Tooth Decay In The Community: Statistical Data Sample Paper

Scientific and research concepts, methods, and tools of data collection

A form of statistical analysis that is required for collecting, describing and examining the sample of public health data related to a variety of audiences relies on a number of concepts and tools.

In terms of analyzing statistical data in the sphere of health care, the focus of attention is on the methods of sampling. The tools of data collection, therefore, can include random sampling, convenience sampling, consecutive sampling, quota-based sampling, and purposive sampling (Kandola, Banner, O’Keefe-McCarthy, & Jassal, 2014). The random sampling is not used widely in clinical practice because it has a smaller potential for recognizing the particular societal patterns and does not help to categorize the results in terms of social segments such as age, gender and other groups. For a similar reason, convenience sampling oriented to using the data that is easier to obtain is only not always capable of thorough cross-section representation.

Thus, in this regard, the most often used conceptualized tool is the consecutive sampling. In clinical research in general, and in dentistry studies, in particular, consecutive sampling, every patient who visits a medical institution can be a part of the sample. In such a way, firstly, it is cost-effective because it would not require additional medical examination of people specially chosen for the sample, unlike it would in the framework of quota-based sampling or purposive sampling. The latter two forms of sampling are more oriented at looking for participants with particular characteristics. On the other hand, when a full-scale generalized statistics is needed, the optimal form of sampling in clinical research and dentistry studies is consecutive sampling.

Biostatistics in describing the health of communities

In the situation, where the research concerns a particular community, it is especially significant to underline the role of ‘real-world’ factors. The key purpose of choosing the optimal sampling methods and data collection tools is to adjust the generalized nature of the sample to the needs and circumstances of the real world. In other words, there are factors of social, economic, and cultural nature that affect people’s health. In particular, in dentistry, it is important to consider the fact that a variety of background information can influence the patients’ health.

In such a way, biostatistics of a particular community is affected by age, gender, racial and other factors that define the sample. On the other hand, when consecutive sampling method is used for data collection.

Measurement scales, data distributions, and results of the analysis

One of the major measurement scales of the variability of a certain feature among different groups is the Central Limit Theorem. It is a method meant to combine the statistical analysis based on standard deviation with the interferential analysis. For researching tooth decay, in particular, and in dentistry studies overall, it would help to define linkage between social factors and deviations.

The following figure represents the distribution of the tooth decay in the community sample with the consideration for age and income in all groups of the population.

The distribution of the tooth decay in the community sample with the consideration for age and income in all groups
Figure 1. The distribution of the tooth decay in the community sample with the consideration for age and income in all groups (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016).

Thus, the results of the descriptive analysis suggest a correlation between poor income and tooth decay in all age groups. With the application of Central Limit Theorem and inferential statistical analysis, the percentage of tooth decay among the low-income population is 25, 30, 42, 41, 40, 41, 41, 43, 39 in different age groups Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Thus, the average mean is 38, and the standard deviation is 6,184.

μ = 38,

σ = 6,184.

Central Limit Theorem is to calculate sample mean μx.

μx = μ *σ/√n (Kandola et al., 2014).

Thus, μx = 38*6,184/√9 = 2.

The standard sample of 38% is a normal rate for such group. However, it can vary for about 2%. The deviation more than 2% is abnormal. The bias, thus, is in defying whether recognizing the particular societal patterns help to address the issues of abnormal segments of the statistics.


Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Interactive Tables and Databases. Web.

Kandola, D., Banner, D., O’Keefe-McCarthy, S., & Jassal, D. (2014). Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 24(3), 15-18.

The Emergence Of Professional Disputes And Conflicts

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Emergence of professional disputes and conflicts is inevitable because of existing cultural, social, and experiential discrepancies among employees and employers. To avoid such misunderstandings, a hospital should establish specific ethical and moral codes (Roussel & Swansburg, 2009). However, I had a bad experience of being involved into a conflict with a physician who would cause resentment and ignite conflicts among the nurses. By creating uncomfortable comments, the physician discouraged employees and made them be reluctant to work in a toxic environment.

Judging from the case, the presented dispute was between the physician and the rest of hospital staff. To resolve the conflict, I had to fire the physician because he was the core reason for emerging disputes and the created unfavorable environment. Perhaps, dismissal was not the best solution in the situation, but I failed to talk to the physician and make him behave in a more appropriate way.

Defining Conflict Management Style

According to Thomas Killman Mode Index, there are five types of conflict management style (Kritek, n. d.). These are avoidance, which is the most common way of resolving conflicts, accommodation, compromise, competition, and collaboration, which is the most attractive way of solving problems (Kritek, n. d). The case under analysis is identical to the first type of conflict resolution as the physician – the main source of discomfort – was fired to avoid conflict situations in future. Absence of the resentment source provides no grounds for further quarrels and, as result, nurses should feel much more comfortable. On the one hand, the termination of the physician’s contract requires searching for other candidature for this position, which is quite costly for an organization. On the other hand, keeping the physician on this position can hamper the organizational activities, which also lead to financial losses.

