available and compare what they have to other countries. The biggest demographic on indeed by far is millennials, with over half of the total users being between 18-34. Their site receives over 200 million unique users every month, with 30 percent of those users being active job seekers.
Millions of Job Seekers use Indeed each month to search for jobs, read reviews, and research companies. There are over 200 million unique monthly users who visit Indeed every month. (Indeed, 2022)
The cost of a sponsored job posting is $0.10 per click. For example, if 50 people click on your sponsored job posting, you will be charged $5.00. There are two ways to pay for sponsored job postings: PPC (pay-per-click) – You pay each time someone clicks on your sponsored job posting. CPC (cost-per-click) – You set a maximum amount you want to spend per click, and Indeed charges you only when someone clicks on your sponsored job posting, and the amount per click does not exceed that maximum.
Impression of usability, functionality, and reputation of the website: easy to use, well organized, and user-friendly. It is one of the most popular websites for job seekers and recruiters. It is a good platform for recruiting diverse candidates in higher education.
HigherEdJobs.com is a job posting website and URL https://www.higheredjobs.com/
HigherEdJobs.com provides an opportunity to target individuals interested in working in the higher education sector. The target audience includes current students and those currently working in the higher education industry or with prior experience working in the field.
The site attracts more than 2.2 million unique visitors and receives over 25,000 job postings each year, making it the premier higher education job board on the Internet today (Higheredjobs, 2022).
The cost of posting a job varies depending on the length of time you would like your job posted and what type of package you purchase. The basic package starts at $195 for 30 days. Still, it can go up to $1,245 for 60 days if you purchase the premier package, which includes premium placement, featured job postings, and unlimited applications.
This website has a user-friendly platform, making it very easy to search for jobs and post a resume. The site also provides information on how to write a resume and how to prepare a job application. The site has become the go-to source for higher education and student affairs jobs, with thousands of job postings from colleges and universities.
All three websites are good for posting job openings, but Linkedin has the advantage of being a social network. Job seekers have profiles that include their education and work history, making it easy for employers to see if a candidate is qualified or not. Indeed is also good because its search engine results are based on users’ search criteria. There are pros and cons to using each site. HigherEdJobs is very niche-focused (for higher education positions only). Indeed is more general (job openings in all industries) and charges a fee. Linkedin is free, but it can be not easy to use as a job seeker because recruiters and hiring managers don’t always check the responses they receive from applicants.
LinkedIn. (2022). About LinkedIn. About.linkedin.com. Retrieved 22 March 2022, from https://about.linkedin.com/?trk=homepage-basic_directory_aboutUrl.
Higheredjobs. (2022). About HigherEdJobs. Higheredjobs.com. Retrieved 22 March 2022, from https://www.higheredjobs.com/company/about.cfm.
Indeed. (2022). About. Indeed.com. Retrieved 22 March 2022, from https://www.indeed.com/about.