Tobacco Use Cessation Health Promotion Plan Free Essay

Tobacco use remains a major health concern in the United States. The number of smokers continues to increase due to changes in technological and social patterns that impact tobacco use in unpredictable ways. Although cigarette smoking remains the most commonly used tobacco product, other alternative products have emerged, such as vaping e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and hookah. Exposure to and use of tobacco products is linked to serious health problems and diseases such as cancer and respiratory problems (US Preventive Services Task Force, 2020). Therefore, there is a need to design and implement health promotion initiatives to control tobacco use. These measures involve voluntary patient-centered behavioral acts and legislation policies that minimize the selling and use of tobacco products. Thus, with the increasing number of smokers worldwide and the rapid emergence of flavored tobacco products, creative efforts are needed to protect adolescents from tobacco use and promote cessation programs to achieve a smoke-free world (Navas-Acien, 2017). More than 480,000 people lose their lives due to tobacco use, while most continue to smoke due to addiction (CDC, 2021). The plan will seek to effectively stop tobacco use and promote the users’ health and wellbeing, thus reducing tobacco-related diseases and death.

The Chosen Population and Characteristics

The health promotion plan focuses on young African American adults aged between eighteen and forty. These individuals have mostly been introduced to tobacco products in their teenage, especially during social associations. Approximately 25 percent of the users consume tobacco products for leisure or as a stimulant (Navas-Acien, 2017). Considering gender orientation, there are more males than women who smoke cigarettes or vape. As part of recreation, the young adults engage in poly tobacco use that combines smoked products such as cigars and kreteks. Another characteristic of the Africa-Americans tobacco users is that they are economically disadvantaged (Stokes et al., 2021). They live in low-income areas, and the majority are jobless. They are exposed to high poverty levels characterized by low living standards, where drug and tobacco abuse is prevalent. The low-income levels make the majority uneducated or drop out of school due to a lack of school fees (Stanton & Halenar, 2018). They become predisposed to drug abuse to cope with stress and emotional burnout. Therefore, there is a need to address the social and economic factors among this population to address the issue of tobacco use.

Why are African Americans Predisposed to Tobacco Use?

The high rate of tobacco use among African-Americans young adults can be attributed to various factors that increase their vulnerabilities. First, the group uses the various cigar flavors for multiple purposes. Flavors mask the bitter taste of tobacco and reduce pain sensations and throat irritation caused by combustible tobacco products (Stokes et al., 2021). Therefore, flavored cigar smoking is most prevalent among young African American adults who smoke and drink alcohol. These dual users use flavored alcohol cigars for recreation and mood-boosting (Chen-Sankey et al., 2019). The availability of flavored cigars is appealing to the youths (Stokes et al., 2021). Besides, tobacco is considered a stimulant; thus, college students have the notion that vaping and smoking will increase their concentration resulting in gradual addiction.

Moreover, across all ethnic and racial subgroups, there is a notable decrease in tobacco initiation age. Most people, including African Americans, are exposed to tobacco products through direct consumption or passive use. Therefore, based on an individual survey done from 2005 to 2015, 77.66 percent of the participants began smoking between the ages of twelve and fifteen, while 83.87 were between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five (Cantrell et al., 2018). Early initiation age predicts greater future dependence, low chances of quitting, and a high risk of tobacco-related health conditions. Comparing the whites with Africa Americans, the former are initiated early than the latter. However, studies have shown that African Americans have low chances of successfully quitting tobacco use (Nargis et al., 2019). There is a need to design targeted tobacco prevention and control policies to include the age of purchase restriction.

Additionally, surveys have indicated that African Americans and Hispanics with low socioeconomic status are likely to use cigars and cigarillos. These products are cheaper than other substances as they are sold in smaller packages and attract low taxation rates (Stokes et al., 2021). Again, tobacco advertisements and purchasing outlets are common in Hispanic and African American low-income communities (Stokes et al., 2021). The proximity to tobacco shops and access to marketing decrease the initiation age and negatively impact cessation strategies.

Based on these social and economic vulnerabilities, a health promotion education program will benefit the African American population. The cessation of tobacco use plan will significantly impact reducing tobacco-related diseases. According to US Preventive Services Task Force (2020), tobacco cessation improves health and quality of life by preventing addiction and dependency. Again, educating the youths and adults will create awareness of healthy living, thus reducing the costs related to healthcare, minimizing the risk of premature death, and lowering the rates of tobacco-related diseases such as cancer and respiratory problems.


