Three Qualities An Authority Figure Should Possess Sample College Essay

As we grow up older, we usually discover that there is someone who we exceptionally like hisher quality. Some people may like movie stars, world leaders, writers, poets or even singers. The person who I admire her qualities is not a world superstar it is my sister. She has three wonderful qualities such as sacrifice, helpfulness and an endless ambition. The first quality is her sacrifice. I like her sacrifice because what she done for me in my life. An example of this is that she had devoted most of her time taking care of me and my little brother while my mother was sick for a long time.

And that added a lot to my personality. That is why I think she is a good example to follow. The second quality is that she is a very helpful person. She has always been a true friend to me, a real friend who always helps you no matter what that may cost her. An example of this is her decision one day, to forget all her exam and stay with me at hospital for two weeks. Therefore, you can always depend on her. That is why she has never failed me. At the same time, she is very determined and knows what she wants to achieve in her life.

The third quality is her endless ambition. She is keen on achieving for any goal. For instance, one of her targets is to complete her higher studies in Medicine in the UK one day. She says that she has always dreamt of helping sick people especially children. She is a great leader and natural born leader. Finally, as we know some people are lucky enough that they enjoy different qualities. My sister is a great example and a real leader. In my opinion, she is a person who I owe a lot because she taught me many important lessons that will help me a lot in my life.

Sojourner Truth Research Paper

Truth once declared, at the Women’s Rights Convention in 1851, “If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these together ought to be able to turn it back and get it right side up again” (“Sojourner Truth” Encyclopedia). This statement brought a wave of protest from the men in the crowd and left most women with renewed hope for receiving equal rights. Sojourner Truth was a woman’s rights activist and African American abolitionist, on top of being a freed slave.

Sojourner Truth had the “worst of both worlds” being that she was African American, and also a woman. She spoke at a countless amount of conventions, largely inspired by Lucrietta Mott. Rather than using weapons, Truth would use her incredible talent of speech to get her points across. Truth was an extremely opinionated woman who would not give up on an issue until she thought the result was satisfactory. Without Sojourner Truth’s hard work and dedication to the issues that she cared about, America would not be shaped today how it is (“Sojourner Truth” Encyclopedia). . Her Early Life Sojourner Truth, with a birth name of Isabella Baumfree, was born on an unknown date of 1787 in Swartekill, New York. Born into slavery to James and Elizabeth Baumfree, the family of at least fifteen was owned by the Hardenbergh in Esopus, New York. Sojourner Truth was sold for the first time at age nine to a violent man, getting separated from the rest of her family. In 1815, Sojourner Truth fell in love with a slave on a neighboring farm and had a child, but their love was forbidden and the two never saw each other again.

Truth was then forced to marry another slave and they had three children together (“Sojourner Truth” 2013). Sojourner Truth faced many hardships at such a young age that contributed to her lifelong stance against slavery. 2. Her Road to Fame In 1799, New York successfully negotiated the abolition of slaves. Sojourner Truth’s master went back on his word and kept Truth and her children as slaves until she escaped with her youngest daughter in 1826. Truth constantly prayed to God to let her children, if they were to be sold, to remain in nearby plantations.

Her prayers didn’t omit, for her son was illegally sold to a slave owner in Alabama. Outraged, Truth had external help from New York Quakers to take the issue to court. Though she was at an utter disadvantage because of her race and gender, Sojourner Truth walked out of the United States courthouse with her son safely returned. Truth was one of the first African Americans to go to court against a white man and leave with success (Mentzer). Sojourner Truth was extremely devoted to her Methodist religion and would do anything to preach God’s word.

Often, she would stand on the streets of New York with her children to sing and praise their Lord in the hopes of converting someone. After her son had departed for a job at sea, Truth became an active member of the Northampton Association of Education and Industry located in Northampton, Massachusetts. The main goal of the group was to work on a wide-range of issues that were important to the members. Truth’s main focus was women’s rights and the abolition of slavery throughout all of America. Members were all extremely close-knit and lived together on 500 acres of land.

Here she met William Lloyd Garrison, whom would later publish her now-famous memoirs named “The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave. ” The group of people separated in 1846, but the community gave Sojourner Truth enough confidence to begin speeches on her own (“Sojourner Truth” 2013). 3. Her Work Sojourner Truth gave such powerful, eloquent speeches and was so opinionated that citizens around her actually questioned whether or not she was a woman. One of Truth’s earliest works was her book of memoirs published by Garrison that shared, and often exaggerated, Sojourner Truth herself.