Personal Response to Conflict

Conflict recognition is an essential step forward to resolving disputes between people (Porter-O’Grady, 2004). More importantly, nurse leaders should be aware of their roles in defining and managing conflicts and building approaches to addressing the reasons for misunderstanding among nurses. In this respect, it is vital to understand the main elements of conflict, including its nature and major characteristics. Leadership role is fundamental for conflict resolution at all organizational levels. Each leader, therefore, should fully understand the degree and nature of conflict reactions, the emotional content of the dispute, reasons for avoiding the conflict, and previous conflict behaviors. Regarding this, the case reveals that previous experiences of managing conflicts have been carefully analyzed. However, because conflict emergence at our hospital is a rare occasion, more consistent algorithms should be adopted to prevent similar situations in future. In particular, specific conflict application skills should be worked because it is important for a leader to understand that conflict is a normative phenomenon; because of different values and beliefs, people are often engaged in disputes to protect their positions (Porter-O’Grady, 2004, p. 183). Therefore, admitting the possibility of conflict is the first step to its resolution.

To build out an effective framework for conflict evaluation, it is purposeful to consider such variables as individuals involved, events which follow the conflict, power of influence that each person has in the situation, as well as existing regulatory issues worked out by conflict managers (Sportsman, 2005). A complete scheme of alternative conflict resolution can prevent the staff from experiencing critical situations. Moreover, it can contribute to creating a safer and healthier environment for producing the highest results.


Kritek, P. (n. d.). Managing Conflict.

Porter-O’Grady, T. (2004). Embracing conflict: Building a healthy community. Health Care Management Review, 29(3), 181–187.

Roussel, L., & Swansburg, R. C. (Eds.). (2009). Management and leadership for nurse administrators (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Sportsman, S. (2005). Build a framework for conflict assessment. Nurse Management, 36(4), 32–40.

Research Critique: The Importance Of Relationships In Mental Care

This study will provide a detailed critique of an article titled “The Importance of Relationships in mental care”. This study was done through the sampling of mental health hospitals in the United Kingdom (UK) and undertaken by Biomed central Ltd. Considering the sensitivity of this study in comprehending mental health understanding and mental patient recovery, it was evidence based to have a stronger potential of applicability. The nature of this study (empirical) is therefore significant in this analysis because empirical studies specifically rely on valid and credible information from incidences and observations recorded in hospitals (in this case) (Chen 2004, p. 194). The level of theoretical analysis in this study is therefore minimal because more emphasis is based on the practical elements of patient relationships.

The framework for the critique of this study will be the Critical Appraisal Skills program (CASP) because it is often used in qualitative studies (just like this one). However, the CASP framework also has another separate criterion for quantitative elements, meaning that it is quite flexible to be used in most types of studies. Nonetheless, the main reason for choosing the research framework is because the three primary elements of study to be sampled are outlined in the CASP framework. This means that the criteria to be used in the formulation of this research critique are borrowed from the outline of the research framework. The first criterion borrowed will be the population sampled. The population sampled is an important element of the study because from it, the conclusions or data obtained in the study are developed. The population sampled is therefore the primary source of all recommendations, discussions and conclusions to be derived from the study (Burns 2005, p. 344). In other words, it defines the foundation of the study.

The second attribute to be critiqued will be the data analysis methodology because it is as important as the population study, due to its strategic positioning in the development of the conclusions. A wrong data methodology would lead to wrong conclusions and a right methodology would equally lead to right conclusions. Lastly, this study will critique the data collection method as the last item from the CASP research critique framework.

This critique is especially important to the field of psychiatric health because it helps practitioners and researchers understand the implications and dynamism associated with mental patient relationships as a new frontier in the field of mental health study (Lancaster 2005, p. 65). Considering mental health can be a relational problem, this study is therefore invaluable in understanding the dynamics of such relationships and how they impact on the patient recovery process.

The population sampled in the study constituted a group of 19 service users from England (BioMed Central Ltd 2008). The extensiveness of the population sampled improves the quality of the data collected, considering the participants were sampled over a large geographical area and the conclusions derived were bound to be more representative than if the population sampled came from a small geographical area. This means that the usability of the information obtained is very high. Since the population sampled was put through a community service meeting meant to orient them with the nature of the research, any questions that the respondents had about the research were answered at this point, implying that the respondents were very prepared to answer the researchers’ questions by the time the research was being undertaken. Also considering the respondents were specifically sourced from mental health centers, their appropriateness to answer the research questions was acceptable because they were bound to have a rich experience on the research topic.

However, since the research sampled respondents from a minimum of 25 years of age, the likelihood that a 25 year old respondent having enough experience with the research topic was low (BioMed Central Ltd 2008). This also implies that the likelihood of obtaining unreliable information was high. It would have been better if the researchers sampled older respondents, say, those above the age of 30 because they are likely to have more experience with mental patients.

With regard to the data Collection methods adopted in the study, face to face interviews were appropriate for the study because they have a higher level of credibility than most data collection methods (Ray 2008, p. 334). For starters, face to face interviews minimize the chance of respondents lying to researchers because it is not easy to lie to someone face to face as compared to an indirect form of data collection method, say, e mails. Through face to face interviews, the researchers could also be able to seek clarification from the respondents regarding any information they found ambiguous (Ray 2008, p. 334). This increases the likelihood of the researchers coming up with precise information of a high credibility. In addition, the researchers could be more dynamic during face to face interviews than they could if they used other sources of data collection. In this regard, the researchers could easily ask about different aspects of the research topic whichever way they deemed fit (Ray 2008, p. 334).