A sociogram is a representational tool that shows inter-relationships within a specific community or group. Healthcare workers utilize the sociogram to identify the social links between people and the patterns that characterize a targeted population. For the tobacco cessation educational plan, the sociogram will include the group’s age, education level, living conditions, and proximity to tobacco outlets (Cantrell et al., 2018). Culturally, the sociogram will include knowledge about tobacco use and its health effects, attitude towards quitting, tobacco initiation age, and the risky behavioral activities predisposing the population to smoke. In addition, the plan will incorporate lifestyle elements such as cigarette packs smoked daily, the type of tobacco product consumed, and the reasons for smoking (Rigotti, 2022). Besides, the sociogram will economic behaviors such as governmental policies on tobacco taxation, individual income, packaging, and size requirements of cigarettes.

Potential Learning Needs

The tobacco use cessation health promotion plan can educate young African Americans about the adverse effects of tobacco use. By the end of the education session, 95 percent of the participants will know and understand tobacco-related health conditions and the need to prevent these illnesses. The second learning need is defining tobacco-use risk behaviors. The goal will be: by the end of the session, 95 percent of all participants will be able to identify risky and lifestyle behaviors predisposing them to tobacco use. The third learning need is understanding addiction and dependence and the importance of quitting. The corresponding goal is: by the end of the training session, all participants will be able to discuss the benefits of quitting and planning for cessation exercise and nursing follow-up achievable in six months. These objectives align with Healthy People 2030 goals to reduce tobacco use among adolescents and adults and improve health and wellbeing (Healthy, 2022).

Current Behaviors, Expectations, and Suggestions for the Educational Session

The current behaviors of African Americans include early-age tobacco initiation, vaping and smoking for recreational purposes, use of e-cigarettes to boost moods, and developing an addiction that makes quitting difficult (Zhang et al., 2021). The promotion plan will help identify addicts, equip them with knowledge of the health effects of tobacco use, and motivate users to quit smoking. Recommendations for tobacco cessation are to come up with clinics that provide supportive services for tobacco users, including nicotine replacement therapy to addicted smokers, and enforce the tobacco control policy of age 21 purchase restriction (US Preventive Services Task Force, 2020). Smokers should be involved in the planning process for the program to be effective.

Tobacco use is a major health problem among the young African American population. The socioeconomic factors that influence living standards and the availability of cheap tobacco products predispose the group to health issues. There is a need to promote health by developing and implementing an educational program to create awareness about tobacco use and negative health impacts, and the need to quit smoking.


Cantrell, J., Bennett, M., Xiao, H., Mowery, P., Rath, J., Hair, E., & Vallone, D. (2018). Patterns in first and daily cigarette initiation among youth and young adults from 2002 to 2015. Plus One.

CDC. (2021). Health effects of cigarette smoking. Smoking & Tobacco Use.

Chen-Sankey, J. C., Choi, K., Kirchner, T., Feldman, R., ButlerIII, J., & Mead, E. (2019). Flavored cigar smoking among African American young adult dual users: An ecological momentary assessment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 196(1), 79-85.

Healthy (2022). Tobacco use. Healthy People 2030.

Nargis, N., Yong, H.-H., Driezen, P., Mbulo, L., Zhao, L., Fong, G., & Siahpush, M. (2019). Socioeconomic patterns of smoking cessation behavior in low and middle-income countries: Emerging evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys and International Tobacco Control Surveys. PLoS ONE.

Navas-Acien, A. (2017). Global tobacco use: Old and new products. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 15(2).

Rigotti, N. (2022). Patient education: Quitting smoking (Beyond the Basics). Nursing Update.

Stanton, C., & Halenar, M. (2018). Patterns and correlates of multiple tobacco product use in the United States. Nicotine & Tobacco Research.

Stokes, A., Wilson, A., Lundberg, D., Xie, W., Berry, K., Fetterman, J., . . . Sterling, K. (2021). Racial/ethnic differences in associations of non-cigarette tobacco product use with subsequent initiation of cigarettes in US youths. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 23(6), 900–908.

US Preventive Services Task Force. (2020). Primary care interventions for prevention and cessation of tobacco use in children and adolescents. JAMA, 323(16), 1590-1598.

Zhang, L., Huang, X. L., Luo, T. Y., Jiang, L., Jiang, M. X., & Yan, H. (2021). Impact of tobacco cessation education on behaviors of nursing undergraduates in helping smokers to quit smoking. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 19(58).

Type 2 Diabetes Management Among Hispanic Males Using EBP Dietary Interventions Essay Sample For College

The aim of the paper is to provide background information on the topic of diabetes risk reduction among Hispanic males and how effective dietary interventions can be used as an evidence-based practice. Similarly, the library search for relevant articles is presented in the paper. In providing a solution, a potential innovative solution is highlighted at the end of the paper to address diabetes risk reduction among the population of elderly Hispanic males.