The memoir brought a steady income for Truth, allowing her to buy a home for herself in Northampton. Sojourner Truth was in high demand to speak at different conventions, her first being at the National Women’s Rights Convention in Worcester, Massachusetts. Truth was one of the few freed slaves that made their living as abolitionists, along with William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and David Ruggles (Clift). On June 12, 1863 Sojourner Truth spoke at a Sabbath School in Michigan.

The entire audience gave Truth their entire attention, despite the fact that she was once a slave who was thought of as barely a human. “Does not God love colored children as well as white children? And did not the same Savior die to save the one as well as the other? If so, white children must know that if they go to Heaven, they must go there without their prejudice against color, for in Heaven black and white are one in the love of Jesus” (Butler). This speech was easily one of Sojourner Truth’s most famous concerning the topic of the abolition of slavery.

Every member of the crowd was truly touched, and had a hard time not wanting to help with the cause. Also concerning the injustice of slavery, Sojourner Truth delivered a heart-wrenching speech on how much being a slave can alter a person and their viewpoints on life. On October 4, 1856, Truth spoke one of her final speeches before her death in Michigan. “I want to know what has become of the love I ought to have for my children? I did have love for them, but what has become of it? I cannot tell you. I have had two husbands but I never possessed one of my own.

I have had five children and never could take one of them up and say, ‘My child’ or ‘My children,’ unless it was when no one could see me” (Butler). In this speech, Truth acknowledges the fact that she was blind to the evil surrounding her when she was a slave. Her ignorance may have been for the best though, a gift from God even, so she couldn’t comprehend the horrors of separating families, sexual abuse, and emotional manipulation until she was free. Even with all of the crimes committed against Sojourner Truth at such a young age, she remained exceptionally religious and trusted her God to help her persevere.

Sojourner Truth’s most famous and celebrated speech was delivered on May 1851 at the Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. Known as “Ain’t I A Woman”, many newspapers and articles featured the powerful speech and helped emphasize Sojourner Truth’s image as an ex-slave. While walking up to the stage, the rich men in the crowd were on their seats, ready to attack and contradict Truth on anything that didn’t add up. Baring her strong, muscular arms, Sojourner began by questioning the treatment of women. Truth made it extremely clear that she, standing six feet tall, could do anything that a man could.

She could eat as much as a man, work twice as hard, and was stronger than the average man any day. Who was to say that women were vulnerable and weak without the help of a man? As Truth was walking back to her seat, all the men who were making rude comments previous to the speech applauded her with a standing ovation. The women were all crying, because someone had finally spoken up for an issue that was truly important for the well-being of America (Clift). Sojourner Truth was presented with the incredible experience of meeting President Lincoln on October 29, 1864. Truth sought the vote for black women. Her fame is attested by her meeting with President Lincoln and her bestseller, The Narrative of Sojourner Truth” (Sanders). Throughout the letter written to her aunt recounting the experience, Truth constantly wrote about how genuinely kind all of the staff and Mr. Lincoln himself were to both the black and white race. President Lincoln bowed as Sojourner Truth entered the room, a sign of complete respect. This meeting held between the two historical figures reinforced Truth’s reasons to be fighting against slavery and for her rights (Butler). . Her Inspiration From the very beginning, Sojourner Truth had a strong base supported by her religion. Her mother taught her to pray whenever an auction was near that she wouldn’t be sold to an evil man. Though the praying never actually worked in that sense, Truth would cry out to God when blood was spilling from her back while getting whipped because of her illiteracy in English. When her son was sold illegally to Alabama, Sojourner Truth relied heavily on her God to help them persevere and get justice in court.

God answered her prayers and when her son was returned to her; and Truth realized that while still at the slave owners’, she became “’overwhelmed with the greatness of the Divine presence’ and inspired to preach” (Women In History). Sojourner Truth was devoted to going to church, and decided to bring that to her other passion of the abolition of slavery. Combining the two, Truth became a traveling teacher which she explained as The Spirit calling her East. After joining the Northampton Association of Education and Industry, Sojourner Truth met even more influential people that would become strong colleagues later in the future.