The nature of the questions asked during the interviews was open-ended in nature, meaning that the researchers gave a lot of liberty to respondents to choose the direction the interview should take. This means that the information obtained was bound to reflect on the respondent’s inner thoughts because from the open-ended structure of the interviews, the respondents were more likely to give their deep insights on the research topic, than if the researchers were to give direction to the interview as depicted in most close-ended interviews (Kumar 2005, p. 134).

Nonetheless, even though interviews were used as a primary data collection tool, the nature of the interview cannot guarantee the fact that the information obtained lacked any form of bias. This is true because in same cases, the nature or characteristics of a researcher is bound to affect the quality of a research’s findings because certain parameters such as age, gender, sex, religion and other social parameters can influence the overall findings or perceptions of information obtained by a researcher (Woodlands Technology College 2010). For instance, if the difference in status of a young interviewer when compared to an old respondent was too big, the influence of the age difference would be greater on the findings of the research, than if the divide was narrowed. For example, research affirms that black children are not as truthful to white researchers as they would black researchers (Woodlands Technology College 2010, p. 5). The same research studies also affirm that many interviewers often interpret this observation to mean black children are not truthful. However, the truth of the matter is that, black children are as truthful as any other race; only that the racial difference influences the results of the findings. This is the disadvantage this study is prone to.

With regards to Data Analysis, audio tapes were used as a data backup device during the data analysis process of the research. It provides a good framework of reference in coming up with the correct information to be developed in the conclusions. Most of the time, researchers are often tempted to add their own information or interpret information in their own ways, probably because they forget what the respondents said or meant during the interview. This study is free from such occurrences. Considering the data collected was analyzed through the inductive thematic analysis process, the researchers enjoyed the dynamism and flexibility associated with the technique (Braun 2006). This positively impacts on the data analysis process and ultimately the recommendations of the study because from the dynamism, many parameters can be analyzed regarding the relationships of mental health patients (Felinger 1998, p. 1). Also, in the same regard, the conclusions obtained are more dynamic and easily understandable because of the many aspects presented of the analysis.

Also, considering memos were used as a data analysis tool, abstract concepts pointed out by the tool pointed out the researchers in the right direction when analyzing the data obtained. This probably prompted the researchers to only analyze relevant data and discard information which was perceived irrelevant (Miles 1999, p. 73). Also, since the memos were used to record relevant concepts relating to the study, the conclusions obtained were likely to be more detailed and comprehensively analyzed. This is especially true because thematic concepts were also included in the data analysis method.

Conclusively, the analyzed research study was inclined towards improving existing literature regarding national policies on mental health treatment among mental patients. The national nature of the study is supported by the representation of the population sample because the respondents were derived from within national boundaries. This means that the data obtained and the recommendations arrived at also had a national element to it because it represented the state of affairs in the country’s mental health facilities. The fact that the respondents obtained were sourced from national mental health facilities, also brings out an element of community relationships in the study because such health practitioners serve the community in general and therefore give a representative opinion of the research topic and it s application in the community.

Also from the nature of the study, the fact that the research topic explores the relationships between mental health patients and other parties shows the basic element a community is composed of – relationships. Relationships are therefore the binding element between the study and its application in most social setups, including the community and hospitals. This is true because communities are made up of the relationships defined in this study.

Considering the sensitivity of this study, the conclusions arrived at are likely to positively impact my understanding of patient relationships, not only in cases involving mental health but also other conditions as well. This is true considering the influence patient relationships are exposed to have on patient recovery process. With such an understanding in mind, the findings presented in this study encourage me to emphasize more on developing positive patient-nurse relationships to speed up the process of patient recovery. I would also encourage the growth of positive patient relationships between the patients themselves and their families, or any other concerned individuals, because at the end of the day, it will significantly improve the overall recovery process of the patient.


BioMed Central Ltd. (2008) The Importance Of Relationships In Mental Health Care: A Qualitative Study Of Service Users’ Experiences Of Psychiatric Hospital Admission In The UK. Web.

Braun, V. (2006) Thematic Analysis. Web.

Burns, N. (2005) The Practice Of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, And Utilization. New York, Elsevier Health Sciences.

Chen, C. (2004) Information Visualization: Beyond the Horizon. New York, Springer.

Felinger, A. (1998) Data Analysis and Signal Processing In Chromatography. London, Elsevier.

Kumar, R. (2005) Research Methodology: A Step-By-Step Guide for Beginners. London, SAGE.

Lancaster, G. (2005) Research Methods in Management: A Concise Introduction to Research in Management and Business Consultancy. London, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Miles, M. (1999) Qualitative Data Analysis. London, SAGE.

Ray, W. (2008) Methods toward a Science of Behavior and Experience. London, Cengage Learning.

Woodlands Technology College. (2010) Interviews – Disadvantages. Web.

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