Role Specialization

My role specification is that of a family nurse. As a family nurse, the responsibility of caring for the elderly in the community falls squarely on me. Thus, it is essential for a family nurse to acquire knowledge and skills to care for the diabetic elderly in the community. Healthcare workers, therefore, play a crucial role in educating the elderly on the ways that they can use to reduce the risk factors of diabetes, thus improving the quality of their lives. With active participation in community-based projects, family nurses can provide various programs to reduce the risk factors of either developing diabetes or its progression.

Problem Statement and Significance of the Problem

Diabetes affects one-quarter of all Americans under the age of 65, and population aging is exacerbating the diabetes epidemic (Michalak et al., 2021). Even though the burden of diabetes is typically characterized in terms of its impact on people in their working years, diabetes in older people is associated with a higher risk of death, lower functional status, and institutionalization. People with diabetes over the age of 65 are more prone to have acute and chronic microvascular and cardiovascular problems. Putting this into context, statistics indicate that Americans of Hispanic and Latino descent have a 50% chance of developing type 2 diabetes at a younger age.

Although older people and those with comorbidities have the highest prevalence of diabetes, they are frequently excluded from randomized controlled studies. It is challenging to establish universally applicable conventional therapy approaches for older people due to their diverse health situations (even within a single age group) and a lack of clinical trial evidence.

Only a few randomized controlled trials of type 2 diabetes have looked at the effect of glucose reduction on microvascular issues, cardiovascular complications, and death (Mannucci et al., 2021). These trials were useful, but they were not designed to evaluate the health repercussions of glucose management in children or the elderly with chronic conditions. There is no direct clinical trial evidence on glucose management for the vast majority of diabetics beyond the age of 65. For this reason, I believe nursing professionals must explore other evidence-based practices like dietary interventions to effectively manage type 2 diabetes among high-risk groups, like Latinos and Hispanic elderly males.

Library Research

A library search is essential to completing a research study (Bramer et al., 2018). It helps identify the relevant research materials to obtain the required data and must come from a credible academic database. The peer-reviewed journal articles chosen for the study provide proven information regarding the research topic and can be relied on to obtain the required data. We drew resources from the South University Online Library database using a library search engine. The search parameters included phrases relating to type 2 diabetes, renal failure, risk reduction for diabetes, its management, and treatment. The search titles also included Hispanic males and Latinos as the target group so that the literature is relevant to this ethnic group. To gather reliable papers, it will be necessary to apply current research studies. As a result, the research materials to be reviewed must have been published within the last five years. This ensures that the most recent data is used in the study, avoiding the possibility of using redundant data from out-of-date sources.

Literature Summary

Type 2 diabetes affects over 415 million people worldwide and is expected to overtake heart disease as the sixth leading cause of death by 2030 (Zheng et al., 2018). Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in Latin American countries, where its prevalence is double that of non-Hispanic whites in the United States. However, specific genetic influences also play a role in the problem. The region’s distinct environmental and lifestyle risk factors contribute to the region’s higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using genome-wide association studies, researchers discovered over a hundred genetic markers for type 2 diabetes. Previously, the vast majority of genome-wide association studies were conducted on people of European ancestry. In the largest trans-ancestry genome-wide association studies meta-analysis published to date, less than 40% of the samples have non-European ancestry, and only 2% have Hispanic ancestry (Ge et al., 2022).

The significance of carrying out genetic research on a wide range of population types cannot be overstated. The discovery of a community-specific polymorphism linked to type 2 diabetes can aid in identifying those in that population who are most vulnerable to the disease. These people could then be targeted for lifestyle changes or medical interventions. The discovery of causative genes in these cultures may help us better understand type 2 diabetes or point to a potential therapeutic target that may be effective even in populations lacking the genetic variation that led to the discovery. This is due to the fact that the genetic variation that led to the discovery also triggered the identification of the genes responsible for the condition.

Innovative Solution

The innovation to be tested is the use of dietary intervention through meal-planning as evidence-based practice in the management of type 2 diabetes. Meal planning involves determining the adequate proportion of starch, proteins, and vitamins. Through this dietary intervention, education is given to the patients on the need to incorporate fruits and vegetables on their meals as advised by a registered dietician. This dietary intervention is seen as a good approach in evidence-based practice for the management of type 2 diabetes among the Hispanic males to yield satisfactory results.