For example, Lucrieta Mott, who was an abolitionist, women’s rights activist, and also a religious reformer, strongly encouraged and pushed Truth into putting her thoughts into words as to help the issues in question. Being with a Quaker community for a long period of time also had a strong influence on Truth – focus on peace not war, equality for all, communicating with spirits, etc. Sojourner Truth had an extreme religious influence that led to her meeting other people who would influence her even more into changing history (Women In History). 5. Her Influence

Sojourner Truth’s influence of history was, and still is to this day, absolutely phenomenal. She was a major abolitionist, and without people who stood up for what they believed in, American would most likely still have slaves; there would be no rights for women. To men, Truth seemed like a rebellious woman, who was unappreciative towards the work men do for women. After Sojourner Truth became better known, however, men actually gave her their respect. Never before in history would a wealthy, slave supported man have given the time of day to listen to an African American woman, who used to be a slave, argue about her opinions.

To women, Sojourner Truth’s influence was even more phenomenal. Her speeches would give women chills and make them cry because of the intensity of the subject. The fact that one woman was so willing to stand up for a whole population of people that were too scared to object to a white man’s will, gave women hope for a promising future. After all, if the treatment of women and slaves was never brought forward by a strong-willed individual, such problems would be around for decades more (Women In History). 6. Her Later Years

Up until her death on November 26, 1883, in Battle Creek, Michigan, Sojourner Truth was persistent in her passionate speeches. Truth has no known cause of death other than old age. Adding to the list of things Truth would have liked to change was capital punishment of people, even if they committed a crime. She testified against legislature in this act, with no luck while still living. Truth was still living to see the abolition of slavery, but not to see women equality. Truth was loved by many people and abolitionists together, including William Lloyd Garrison, Susan B.

Anthony, and Lucrieta Mott. Many monuments are dedicated to Sojourner Truth today to remember all the great things she has done for the people of America (“Sojourner Truth” 2013). Sojourner Truth had a rough life early on, but prospered through it to become one of the greatest historical American figures today. Truth had all the qualities of a great abolitionist – fierce, experienced, caring, and a fabulous speaker. Using her faith and knowledge of the issues at hand, Truth could truly connect with the audience to make her messages get perceived in the best way possible.

Without the support of friends, however, she may have not been as successful due to the fact she has never had anyone else care about her before – other than the people who were paying for her work. Without Sojourner Truth’s hard work and dedication to the issues that she cared about, America would not be shaped today how it is. Works Cited CLIFT, ELEANOR. “‘And Ain’t I A Woman?. ” Newsweek 142. 18 (2003): 58. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. Butler, Mary. “The Words of Truth. ” SojournerTruth. Sojourner Truth, 1997. Web. 15 February 2013. Mentzer, Brooke. Sojourner Truth. ” Writing 26. 6 (2004): 24-25. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. “Sojourner Truth”. Encyclop? dia Britannica. Encyclop? dia Britannica Online. Encyclop? dia Britannica Inc. , 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2013 Sanders, Viv. “African American Women And The Struggle For Racial Equality. ” History Review 58 (2007): 22-27. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. “Sojourner Truth. ” 2013. The Biography Channel website. Feb 13 2013, 12:49 Women in History. Sojourner Truth biography. Last Updated: 2/13/2013. Lakewood Public Library. Date accessed 2/13/2013 .

Flood Management Techniques (Evaluate)

FLOODS A river flood is a flow in excess of the channel capacity to accommodate the peak discharge, and occurs when the amount of water arriving on land exceeds the capacity of the land to discharge that water by infiltration, surface flow or drainage pipes. Flooding of river valleys and coastal areas is the most frequent of natural hazards and is one of the most significant in terms of death, injuries and long-term social and economic impacts. Flooding regularly claims over 20,000 lives a year and affects 75million people globally. Thus, strategies are put in place to minimize the impacts of these hazards.

The 3 broad groups are prediction, mitigation and response. However, the effectiveness of these strategies vary depending on the level of development of the country, the level of cooperation between the authorities, population and private organizations and the severity of the hazard. It is also important to note that effective hazard management cannot rely on just a single strategy and generally, a multi-pronged approach, which is a combination of strategies, is necessary to minimize the severe impacts of the hazard. Prediction 1. Prediction through the calculation of flood recurrence interval a.