Bramer, W. M., De Jonge, G. B., Rethlefsen, M. L., Mast, F., & Kleijnen, J. (2018). A systematic approach to searching: An efficient and complete method to develop literature searches. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA106(4), 531. DOI: 10.5195/jmla.2018.283

Ge, T., Irvin, M. R., Patki, A., Srinivasasainagendra, V., Lin, Y. F., Tiwari, H. K., … & Karlson, E. W. (2022). Development and validation of a trans-ancestry polygenic risk score for type 2 diabetes in diverse populations. Genome Medicine14(1), 1-16. DOI: 10.1186/s13073-022-01074-2

Michalak, S. S., Wolny-Rokicka, E., Nowakowska, E., Michalak, M., & Gil, L. (2021). Clinical Implications of the Coexistence of Anemia and Diabetes Mellitus in the Elderly Population. Journal of Diabetes Research2021. DOI: 10.1155/2021/8745968

Mannucci, E., Nreu, B., Montereggi, C., Ragghianti, B., Gallo, M., Giaccari, A., … & Turchetti, G. (2021). Cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: An extensive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases31(10), 2745-2755. DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2021.06.002

Zheng, Y., Ley, S. H., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology14(2), 88-98. DOI: 10.1038/nrendo.2017.151

Volkswagen (VW) Company Free Sample

Key sustainability issues

Volkswagen (VW) is a German automobile manufacturer founded in 1937. The company’s headquarters are in Wolfsburg, Germany. VW is the largest car manufacturer in Europe, and it owns many other brands, including Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, and Ducati. The company has come under fire in recent years for many issues, including its role in the Diesel gate scandal, in which it was found to have cheated on emissions tests. VW has also been criticized for treating workers, particularly in its home country of Germany (Jung & Sharon, 2019, p.12). In 2018, a VW factory in Chattanooga, Tennessee, was the site of a significant unionization drive by the United Auto Workers (UAW). The UAW has accused VW of violating workers’ rights and has filed several unfair labor practice charges against the company.

The critical sustainability issues facing VW are its emissions scandal, its treatment of workers, and its environmental impact. The company has been working to address these issues and has made some progress, but there is still more that it can do. In 2015, it was revealed that VW had cheated on emissions tests for its diesel vehicles. The scandal, known as “Diesel gate,” led to the recall of millions of VW vehicles and the resignation of VW’s CEO, Martin Winterkorn (Jung & Sharon, 2019, p.14). European governments and we fined VW billions of dollars, which has set aside billions more to cover the cost of repairs and compensation for customers. The scandal has damaged VW’s reputation and led to a sales decline.

VW has also been accused of mistreating workers, particularly in its home country, Germany. The company has been criticized for its use of temporary workers, its anti-union policies, and its treatment of workers at its plants in China. In 2018, a VW factory in Chattanooga, Tennessee, was the site of a significant unionization drive by the United Auto Workers (UAW). The UAW has accused VW of violating workers’ rights and has filed several unfair labor practice charges against the company (Janssen, 2013, p.81). The company has been working to reduce its emissions and has set a goal of becoming carbon-neutral by 2050. VW has also been working to develop electric vehicles, and it plans to sell 1 million electric cars a year by 2025. Volkswagen’s (VW) operations and sustainability practices significantly impact the environment and communities where it operates. As a large, global company, its actions can influence other companies and organizations. Given its size and reach, it is important for VW to be a leader in sustainable practices and to align its operations with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Evaluation of company performance

One SDG that is very important is Affordable and Clean Energy. There are many reasons why affordable and clean energy is important. Firstly, energy is essential for economic development and poverty reduction. Without access to energy, businesses cannot operate and people cannot cook, heat their homes or travel to work. Secondly, energy is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Climate change is a major threat to human health, food security, water security, and economic growth. It is therefore essential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by transitioning to cleaner forms of energy such as renewable energy.

There are many ways in which countries can transition to cleaner forms of energy. One way is by investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and hydro power. Another way is by improving energy efficiency, for example by using more efficient appliances and insulation in homes and buildings. The company has a strong commitment to sustainable development and has set ambitious targets to reduce its environmental impact. For example, the company has set a target to reduce its CO2 emissions by 30% by 2025, compared to 2015 levels. The company is also investing heavily in electric vehicles and plans to have 50 fully electric models on the market by 2025.

Volkswagen Group’s commitment to sustainable development and its efforts to reduce its environmental impact are commendable. However, the company still has a long way to go in terms of transitioning to cleaner forms of energy. Volkswagen Group’s emissions were down by 4.3% in 2019 compared to 2018, but this is still a long way off the company’s target of reducing emissions by 30% by 2025. In order to meet its target, Volkswagen will need to invest more in renewable energy and electric vehicles. One of the company’s strengths is its strong commitment to sustainable development. This commitment is evident in its ambitious targets to reduce emissions and its investment in electric vehicles. Another strength is its efficient production processes. This shows that the company is becoming more efficient in its use of energy.