North Dakota – Accuracy and reliability of data b. Flood recurrence interval is defined as the probability that a flood of particular magnitude will occur once or more in any given year. It can be used to examine the flood frequency (how often an area will experience flood) and flood magnitude (the size of a flood event). The records of a river’s discharge over the longest time available are ranked according to the discharge volume. The formula (n+1)/R is used to calculate the recurrence interval, where n is the number of discharge levels in the record and R as the rank of discharge.

The recurrence intervals then can be plotted against discharge to determine the statistical probability of flood events. c. Using the flood recurrence intervals, a hazard map can be produced, which will aid in mitigation and response strategies. d. However, the statistical prediction of flood recurrence intervals Is only an indication of probability based on past records, and it is known that rivers are constantly changing during to erosion and deposition, thus the statistical prediction will change. Also, the accuracy of the extrapolated values epends on how much data is available, and most data tend to be relatively recent and cover only a few decades. These factors lead to the inaccuracy of flood recurrence interval values. For example, North Dakota had two 250 year floods within 110 years. e. Thus, prediction through flood recurrence interval is only reliable if the flood records are longer and fuller, and if the records are constantly updated as events happen. 2. Forecasting f. Bangladash [Rmb: NWS] – Level of development g. Flood forecasting uses satellite readings and radar to predict the occurrence of floods.

This method of prediction is more accurate than using the recurrence interval method to predict the occurrence of floods. Forecasting can be split into short-term and long-term forecasting. Short-term forecasting is based on the atmospheric circulation pattern monitored through satellites. It has a higher accuracy of around 24h to 72h lead time, and is useful for emergency actions. Long-term forecasting is based on rainfall run-off modeling for different scenarios using historical flow data, and the likelihood of the river flooding is determined based on the current rainfall conditions and weather observations. . Flood forecasting is more common in DCs than LDCs, as DCs have the availability of financial resources and technical expertise. For example, in US, river gauges to track water levels, extensive radar networks are used to determine rainfall volume and location, and computer models are sued to predict how the water will flow downstream, just to predict the floods. i. However, as LDCs lack the financial and technical expertise, much of the satellite data have to be obtained from the National Weather Service (NWS).

For example, the forecast system in Bangladash (Climate Forecast Applications of Bangladesh) is funded by US to improve flood warnings. j. Thus, flood forecasting using satellite images have a very high accuracy, but is more common in DCs due to their financial and technical expertise. However, DCs can also gain international help to forecast floods too. Mitigation 1. Early warning system a. 2000 Britain flood & Bangladash [rmb: NCAR, ADPC] – Level of development b. Early warning systems allows people to be evacuated rom the hazard zones, and gives time for properties to be moved, and for temporary flood defences to be employed. c. For example, in Britain, forecasting and warning are important in flood management. In the great flood of 2000, there were 200 general warnings and media coverage was extremely effective in providing the public with flood warnings. These warning enabled the residents to clear ground floor and basements of at-risk properties and use sand bags to try to prevent water entering buildings. . However, early warning systems are generally more seen in DCs, as early warning systems required the improved communication technology for more efficient dissemination of warning to public, and LDCs generally lack the financial and technological resources required. e. For example, in LDCs, there are 15 flood-prone countries with no warning systems, and at least 40 more with inadequate systems. f. However, with the help of international support, LDCs too can have an early warning system.

For example, Flood forecasting in Bangladash has benefitted from technology from the United States in 2009, and scientists at the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have provided the technology to provide forecasts to Bangladash agencies in 2003. Also, the establishment of the Asia Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) has allowed Bangladash to have a 10-day lead time in terms of flood warning. g. Thus, early warning systems are effective in minimizing the damage to properties and human lives by giving them time to evacuate and prepare temporary defences.

However, even though DCs have the financial and technical resources for more efficient dissemination of warnings, LDCs too can have an effective warning system if they have help from international support. h. Also, it is important to note that the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the efficiency of forecasting. Thus this mitigation approach must go hand in hand with forecasting in order to ensure the accuracy of the warning systems. 2. Floodplain zoning (soft-engineering method) i. New Zealand, Ciliwung River in Jarkata j.

Based on the hazard map produced using the recurrence interval data, the floodplain can be divided into areas of different degrees of flood risk. Once the flood-hazard areas have been established, local authorities may exercise controls, such as zoning areas to limit the use of flood-prone areas or relocating the developments. k. For example, in New Zealand, development is excluded in highest risk areas. Land-use which retains the floodplain as a natural floodwater storage areas and wetland, such as soccer pitches in urban areas, helps to reduce the flood risk downstream.

In the outer areas of the floodplain, which are at reduced risk of flooding, there would be regulations to minimize flooding such as flood-proofing of buildings. l. However, it is only appropriate for new developments, as it is not feasible for existing urban areas due to the need to relocate structures or resistance by people who lose the advantages of a floodplain location. Moreover, despite the fact that this management technique can be used in both DCs and LDCs and it is cheap and effective, it is less effective in LDCs due to the lax enforcements in LDCs.

With limited space in LDCs, there is a need to occupy every single space they have. Moreover, there will be squatters occupying such ‘danger zones’, and it is difficult to relocate the squatter settlements, such as those around Ciliwung River in Jakarta, which has around 350,000 inhabitants. m. Thus, floodplain zoning is only effective if it is applied to new developments, if government enforcements are strong, and if the people cooperating with the government. Also, the effectiveness of the floodplain zoning depends on the accuracy of the recurrence interval data.

Thus, floodplain zoning cannot do without prediction. 3. Building of physical barriers like Levees (hard-engineering method) n. 2011 Mississippi flood vs 1993 Mississippi-Missouri flood – Severity of hazard o. However, though floodplain zoning is the best solution environmentally, engineering structures are still need to protect existing development in highly urbanized areas. Structures may include physical barriers like levees. Levees artificially raise the height of the banks, so as to increase the channel depth of the river.

This allows for greater discharges to be accommodated. Levees can also be used to restrict and divert water to low-value land on the floodplain. p. For example, during the 2011 Mississippi flood, the US authorities deliberately flooded certain rural lands upstream of New Orleans to prevent large damages to the city. The Morganza spillway was built to allow its floodwaters to escape onto rural land with less people and property value, such as the town of Butte La Rose. 25,000 people from the rural towns were evacuated. Also, their homes were estroyed by the floodwaters, and many were advised to pack ‘for a long time’ as their homes were expected to be badly affected in the long-term. However, authorities argued that by doing so, more lives can be saved in the more densely populated urban areas. q. However, the effectiveness of these structures depends heavily on the severity of the hazard. If the discharge of the river exceeds of a certain level, the defences could be over-topped, leading to catastrophic effects. For example, in the 1993 Missisippi-Missouri floods, more than 70% of the levees suffered damage and were breached in the upper Mississippi-Missouri.

At least 50 people died, 72,000 homes flooded, 50,000 people evacuated and crop losses at $2. 6 billion. One of the causes of the failure of the levees was because the magnitude of the flood was a 1:500 year flood, and the levees couldn’t cope with the large discharge, and thus many overtopped. r. Thus, structural measures such as the building of levees are effective strategies of minimizing the flood, only if the magnitude of the flood is of a small one. Response 1. Evacuation a. 1993 Mississippi-Missouri Floods b.

Also with the hazard map produced through the recurrence interval data, evacuation routes can be planned out for the people so that they will know what to do and where to go when a flood event occurs. For example, with the help of a hazard map, 50,000 people were evacuated during the 1993 Mississippi-Missouri Floods. However, evacuation can only be successful if the hazard map is accurate, and if the people cooperate with the government, as many might not evacuate even in the presence of the flood event, especially in LDCs.

Thus the level of cooperation between the authorities and the people must be there, and there must be accurate prediction to produce an accurate hazard map so that evacuation routes can be accurately planned. In conclusion, the flood hazard can be managed if a multi-pronged approach is adopted, ie. Prediction, mitigation and response. Greater and continuing research needs to be undertaken to study flood recurrence intervals and to produce effective hazard maps. Planners then need to respond accordingly, either by restricting development on flood-prone areas or by ensuring that adequate measures are taken to mitigate the impacts of he hazard. However, the effectiveness of these strategies depend greatly on the level of development of the countries and level of cooperation of the authorities and the people. The DCs generally have a higher rate of success of managing the hazard due to the availability of financial and technical resources. However, when the event is unexpected and of high-magnitude, it may not be easy to minimize the impacts even if all the measures are in place. All in all, prediction needs to be supplemented by other strategies like mitigation measures to further minimize the effects of earthquakes.

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