One of the company’s weaknesses is its reliance on fossil fuels. In 2019, Volkswagen Group’s emissions were down by 4.3% compared to 2018, but this is still a long way off the company’s target of reducing emissions by 30% by 2025. In order to meet its target, Volkswagen will need to invest more in renewable energy and electric vehicles. Volkswagen Group should continue its efforts to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and to transition to cleaner forms of energy. The company should continue to invest in energy efficiency, for example by using more efficient appliances and insulation in homes and buildings. Another weakness is its lack of transparency. In 2019, Volkswagen was fined €1 billion by the European Commission for “deliberately” misleading consumers about the emissions of its cars. This lack of transparency could damage the company’s reputation and discourage consumers from buying its products.


In the short term, Volkswagen can do several things to improve its performance. It can invest in new technologies and processes to improve its manufacturing efficiency. Manufacturing efficiency measures how effectively a company produces its goods or services. There are various ways to improve manufacturing efficiency, but standard methods include investing in new technologies and processes, streamlining production, and reducing waste. Investing in new technologies and processes is one way to improve manufacturing efficiency. New technologies can help companies automate tasks, enhance communication and coordination, and increase accuracy and precision. Process improvements can help reduce production times, quality, waste, and costs. Streamlining production is another way to improve manufacturing efficiency. This can be done by eliminating unnecessary steps, streamlining the manufacturing process, and reducing inventory. Reducing waste is also vital for improving manufacturing efficiency. Waste can come from many sources, including raw materials, energy, water, and packaging. Reducing waste can help save money and resources, and it can also help improve the quality of the final product.

In the medium term, VW should focus on expanding its use of renewable energy. There are many reasons for this, but the chief among them is that renewable energy is a cleaner and more sustainable power source than fossil fuels. Additionally, renewable energy costs are falling rapidly, making it a more economically viable option for the company. Volkswagen has already made some progress in this area, with a goal of sourcing 30% of its power from renewable sources by 2025. However, this is not enough to meet the company’s long-term sustainability goals. To truly decarbonize its operations, Volkswagen needs to increase its use of renewable energy to 100%. This will require a significant investment in new infrastructure, but the benefits will be well worth it (Mačaitytė, 2018). Not only will this help Volkswagen to achieve its sustainability goals, but it will also position the company as a leader in the shift to a low-carbon economy. This will give it a competitive advantage in the long run as more and more companies are forced to adopt similar strategies.

Additionally, it will help to build trust with consumers, who are increasingly interested in supporting companies that are doing their part to mitigate climate change. The expansion of renewable energy is a daunting task, but it is one that Volkswagen must take on to achieve its long-term sustainability goals. With the right policies and investments, the company can transition to a low-carbon future and position itself as a leader.

In the long term, Volkswagen should focus on electric vehicles. Electric vehicles are the future of the automotive industry, and Volkswagen needs to position itself at the forefront of this transition. Electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline-powered ones and emit zero emissions. This is important for the environment and public health (Blackwelder et al., 2016). Additionally, electric vehicles are becoming more and more affordable as the cost of batteries continues to fall. Volkswagen should focus on making its electric vehicles as affordable as possible to make them accessible to as many consumers as possible.

Additionally, the company should invest in the infrastructure needed to support electric vehicles, such as charging stations. This will require a significant investment, but it is necessary to ensure that electric vehicles are viable for consumers. In the long term, electric vehicles will dominate the automotive market, and Volkswagen needs to be prepared for this shift.


Blackwelder, B., Coleman, K., Colunga-Santoyo, S., Harrison, J.S. and Wozniak, D., (2016). The Volkswagen scandal.

Janssen, C.I., (2013). Corporate historical responsibility (CHR): Addressing a corporate past of forced labor at Volkswagen. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 41(1), pp.64-83.

Jung, J.C. & Sharon, E. (2019). The Volkswagen emissions scandal and its aftermath. Global business and organizational excellence, 38(4), 6-15.

Mačaitytė, I. and Virbašiūtė, G., 2018. Volkswagen emission scandal and corporate social responsibility–a case study.

Turna, G.B., (2022). How “Dieselgate” Changed Volkswagen: Rushing to Erase the Traces of Greenwashing. In Socially Responsible Consumption and Marketing in Practice (pp. 255–273). Springer, Singapore.